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Newer Drug
Delivery Systems (NDDS)
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
M.D. Pharmacology
Ist Yr. Stud. SAIMS
28/11/2013
Drug Delivery Systems
Oral
Inject-
able Mucosal
Trans-
dermal
Ocular
Vaginal/
Anal
Needle
Needle-
less
Nasal
Buccal
Pulmon...
Demerits of conventional dosage
forms
1. Large amount of drug is delivered to the
site
2. Therapeutic conc. is not maintai...
Definition : NDDS
Therapeutic systems that incorporate
drugs in a dosage form that releases
the medication
at a predetermi...
1. Delivery of the drug
a) controlled rate
b) slow delivery
c) targetted delivery
2. Longer duration of action
3. ↑ bioava...
Types
• Prolonged release
–Oral preparations
–Parenteral preparations
• Targeted delivery systems
• Local delivery systems
Prolonged release
Oral preparations
Prodrugs
Inactive form of the drug which
undergoes biotransformation inside the
body to pharmacologically active drug
They...
PRODRUG
Overcome
1) Pharmaceutical barrier
Chloramphenicol palmitate
2) Pharmacokinetic barrier
L-Dopa
3)Increase bioavail...
ENTERIC COATED TABLETS &
CAPSULES
a) Drug coated with acid resistant substance
1. Prevent gastric irritation
2. Prevent al...
ENTERIC COATED
TABLETS &
CAPSULES
CONTROLLED RELEASE /
EXTENDED RELEASE / SUSTAINED
RELEASE PREPARATIONS
Release medication in a predetermined manner over
e...
Granules of the drug can have
different coatings that dissolve at
different time intervals
v
v vv
v
Medication can be covered with
a gel which can swell and act like
a semipermeable membrane
ADVANTAGES
1. Therapeutic effect for longer time
2. Less fluctuation
3. ↓ frequency of drug administration
4. ↓ intensity ...
Prolonged Release
Parenteral preparations
• Pumps
–Osmotic pumps
–Portable pumps
–Computerised pumps
–Implantable pumps
• Pens
• Pellets
• Transdermal delivery syst...
PUMPS
• They deliver drugs at a predetermined rate
for a specific period following a single
application.
MECHANICAL PUMPS
• Insulin infusion devices:
-CSII-Continuous subcutaneous
insulin infusion device
Advantages:
• More phys...
CSII-
Continuous
Subcutaneous Insulin
Infusion device
Insulin reservoir
Program chip
Keypad
Display screen
Patient controlled
analgesia
Infusion pump
- I/V
- Epidural
Patient can control the infusion rate
and provide the degree o...
PCA
Insulin jet
Delivers insulin subcutaneously without using
needle.
Achieved by pressurizing the liquid through a
small orif...
Dermojet
It is a sub-cutaneous
needleless injection used
for mass inoculation
Pellet implantation
• Drug as a solid
pellet is
implanted under
the skin to
provide uniform
systemic effect.
• Eg: testost...
Pens
Inhalational / Pulmonary Drug delivery
system
• Inspiration through the
nose or mouth
• Alveolar epithelium
offers good su...
28
Metered dose inhaler
Dry powder inhalers
IMPLANTS
Drugs placed in pellets / capsules implanted in
body
Eg: Norplant-Contraceptive implant
Levonorgesterel  5 yrs s...
TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM
or
TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY
SYSTEM
Transderm-SCOP
(Scoplamine)
Used for motion
sickness
Hydrogel transdermal patch:
Used in treatment of burns
Skin – Site of administration of systemically active drug
Advantages:
1) Avoid hepatic 1st
pass metabolism
2) Maintains co...
Transdermal patch
Scopolamine : Motion sickness
Lasts 72hr, Applied 4hrs before journey
Oral dose - action : 4-6hrs
Nitrog...
Local controlled
delivery systems
OCULAR SYSTEMS
Ocusert:
Eg: Pilocarpine ocusert
- Treatment of glaucoma
Lasts 7 days
Less side effects
Dose also ↓
VAGINAL & UTERINE SYSTEMS
Progestasert:
Hormone releasing IUCD
Release 60µg/d of progesterone for 1 year
Dinoprostone vagi...
