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Chapter 8 - Organizational Behavior: Power, Politics, Conflict, and Stress

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Chapter 8 - Organizational Behavior: Power, Politics, Conflict, and Stress

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior: Power, Politics, Conflict, and Stress
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Describe each of the big five personality dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the perception process, and identify the two factors that influence it. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the interrelationship among personality, perception, and attitude, and explain the contribution of each to a manager’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what job satisfaction is and why it is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Define power , and explain the difference between position and personal power. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the differences among reward, legitimate, and referent power. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how power and politics are related. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes (cont’d) <ul><li>Describe how money and politics have a similar use. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what networking, reciprocity, and coalitions have in common. </li></ul><ul><li>List and define five conflict management styles. </li></ul><ul><li>List the steps in initiating and using the collaborative conflict resolution model. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the stress tug-of-war analogy. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  4. 4. IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at The RLJ Companies <ul><li>How would you describe Robert Johnson’s personality? </li></ul><ul><li>How have perception and attitudes affected Robert Johnson’s career? How did he deal with discrimination? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of power does Johnson have? How does he use his power? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Johnson effectively use organizational politics at The RLJ Companies? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of negotiating and collaborating does Johnson do? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organizational Behavior <ul><li>Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of actions that affect performance in the workplace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of organizational behavior theorists is to explain and predict actions and how they will affect performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The field of organizational behavior has three levels of focus: the individual, the group, and the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Personality <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of behavioral, mental, and emotional traits that define an individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on genetics and environmental factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects behavior as well as perceptions and attitudes. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Single Traits of Personality <ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies on a continuum between believing that control over one’s destiny is external ( externalizers ) and believing that it is internal ( internalizers ). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimism versus Pessimism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies on a continuum whose opposite end is pessimism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Propensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies on a continuum from risk taking to risk avoiding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machiavellianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the belief that the ends can justify the means and power should be used to reach desired ends. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Trait Continuum Not willing to try new things Openness to Experience Willing to try new things Irresponsible/ Undependable Conscientiousness Responsible/ Dependable Emotionally unstable Emotionalism Emotionally stable Competitive Agreeableness Cooperative Introvert Extraversion Extrovert To Trait From
  9. 9. Perception <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting environmental information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem (self-concept) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your perception of yourself. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The belief in your own capability to perform in a specific situation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Attribution Process <ul><li>Attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of determining the reason for an individual’s behavior and whether that behavior is either situational (out of the control of the individual) or intentional (the individual is consciously behaving). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Exhibit 8 – 1 ● The Attribution Process
  12. 12. Bias in Perception <ul><li>Selectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening information in favor of the desired outcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frame of Reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing things from your point of view rather than another’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of generalizing the behavior of a group and then applying the generalities to one individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceiving what is expected to be perceived. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative evaluations of people, things, and situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitude Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes are based on perceptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes reflect feelings and affect behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pygmalion Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers’ attitudes toward and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determine employee performance. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Attitudes and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s attitude toward his or her job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally measured along a continuum from satisfied/positive/high to dissatisfied/negative/low. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction and Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects absenteeism and turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee efforts to go above and beyond the call of duty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Determinants of Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality, the work itself, compensation, growth and upward mobility, coworkers, management </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should employees be allowed to smoke wherever and whenever they want to at work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did your perceptions of and attitude toward smoking affect your answer to the previous question? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Might limiting employees’ smoking change their behavior on the job? How so? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of personality traits might make employees resist management’s efforts to restrict their smoking during working hours? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible to restrict employees’ smoking? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Power <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to influence others’ behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from top management and is delegated down the chain of command. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from followers, based on an individual’s behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving power to employees. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Power (cont’d) <ul><li>How to Increase Your Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can increase your power without taking power away from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, power is given to those who get results and have good interpersonal skills. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exhibit 8 – 2 ● Type of Power
  19. 19. Types of Power <ul><li>Coercive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves threats and/or punishment to influence compliance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connection Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the user’s relationship with influential people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the user’s ability to influence others by providing something of value to them. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Power (cont’d) <ul><li>Legitimate Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the user’s position power in the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referent Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the user’s personal power relationships with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on others’ need for data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the user’s skills and knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Following Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible to teach people in the military or any other organization to follow orders without questioning authority? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you do if your boss ordered you to do something you thought might be unethical? (Some options are to just do it, to not do it and say nothing, to look more closely at what you are being asked to do, to go to your boss’s boss to make sure it’s okay to do it, to tell the boss you will not do it, to ask the boss to do it himself or herself, or to blow the whistle to an outside source like the government or media.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is following orders a good justification for conducting unethical practices? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Organizational Politics <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of gaining and using power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of developing relationships for the purpose of socializing and career building. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The creation of obligations and the development of alliances that are used to accomplish objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A network of alliances that help a manager achieve an objective. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Exhibit 8 –3 ● Political Behaviors and Guidelines for Developing Political Skills
  24. 26. Managing Conflict <ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists whenever people are in disagreement and opposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Psychological Contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is composed of the implicit expectations of each party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict arises when the contract is broken, which happens when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We fail to make explicit our own expectations and fail to inquire into the expectations of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We assume that others have the same expectations that we hold. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Managing Conflict (cont’d) <ul><li>Functional Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists when disagreement and opposition support the achievement of organizational goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists when conflict prevents the achievement of organizational goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too little or too much conflict is usually dysfunctional. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Exhibit 8 –4 ● Conflict Management Styles
  27. 30. Negotiation, Collaboration, and Mediation <ul><li>Negotiating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process in which two or more parties in conflict attempt to come to an agreement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be hampered by zero-sum attitudes of parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The parties work together to solve a problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of a neutral third party to help the parties resolve a conflict. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Exhibit 8 –5 ● The Negotiation Process
  29. 32. Exhibit 8 –6 ● The Collaborative Conflict Resolution Model
  30. 33. Exhibit 8 –6 ● The Collaborative Conflict Resolution Model (cont’d)
  31. 34. Exhibit 8 –6 ● The Collaborative Conflict Resolution Model (cont’d)
  32. 35. Stress <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The body’s reaction to environmental demands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that cause people to feel overwhelmed by anxiety, tension, and/or pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps improve performance by challenging and motivating people to meet objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress that is severe enough to lead to burnout. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burnout is a constant lack of interest and motivation to perform one’s job due to stress. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Causes of Job Stress <ul><li>Personality Type </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Management Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Relations </li></ul>
  34. 37. Stress Management <ul><li>Stress Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of eliminating or reducing stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress Management Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support network </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Exhibit 8 –7 ● Relaxation Exercises
  36. 40. Exhibit 8 –8 ● The Stress Tug-of-War
  37. 41. KEY TERMS <ul><li>organizational behavior </li></ul><ul><li>personality </li></ul><ul><li>perception </li></ul><ul><li>attribution </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Pygmalion effect </li></ul><ul><li>citizenship behavior </li></ul><ul><li>power </li></ul><ul><li>politics </li></ul><ul><li>networking </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>coalition </li></ul><ul><li>conflict </li></ul><ul><li>functional conflict </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative conflict resolution model </li></ul><ul><li>BCF statement </li></ul><ul><li>mediator </li></ul><ul><li>arbitrator </li></ul><ul><li>stress </li></ul><ul><li>stressors </li></ul>