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Similaire à Raising Children in a Digital Age - Cavendish School(20)


Raising Children in a Digital Age - Cavendish School

  1. Raising Children in a Digital Age Dr Bex Lewis, Director, Digital Fingerprint; Senior Lecturer in Digital Marketing, Manchester Metropolitan University Cavendish School, West Didsbury CC Licence 4.0 non-commercial @drbexl Image Credit: Stockfresh 16/05/17
  2. Published by Lion Hudson February 2014 *Italian (Nov 2015) *Chinese (awaiting)
  3. Responsibility? “Social media companies have a responsibility to protect people who use their technology, and we want to hear what more can be done to keep children and young people safe from online threats. This Government is determined to make Britain the safest country in the world for young people to be online, and to make sure that everyone – including the public sector, technology firms, parents and children themselves – is playing their part.” Karen Bradey MP, Government Internet Safety Strategy, April 2017 Image Credit: Unsplash
  5. Understand! “If we want resilient kids we need to understand what young people’s experiences are online, listen to their concerns, and intervene with their best interests in mind.” Jane Tallim, Co-Executive Director, MediaSmarts, Canada, January 2015 Image Credit: RGBStock
  6. All those negative headlines… Image Credit: Shutterstock
  7. Is it the end of the world as we know it? Image Credit:
  8. Story:
  9. “Even though in practice, face-to-face communication can, of course, be angry, negligent, resistant, deceitful and inflexible, somehow it remains the ideal against which mediated communication is judged as flawed.” Prof Sonia Livingstone, Children and the Internet: Great Expectations and Challenging Realities. 2009, p26
  10. Image Credit: via Facebook
  11. Digital Culture: Why it matters Image Credit: Pixabay
  14. Children in Digital Culture Image Credit: Flickr
  15. H/T @God_Loves_Women
  16. Communicate, Communicate, Communicate Image Credit: Stockfresh
  18. http://www.huffingtonpost.c om/janell-burley- hofmann/iphone-contract- from-your- mom_b_2372493.html
  19. Practical Advice: Privacy & Permanency Image Credit: RGBStock
  20. To monitor or not to monitor? Image Credit: Stockfresh
  21. Identity, Values and Authenticity Image Credit: Stockfresh
  22. Just because you can … doesn’t mean you should! Image Credit: Stock
  23. Who sees this? 1. Parents 2. ‘Kids’ 3. Newspaper 4. Enemy Image Credit: Stockfresh
  24. Human Beings at machines, not “are machines” Image Source: Stockfresh
  25. facebook.html?smid=fb-share
  26. Relationships (Online) Image Credit: RGBStock
  27. The Bullied The Bully The Bystander Image Source: Stockfresh
  28. The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing Quote commonly (and probably erroneously) attributed to Edmund Burke
  29. Digital Allies
  30. BBC: Be Smart “We’re doing this because all the research tells us that children and young people respond best to their peers. Whether they’re under pressure to take part in a dangerous prank, or to victimise someone, or whether they’re an online bully themselves, stories told by other young people are most likely to resonate and to help them cope, or change their behaviour.” Andrew Tomlinson, Executive Producer, Media Literacy, BBC Learning
  31. Increased time spent online will most likely increase exposure to negative experiences – but also the positive opportunities. Nancy Willard, a cyberbullying expert, calls for us to work on the “understanding that the vast majority of young people want to make good choices, do not want to be harmed, and do not want to see their friends or others harmed”. We can’t control their whole environment, online or offline, so parents need to give their children the capability to deal with problems as they come across them. Raising Children in a Digital Age, p.63
  32. Stranger Danger 2012/13 550 UK Abductions Less than 1/5: unknown “On average 11 children are killed by a stranger each year in the UK … there are more than 11 million children in the UK” (Netmums)
  33. Increasingly Mobile Image Credit: RGBStock
  34. Snapchat Streaks Image Credit: Unsplash
  35. Sex Talk (Porn, Pedophilia and Sexting) Image Credit: Stockfresh
  36. Keeping within the Law Image Credit: Stockfresh
  37. Health Works Image Credit: Stockfresh Physical Setup ‘Nutritional advice’ Brain Changes Multitasking Conversational Ability Couch Potatoes
  38. The core signs of addiction • The activity becomes the most important thing in a person’s life. • Moods change in accordance with the activity. • Continually higher doses of an activity are required to achieve the original sensations. • Withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety and depression are experienced when the activity is stopped. • Increasing conflict occurs with those in the closest social circle. • There is a tendency to return to the activity after periods of control (relapse). • The “sunk cost” fallacy is experienced: not wanting to abandon something after so much time has been sunk into it. Raising Children in a Digital Age, p168 Listen:;
  39. Screen time and family dynamics Image Credit: Stockfresh • Passive consumption: watching TV, reading, and listening to music • Interactive consumption: playing games and browsing the Internet • Communication: video-chatting and using social media • ​Content creation: using devices to make digital art or music
  40. Gaming Image Credit: Stockfresh;
  41. Does digital offer (life) opportunities? Image Credit: Stockfresh
  42. Progressive responsibility • Do it for them • Do it with them • Watch while they do it • Let them do it for themselves. Will Taylor
