92_YvonneShashoua_Plastalderen smuldrer.pdf

Association of Danish Museums / Organisationen Danske Museer
Association of Danish Museums / Organisationen Danske MuseerEducation and communication manager à Association of Danish Museums / Organisationen Danske Museer
Plastalderen smuldrer
Yvonne Shashoua, Forskningsprofessor
I love realism. I don't like plastics - Michael Jackson, 1982
Plastic artefacts will be the most important witnesses to our
time- Biefer and Zgraggen, 1991
1920 1960 2015
2015 2018
1970
2021
▪ what are plastics, chemically speaking?
▪ why do plastics break down and how are
their lifetimes measured?
▪ can research into degradation of heritage
plastics help us better understand plastic
pollution?
▪ and find solutions?
1862-1940s :Semi- synthetic plastics
cellulose + nitric acid cellulose nitrate
(sustainable source)
1920:cellulose acetate replaced
cellulose nitrate
ingredients for making cellulose acetate
+
triphenyl
phosphate-
fire retardant
+
diethyl
phthalate-
plasticizer
cellulose acetic
acid
+
1945 – today: production of synthetic
plastics
plasticizers
antiageing
additives,
lubricants
colour
+
92_YvonneShashoua_Plastalderen smuldrer.pdf
how long do plastics last?
hint: the first synthetic plastic is 70 years old
*based on predictions and modeling
20 years
loss of original significance of cultural heritage
loss of function of product during use
loss of physical integrity after use-microplastics
2 years
1 year
92_YvonneShashoua_Plastalderen smuldrer.pdf
plastics industry uses accelerated ageing to
test products within a convenient period
Q10 = 2 - rate of reaction doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature
darkening of PVC tubing
at 70°C over 4 months
new 1 month 2months 3 months 4 months
Physical bonding of plasticizers ( )
to PVC polymer
+
polyethylene fishing box absorbs
plasticizer from PVC worm in real time
rubber balloons from 1981-
oxidized to crumbs 1990
• how long does
plastic litter take to
degrade to
microplastics
(smaller than 5mm)?
• can all plastics form
microplastics?
• which environments
promote
microplastics?
Single Use Plastics studied since 2019
• LDPE bottles
• PP salad boxes
• PS cups /lids
• PVC tubing
• nylon strips
• PET cups
• natural rubber
cycle tyres
• PLA cups
petroleum-based new-generation
• polyurethane ether
sponges
accelerated thermal ageing
24 months at 70⁰C = ca. 50 years at 20⁰C
LDPE
PP
PS
PS
PVC
PET
PUR ether
PLA
formed MPs after 15 months
formed MPs after 16 months
PLA
plastics threaded on polypropylene ropes
Danish weather
dataloggers monitor
temperature, light levels and
oxygen
PUR foam yellowed
rubber tyre crazed
new
24 months
underwater and in sediment in Lynæs Havn
new after 24 months
after exposure for 12 months
in sediment 128cm below surface 90cm below surface
increasing oxygen
increasing light
increasing degradation
measure fragment dimensions (MP ≤ 5mm)
PP salad
boxes in
Danish
weather for 24
months
In oven at
70°C for 24
months
FTIR spectroscopy to examine changes in
chemical structure on ageing
new C=O group forms
in polystyrene after 2
years
new Danish weather
underwater 70°C
new Danish weather
70°C
underwater
730 days Danish Weather
730 days heat aging
TDI
isomers
loss of flame retardant
GC-MS examines additives and degradation products
loss of antioxidant
polyurethane ether foam
new 4 weeks/70°C 21 days ultraviolet
Ethereal body by
Claus Carstensen
1986 2013
new heat light
▪plastic type, colour and environment are significant factors for
rate of degradation
▪degradation in environments:
thermal ageing (70°C) >Danish weather > surface seawater >
under seawater >sediment
▪ PLA, PUR foam,PVC, PE, PS, PET and rubber showed chemical
degradation within 24 months
▪polyurethane sponges least stable
▪polyester and nylon are the most stable
Results
Skodprojektet
cigarette butts are the greatest source of
plastic pollution in Denmark
ca. 8 million butts on Danish streets daily
it costs 2kr per cigarette butt to clean up!
they contain water-soluble toxins
what are cigarette filters?
• filters for particles and tar from tobacco
• cellulose acetate fibres wrapped in a brown
paper
cellulose acetate produces acetic acid
and eventually becomes paper again
degradation rate doubles at pH 4
cigarette butts exposed to 8 environments
earth
air
seawater
pH 2
tap water
pH 7
soap water
pH 12
freezer
-20°C oven
70°C
 all plastics degrade
 it is essential to understand the causes
and rates of their degradation
 museums are a unique source of
knowledge and experience because we
preserve everything-including plastics!
 research into plastics in cultural heritage
can be transferred directly to plastics
pollution
I am grateful to
the Velux
Foundation and
KrogagerFonden
for their financial
support
1 sur 36