IONTOPHORESIS
IONTOPHORESIS
Mild electric current applied for the transport of
drug across the skin
Eg: Vasopressin, Dexamethasone
Drug eluting stents:
Stents can be coated with drugs
embedded in a surface polymer
Targeted drug delivery
systems
LIPOSOMES
Bilayered vesicles made of amphipathic
phospholipids
E g: Liposomal Amphotericin B
Monoclonal antibodies
• mAbs act directly
when binding to a
cancer specific antigen
and induce
immunological
response to c...
Future Opportunities
•Gene Therapy
•Nanoparticles
Nanoparticle based drug delivery
Using nanotechnology the drug can be targeted to
a precise location which would make the ...
Carbon Nanotubules
Used in treatment of
Bronchial asthma
Gold Nanoparticles
Cancer chemotherapy
-free radical generation
Nanoerythrosomes
Nanoerythrosomes are resealed erythrocytes that can carry
proteins ,enzymes & macromolecules.They are use...
Dendrimer Modified Buckyball
They deliver radioactive atoms to cancerous
material.Eg:C-60 against CA colon
Transfer of rad...
10/20/2012 50
Thank You
Newer drug delivery systems
Newer drug delivery systems
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Newer drug delivery systems

Newer drug delivery systems

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Newer drug delivery systems

  1. 1. Newer Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS) Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari M.D. Pharmacology Ist Yr. Stud. SAIMS 28/11/2013
  2. 2. Drug Delivery Systems Oral Inject- able Mucosal Trans- dermal Ocular Vaginal/ Anal Needle Needle- less Nasal Buccal Pulmonary Active Passive Topical
  3. 3. Demerits of conventional dosage forms 1. Large amount of drug is delivered to the site 2. Therapeutic conc. is not maintained 3. Repeated dosage is necessary 4. Less patient compliance 5. Fluctations in concentration of drug in blood
  4. 4. Definition : NDDS Therapeutic systems that incorporate drugs in a dosage form that releases the medication at a predetermined site at a predetermined rate over an extended period of time from a single application
  5. 5. 1. Delivery of the drug a) controlled rate b) slow delivery c) targetted delivery 2. Longer duration of action 3. ↑ bioavailability 4. ↓ Adverse Effects 5. ↑ compliance ADVANTAGES
  6. 6. Types • Prolonged release –Oral preparations –Parenteral preparations • Targeted delivery systems • Local delivery systems
  7. 7. Prolonged release Oral preparations
  8. 8. Prodrugs Inactive form of the drug which undergoes biotransformation inside the body to pharmacologically active drug They increase Absorption Distribution Duration of action
  9. 9. PRODRUG Overcome 1) Pharmaceutical barrier Chloramphenicol palmitate 2) Pharmacokinetic barrier L-Dopa 3)Increase bioavailability Esterification of Ampicillin 4)Increase solubilty Esterification of vidarabine
  10. 10. ENTERIC COATED TABLETS & CAPSULES a) Drug coated with acid resistant substance 1. Prevent gastric irritation 2. Prevent alteration of drug in the stomach 3. To get desired conc. of drug in small intestine 4. Retards rate of absorption and prolongs duration of action b) Drug coated with azopolymers for drug delivery to colon
  11. 11. ENTERIC COATED TABLETS & CAPSULES
  12. 12. CONTROLLED RELEASE / EXTENDED RELEASE / SUSTAINED RELEASE PREPARATIONS Release medication in a predetermined manner over extended period of time 1. Medicines incorporated in different layers – release drug at different time interval OR 2. Granules of the drug can have different coatings that dissolve at different time intervals OR 3. Medication can be covered with a gel which can swell and act like a semipermeable membrane
  13. 13. Granules of the drug can have different coatings that dissolve at different time intervals v v vv v
  14. 14. Medication can be covered with a gel which can swell and act like a semipermeable membrane
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES 1. Therapeutic effect for longer time 2. Less fluctuation 3. ↓ frequency of drug administration 4. ↓ intensity / incidence of adverse effects
  16. 16. Prolonged Release Parenteral preparations
  17. 17. • Pumps –Osmotic pumps –Portable pumps –Computerised pumps –Implantable pumps • Pens • Pellets • Transdermal delivery system
  18. 18. PUMPS • They deliver drugs at a predetermined rate for a specific period following a single application.
