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Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier

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Paul Burtenshaw Breaking the barrier

  1. 1. Breaking the Barrier: towards the creation of an holistic approach to the economic value of archaeology? Paul Burtenshaw Institute of Archaeology, University College London
  2. 2. Culture and Economics in Opposition <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Indeed there is a strongly felt, and frequently articulated, view that any attempt to attach economic values to heritage, and to other cultural products and performances, is at best a pointless irrelevance and at worst an unacceptable soiling of the aesthetically sublime with the commercially mundane’ . (Graham et al 2000:129) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of Incompatible Philosophies: Values vs. Price. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic impacts favoured over cultural impacts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some attempts to try and close this divide - Cultural Economics and value schemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide exists conceptually and practically - ultimately unhelpful. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ‘ Value’ and ‘Capital’ <ul><li>‘ Value ’ - Values, Value and Valuation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Economic Value’ – both a quality and a valuation. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Capital ’ - defined as a ‘ power to ’ or ‘ ability to ’ (Klamer 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Capital: ‘ the ability to produce economic impacts ’ – jobs, revenues, GDP. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeology and heritage also have social and cultural capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is not a replacement for ‘value’ – but highlights what a resource does for the public. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Economic Capital as a Force for Value <ul><li>Used in environmental conservation – incentives, ICDPs, ecotourism, ecosystem service valuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall and McArthur ‘ The economic returns from tourism have become one of the main justifications for the public and private sectors to designate and maintain heritage. ’ (1996:2) </li></ul><ul><li>Internationally – World Bank, Global Heritage Fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally - UK heritage organisations scramble to show economic impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Locally - Local tourism projects aiming to change behaviours which threaten sites, or problems due to lack of access to revenues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economic Capital and Holism <ul><li>Economic Capital is not isolated from other capitals and values but exists in a complex relationship with them. </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship may be positive or negative. Must avoid the view that they are in opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic capital and its impacts must be identified, and its relationship with other values and capital understood, for better management. </li></ul><ul><li>This management should be based on good data. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Kilmartin Glen and House Museum – Interacting Capitals. <ul><li>Economic data needed to protect site and to better understand current tourism </li></ul><ul><li>At least 150 prehistoric remains within 6 miles of Kilmartin village (although recent surveys suggest there are many, many more). 50 scheduled archaeological monuments and 13 are in state care. </li></ul><ul><li>Kilmartin House Museum opened in 1997 – to provide education and orientation to visitors and receive artefacts. Partly relies on state-funding . </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Economic Capital : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaeology: Tourism worth approx. £5 million per year, roughly 300 jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum: Impact of approx. £1.5 million per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spending over large area – Museum’s vital economic role. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually beneficial economic and cultural capital, and social and cultural capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural aims had important economic consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic facilities had strong social role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic revenues invested in cultural capital </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Wadi Feynan, Jordan <ul><li>Famous for Neolithic sites and remains associated with copper production – Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of over 250 tourists and over 90 local interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Current tourists not motivated by archaeology. Local people gain economically through academic projects. </li></ul>Feynan <ul><li>Economic Value one of the main reason local people think the archaeology is important. Also historical and prestige values. </li></ul><ul><li>Local and tourists knowledge very low, results of projects not known. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is there, but less than for mining. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Need for Control and Data <ul><li>Archaeologists must understand economic capital, measure it, study its relationships with other capitals and values, and communicate its relevance and use to the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual - Be comfortable with economic capital and avoid a Jekyll and Hyde relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Data - Need more consistent data and a consensus of approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists need to better understand the capital of their own sites through data and better monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>For both we need to break down the barrier between the cultural and economic, understand the relationship between them and view them holistically. </li></ul>