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92_YvonneShashoua_Plastalderen smuldrer.pdf

  • 2. I love realism. I don't like plastics - Michael Jackson, 1982 Plastic artefacts will be the most important witnesses to our time- Biefer and Zgraggen, 1991 1920 1960 2015 2015 2018 1970 2021
  • 3. ▪ what are plastics, chemically speaking? ▪ why do plastics break down and how are their lifetimes measured? ▪ can research into degradation of heritage plastics help us better understand plastic pollution? ▪ and find solutions?
  • 4. 1862-1940s :Semi- synthetic plastics cellulose + nitric acid cellulose nitrate (sustainable source)
  • 6. ingredients for making cellulose acetate + triphenyl phosphate- fire retardant + diethyl phthalate- plasticizer cellulose acetic acid +
  • 7. 1945 – today: production of synthetic plastics plasticizers antiageing additives, lubricants colour +
  • 9. how long do plastics last? hint: the first synthetic plastic is 70 years old *based on predictions and modeling
  • 10. 20 years loss of original significance of cultural heritage loss of function of product during use loss of physical integrity after use-microplastics 2 years 1 year
  • 12. plastics industry uses accelerated ageing to test products within a convenient period Q10 = 2 - rate of reaction doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature
  • 13. darkening of PVC tubing at 70°C over 4 months new 1 month 2months 3 months 4 months Physical bonding of plasticizers ( ) to PVC polymer +
  • 14. polyethylene fishing box absorbs plasticizer from PVC worm in real time
  • 15. rubber balloons from 1981- oxidized to crumbs 1990
  • 16. • how long does plastic litter take to degrade to microplastics (smaller than 5mm)? • can all plastics form microplastics? • which environments promote microplastics?
  • 17. Single Use Plastics studied since 2019 • LDPE bottles • PP salad boxes • PS cups /lids • PVC tubing • nylon strips • PET cups • natural rubber cycle tyres • PLA cups petroleum-based new-generation • polyurethane ether sponges
  • 18. accelerated thermal ageing 24 months at 70⁰C = ca. 50 years at 20⁰C LDPE PP PS PS PVC PET PUR ether PLA formed MPs after 15 months formed MPs after 16 months PLA
  • 19. plastics threaded on polypropylene ropes
  • 20. Danish weather dataloggers monitor temperature, light levels and oxygen PUR foam yellowed rubber tyre crazed new 24 months
  • 21. underwater and in sediment in Lynæs Havn new after 24 months
  • 22. after exposure for 12 months in sediment 128cm below surface 90cm below surface increasing oxygen increasing light increasing degradation
  • 23. measure fragment dimensions (MP ≤ 5mm) PP salad boxes in Danish weather for 24 months In oven at 70°C for 24 months
  • 24. FTIR spectroscopy to examine changes in chemical structure on ageing new C=O group forms in polystyrene after 2 years
  • 27. 730 days Danish Weather 730 days heat aging TDI isomers loss of flame retardant GC-MS examines additives and degradation products loss of antioxidant
  • 28. polyurethane ether foam new 4 weeks/70°C 21 days ultraviolet Ethereal body by Claus Carstensen 1986 2013
  • 30. ▪plastic type, colour and environment are significant factors for rate of degradation ▪degradation in environments: thermal ageing (70°C) >Danish weather > surface seawater > under seawater >sediment ▪ PLA, PUR foam,PVC, PE, PS, PET and rubber showed chemical degradation within 24 months ▪polyurethane sponges least stable ▪polyester and nylon are the most stable Results
  • 31. Skodprojektet cigarette butts are the greatest source of plastic pollution in Denmark ca. 8 million butts on Danish streets daily it costs 2kr per cigarette butt to clean up! they contain water-soluble toxins
  • 32. what are cigarette filters? • filters for particles and tar from tobacco • cellulose acetate fibres wrapped in a brown paper
  • 33. cellulose acetate produces acetic acid and eventually becomes paper again degradation rate doubles at pH 4
  • 34. cigarette butts exposed to 8 environments earth air seawater pH 2 tap water pH 7 soap water pH 12 freezer -20°C oven 70°C
  • 35.  all plastics degrade  it is essential to understand the causes and rates of their degradation  museums are a unique source of knowledge and experience because we preserve everything-including plastics!  research into plastics in cultural heritage can be transferred directly to plastics pollution
  • 36. I am grateful to the Velux Foundation and KrogagerFonden for their financial support