  19. 19. MECHANICAL PUMPS • Insulin infusion devices: -CSII-Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion device Advantages: • More physiological & better control • Less variations in absorption
  20. 20. CSII- Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion device Insulin reservoir Program chip Keypad Display screen
  21. 21. Patient controlled analgesia Infusion pump - I/V - Epidural Patient can control the infusion rate and provide the degree of pain control
  22. 22. PCA
  23. 23. Insulin jet Delivers insulin subcutaneously without using needle. Achieved by pressurizing the liquid through a small orifice which creates high speed jet that can penetrate the skin and underlying tissue.
  24. 24. Dermojet It is a sub-cutaneous needleless injection used for mass inoculation
  25. 25. Pellet implantation • Drug as a solid pellet is implanted under the skin to provide uniform systemic effect. • Eg: testosterone
  26. 26. Pens
  27. 27. Inhalational / Pulmonary Drug delivery system • Inspiration through the nose or mouth • Alveolar epithelium offers good surface area especially for lipid -soluble drugs • The drugs are also excreted by this route
  28. 28. 28 Metered dose inhaler Dry powder inhalers
  29. 29. IMPLANTS Drugs placed in pellets / capsules implanted in body Eg: Norplant-Contraceptive implant Levonorgesterel  5 yrs subcutaneously
  30. 30. TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM or TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
  31. 31. Transderm-SCOP (Scoplamine) Used for motion sickness Hydrogel transdermal patch: Used in treatment of burns
  32. 32. Skin – Site of administration of systemically active drug Advantages: 1) Avoid hepatic 1st pass metabolism 2) Maintains constant blood level for longer period without fluctuation 3) Improves bioavailability 4) ↓ dose to be administered and ↓ side effects 5) ↓ GI effects 6) Easy to discontinue in case of toxicity 7) ↑ patient compliance Non invasive method
  33. 33. Transdermal patch Scopolamine : Motion sickness Lasts 72hr, Applied 4hrs before journey Oral dose - action : 4-6hrs Nitroglycerine : Angina – 1d Clonidine : Hypertension – 7d Nicotine : Smokers - 1 d Fentanyl : Pain - 3 d
  34. 34. Local controlled delivery systems
  35. 35. OCULAR SYSTEMS Ocusert: Eg: Pilocarpine ocusert - Treatment of glaucoma Lasts 7 days Less side effects Dose also ↓
  36. 36. VAGINAL & UTERINE SYSTEMS Progestasert: Hormone releasing IUCD Release 60µg/d of progesterone for 1 year Dinoprostone vaginal insert: Inserted vaginally Absorbs water swells and release drug - cervical ripening
  37. 37. IONTOPHORESIS
  38. 38. IONTOPHORESIS Mild electric current applied for the transport of drug across the skin Eg: Vasopressin, Dexamethasone
  39. 39. Drug eluting stents: Stents can be coated with drugs embedded in a surface polymer
  40. 40. Targeted drug delivery systems
  41. 41. LIPOSOMES Bilayered vesicles made of amphipathic phospholipids E g: Liposomal Amphotericin B
  42. 42. Monoclonal antibodies • mAbs act directly when binding to a cancer specific antigen and induce immunological response to cancer cells • mAbs were modified for delivery of a toxin, cytokine or other active conjugates monospecific antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell, Monoclonal antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope.
  43. 43. Future Opportunities •Gene Therapy •Nanoparticles
  44. 44. Nanoparticle based drug delivery Using nanotechnology the drug can be targeted to a precise location which would make the drug much more effective & reduce the chances of possible side-effects •More specific drug targeting & delivery •Reduction in toxicity while maintaining therapeutic efficiency •Nanocarriers- Nanoparticles,Nanotubule,Nanoshell 46
  45. 45. Carbon Nanotubules Used in treatment of Bronchial asthma Gold Nanoparticles Cancer chemotherapy -free radical generation
  46. 46. Nanoerythrosomes Nanoerythrosomes are resealed erythrocytes that can carry proteins ,enzymes & macromolecules.They are used in the treatment of liver tumor,parasitic disease & enzyme disease
  47. 47. Dendrimer Modified Buckyball They deliver radioactive atoms to cancerous material.Eg:C-60 against CA colon Transfer of radiation is within the ball hence minimise strong radiation to healthy tissue Dendrimer-highly branched globular Biodegradable synthetic molecule.
  48. 48. 10/20/2012 50 Thank You

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