  43. Grandparents, teachers & youth leaders Image Credit: Stockfresh
  44. Looking to the future Image Credit: RGBStock
  45. So… questions?
  46. Event Price: £6.50 Presentation here:

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. 6-8pm, inc Q&A
  2. Intro Self… Went to reprint after 4 months, good reviews, etc. Director, Digital Fingerprint, 5 years with Durham Uni re digital/church, now well into my second year at MMU, where defining research interests around idea of enabling positive engagement online, including vulnerable users and what the church has to offer in the digital spaces… Raising children, not ‘parenting’ because think we all have responsibility – if I can get companies behaving more responsibly/ethically, understanding what life is really like for children in a digital age, etc. and helping parents who already have a million other things to think about to understand the digital (they’re the experts in parenting), and similar for those working with youth, then it’s a really strong starting point for conversations with children, etc.
  3. A topic that’s of concern to the government at the current time, and they are particularly pushing the software companies … but recognise that responsibility spreads wide…
  4. Lots of coverage, obviously hit the right timing … gets extra interest on ‘Safer Internet Day’ (February - running since 2004) which is always good … growing number of people speaking on the topic now... Typically get called in when there’s a problem, so it’s always interesting to seek to highlight the opportunities, whilst acknowledging those risks... So, let me give you an overview of my thoughts, largely in line with the content of my book... Where I want to move people beyond the never ending negativity round digital. It’s real, it’s not virtual, and yes, it’s not risk free, but if we understand it better, we can engage with it much more confidently..
  5. Important = can bounce back, etc. seems to have been an increasing number of events about resilience – or maybe I’m just being invited to them… but is also something we’re noticing at university level – kids are struggling with anxiety/depression, etc more than ever before, and needing a lot more reassurance re grades/being told what to do – afraid to make mistakes – don’t blame the kids – blame our culture/society (and can we change things at an earlier stage) …
  6. Social Media – all about RELATIONSHIPS – Twitter-like exercise… introduce yourself to someone new in 60 seconds…
  7. Typically what we hear from the headlines = full of disaster, children are addicted to screens, being abducted via Facebook, giving away all their information, sexting, running up bills, becoming couch potatoes, watching porn, meeting strangers and bullying and trolling at every opportunity. I exaggerate, but then so does the news – which (by its nature) is focused on the new/the unusual and has left many people with a feeling that there’s very little that they can do … These kind of stories, and lots of queries from youth workers - set me off to look into the research that’s already out there, + 120 questionnaires
  8. Are the fears justified, is it the end of the world? Dan Gardner ‘Risk’ – we’re the healthiest, wealthiest, safest generation in history, but the most terrified… example post 9/11 flights/road accidents… but not ‘newsworthy’ in the same way. Every new technology = moral panics (my experience with TV aged 17 … looked like I was addicted!) … and each seems to be the end of ‘the way we used to do things’ (invented tradition)…. A part of ‘technological determinism’.. (blaming tech rather than behaviour)
  9. Consider this story from January this year, it was ‘automatically assumed’ that these children were ignoring ‘fabulous art’ for their phones, when they were actually discussing the painting using the museum’s app…
  10. This is one of my favourite quotes, which encourages us to challenge WHAT it is about face-to-face that we prioritise (especially within Christian culture), and how we compensated for that with telephone, how we’re learning to with digital… ... And just think about the changing values that we now ascribe to written comms, especially in the post, where we typically receive bills and direct mail...
