According to Henry Fayol “ to co-ordinate
is to harmonize all the activities of a
concern so as to facilitate its working and
3. INTRODUCTION TO
1. the act or state of
coordinating or of being
2. proper order or
3. harmonious combination
or interaction, as of
functions or parts.
5. PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION
1) DIRECT PERSONAL CONTACT
Coordination is best achieved through direct personal
contact with people. Direct face to face contact
communication is most effective.
2) EARLY BEGINNING
Coordination can be achieved more easily in early
stages of planning and policy making.
Plans should be based on mutual participation. Early
coordination also improves the quality of plans.
6. 3) RECIPROCITY
It states that all factors in a given situation are
interdependent and interrelated.
When People appreciate reciprocity of relations,
they avoid unilateral action and coordination
It is an on-going or never ending process. Sound
coordination resolves conflicts as it arises.
7. NATURE AND CHARACTERISTIC OF CO-
co-ordination is not a distinct function but the very
essence of management.
It is a basic responsibility of management.
Co-ordination does not arises spontaneously or by
Heart of co-ordination is the unity of purpose.
Co-ordination is a continuous or an on going process.
Co-ordination is required in group efforts not in individual
Co-ordination is the responsibility of each and every
8. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF COORDINATION
EFFECIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS
Coordination helps to improve the efficiency of
operations by avoiding overlapping efforts and
duplication of work. Quality of coordination determines
the effectiveness of organized efforts.
UNITY OF DIRECTION
Coordination helps to ensure unity of action in the face of
disruptive forces. It helps unity of action and helps to
avoid conflicts between line and staff elements
9. HUMAN RELATION
Coordination helps to improve team spirit and morale of
employees. In a well coordinated organization,
organizational goals and personal goals of people are
ESSENCE OF MANAGEMENT
Coordination is all inclusive concept and the end result of
Coordination helps in the accomplishment of
11. SOUND PLANNING
Planning is the ideal stage for coordination.
Clear cut objectives, harmonized policies and
unified procedures and rules ensure uniformity
A simple and sound organization is an important
means of coordination.
Clear cut authority relationships help to reduce
conflicts and to hold people responsible.
12. Coordination by
Committee is a body of
persons entrusted with
discharge of some
functions collectively as a
group. it is significant in
ensures that problems
which arises out of
various units can be
solved by group
13. Self Coordination……….
Modification of functioning of department
in such a way that each department
coordinates with other departments. it can
be done by horizontal communication.
14. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Open and regular communication is the key to
Effective interchange of opinions and
information helps in resolving difference and in
creation mutual understanding.
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND SUPERVISION
Effective leadership ensures coordination both
at the planning and the execution stage.
Sound leadership can influence subordinates to
have identity of interest and too adopt a
15. CHAIN OF COMMAND
Authority is the supreme coordinating power in an
Exercise of authority through the chain of command or
hierarchy is the traditional means of coordination.
16. Barriers to coordination
1. Competition for resources
2. Threats to autonomy
3. Disagreement on objectives
4. Differing expectations of coordination
5. Lack of trust
6. Cost/benefit perceived as unsatisfactory
7. Unilateral donor actions and agendas
8. Rapid staff turnover
9. Poor transition preparations