  11. As a trained historian, this kind of picture makes me smile … our fundamental humanity hasn’t changed that much – the notion that if this technology wasn’t here that we’d all be chatting to each other on our morning commute, etc.. is clearly problematic, and shaping attitudes toward digital
  12. Professor Tanya Byron, author of the Byron Report (2008), said: more I understood = more able to support/have confidence… What need to have respect for, as well as being excited by the opportunities… Digital Culture: Why it matters that we join in Professor Tanya Byron, author of the Byron Report (2008), said: “I found the more that I understood what [my children] were experiencing, the more I felt empowered to support them to [go online] responsibly and safely, and the more freedom I felt comfortable for them to have”. Best way to engage with children = to have a better knowledge of the threats that they are facing – and don’t forget the possibilities … the technology = much wider/faster connections (all has up/downsides). Digital Revolution affected all our lives whether choose to participate or not.. Huge huge huge numbers online So, what are the particular characteristics of digital culture? Digital material is both more ephemeral and more permanent than previous communication methods. It can be difficult to remove and it is easy to change, replicate, and share, which makes it difficult to distinguish between originals and their replicas. What the community chooses to highlight may not be what the author intended, and material can be disseminated fast, but this also means that a response can be made more quickly. Users can have a sense of being invisible, which can lead to irresponsible behaviour, but can also provide the anonymity necessary to encourage someone to engage with online support sites. We should remember, however, that, with a little work, anyone can be found and identified. In digital culture people tend to engage with increasing numbers of “friends”: it can be harder to detect possible risk, but those with “unique interests” can find friends more easily online. Need to be digitally literate, and not see tech as ‘the bad guy’ (like a brick – through window or build house) – lots of easier ways to stay in touch, and great opportunities for those with special needs...; Talking online/offline rather than virtual/real…
  13. Digital Revolution affected all our lives whether choose to participate or not.. Huge huge huge numbers online, and the best way to ensure the resilience of children is to ensure that they are ‘digitally literate’ – that they are confident in how to use the technology that has become so much a part of our lives, and that we, as parents, or youth leaders, etc. are able to exhibit a ‘comfort’ with technology ourselves (and no one knows it all!) .. So let’s look at some of the tools. Algorithm from early 2014 – if someone updated this would see numbers grow even faster.. So, here we see lots of different platforms, which ones are pretty big in 2016?
  14. Like electricity – don’t need to know inside/out to use it … same with technology these days.. But giving an insight into the current top tools (date book )… many of the top tools – e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc have been fairly stable for several years now… The advice in the book particularly focuses on how to find the information to take control of your information (are a great many ways you can). Also note – WhatsApp! and Reddit, and increasing number of apps used at work – e.g. Slack… (debates about whether video will take over...) Highlights the need to help children make wise decisions about the technology that they use… recent research demonstrates that children are moving away from broadcast platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and even Instagram, to spaces such as Snapchat and Whatsapp.
  15. Yes, children spending more time on technology – become cheaper/more accessible – but that doesn’t mean that they ‘misbehave more’ – there are new ways to do (old) things… The ‘myth’ of the digital native .. They are not so very different – still human beings – are not beyond our reach, just need some time to understand (avoid technological determinism re ‘the machine forces them (us) to behave in particular ways…. Advertising, consumerism, the digital divide – where do kids turn to for advice (their friends) – start to think how to make yourself more of a confidante.
  16. I’m really passionate about this, and get pretty angry when we think people are ‘addicted’ to their phones (most aren’t, probably have bad habits) … most people are engaging in relationships with others (sometimes people who are more important to them than the people that they happen to be physically with...) and those personal relationships – whether online/offline are key!
  17. Talking to children about technology – many parents as nervous as talking about sex, but this is the most powerful tool/technique available… Ensure each negative statement about tech, etc. accompanied by positive where possible so doesn’t look like dismissing out of hand.. Think about e.g. Chelsea Clinton, and also Martha from Never Seconds Internet Safety Agreement – work with kids to define one that works for your own family…
  18. Quick e.g. Could do as a school, or as a youth group (importance of peer influence = hugely influential – action learning rather than ‘top down’) – are plenty of examples online, and probably suitable for different ones for different ages… sit down and talk about it as a family.
  19. Back in 2012, this mobile phone ‘contract’ went viral … and demonstrates a good awareness of tech, and of parenting – so far as I can see! It finishes “You will mess up. I will take away your phone. We will sit down and talk about it. We will start over again. You and I, we are always learning. I am on your team. We are in this together.” … That’s nice, hey? Boundaries – pushing boundaries ... Being clear (youth groups/schools, etc. Always encourage opportunities to talk about what is expected, both amongst kids, and amongst parents... Makes it easier to resist peer pressure ... Maybe a FB group where parents talk to each other, etc... Remember the media highlights the problems that tech causes, but rarely highlights the solutions it also offers...
  20. Martha Payne (NeverSeconds) – her Dad still checked everything she receives first… (age 9) A brief overview of the changing capabilities of children – essentially younger = ‘walled garden’, older = deeper insights. Facebook = 13, many parents think 11 or think is up to them… Pre-school: Children’s lives are focused strongly on family and the home, especially on developing relationships with the key adults in their lives. At this age children have little ability to differentiate between reality and fantasy, so find violence and emotional scenes hard to handle. Their “online diet” needs to be supervised and restricted in respect of both content and time. Five to 11 years: As children start school, they begin to develop relationships with more people outside the family, including learning the social norms of friendships with other children, learning right and wrong, and distinguishing reality from fantasy. At this age parents need to allow greater freedoms, but still within boundaries and accompanied by more discussion, enabling the child to develop their own critical evaluation and self-management skills as well as being supported when they cannot, or maybe, choose not to. 11 to 14 years: This is typically an era characterised by hormones as puberty strikes, and the emphasis for children moves largely from home and the family towards the external world, their peers, and “idols” in the quest to become “independent”. This means a shift from parental identification to peer identification, requiring a degree of experimentation that may involve taking risks. Brain changes cause an inherent drive to seek out social experiences, especially online as outdoor, offline socialisation has become more restricted. They may start to actively seek out age-restricted material and games that are designed for adults, so keep the communication channels open for discussions of risk and challenging content. From 15 years onwards, officially the last stage of ‘childhood’, children take increasing responsibility for their own decisions and identities, as abstract thinking, judgement making, and own values and beliefs become fully developed. Facebook influenced much – Zuckerberg believed privacy = dead, but children actually seem to be pretty intelligent about this – and if they aren’t – warning is not to go mad at them, but help them improve the situation..
  21. The pros & cons of monitoring and filtering – can’t really just rely on the technology to stop things appearing in front of your children – none of the systems = as sophisticated as human beings.. IMPORTANCE OF TRUST! Location services/managing digital footprint… Of value to younger members of family … not once get older – again – back to communication…
  22. What images of self are people projecting? How do you know what you stand for? Children need role models – if parents have mobiles attached to them, then have no leg to stand on when try to remonstrate with children. [Discuss: what are the values you’d like to see online .. And how do they tie with offline?] Importance of not seeing ‘online’ as ‘virtual’ – then people seem to think different rules apply, but it’s a part of our whole lives, and should be treated as such…
  23. Want some of my research to look at ethics of what we share/why, why we do what we do .. And a lot of that relates back to core values … if we don’t know what we stand for, we’ll get dragged into anything – no one is saying that the internet isn’t shiny, but it can be used for good, rather than negative...
  24. Think before you post … does this truly represent what you want to say – and are you happy for all these people to see it? For me = add God.. Remember that anything that you write online – even in private messages, etc. are easy to copy & paste – and out of your control once you write them down… quite a good benchmark is thinking of these people who might read it … it may place limitations on what you write – being open and authentic does not mean shove it all out without filters!! You may still post, but at least you will post with awareness that you may attract kickback, etc.. Think before you post – is it helpful, etc.
  25. Importance of online/offline Always remember that there is a human being at the other end of the keyboard - each uniquely created by God… and as is noted by many communicators is not what you’ve said, but what others have ‘heard’ … not everyone receives the message that you send in the same way .. And one message definitely doesn’t fit all… we’re in the world of what is described as “the long tail”, where rather than being able to send out a mass message, we have to have more concern with individuals (which I always hope we as Christians do anyway, but…. ) – Google searches for ‘niches’ (small keywords/multiple entry points, etc.)
  26. The word ‘friendship’ has changed as we now ‘friend’ others on Facebook – children can’t afford to not accept friend requests from those they interact with in the physical space (e.g. school) as has repercussions for offline life… (and most are offline connections) Huge amount of online etiquette – including who connect with, speed of response, what you like, etc.. Facebook depression (more/less socially active) ‘Stranger Danger’ (incredibly rare) – and as parents increasingly make friends online, again, seems ironic to say to kids ‘don’t’, rather than helping them do so safely..
  27. Cyberbullying – huge issue – speed, constantly, digital pile-on are core – the 3 roles – bullied, bully, bystander.. (Nancy Willard – is not something kids HAVE to live through…) Situation of particular concern = (Cyber-bullying)… want to focus on the 3 groups of people involved here.. Bullied – likely to spend excessive time online, or avoid it – maybe interactive nervously, numbers involved vary, but more ‘reliable’ research indicates about 20% affected in some way). Spend extra time with them, develop confidence, don’t remove devices, listen to them, not their fault. // Think about IF/how to respond, keep copies of messages, may be able to block a/cs The Bully – Disinhibition. Any solutions? Not easy ones, and part of a bigger attitude change – look at advice re bullying in general, but this is where removing access, and encouraging them to understand the harm/take responsibility = key. The Bystander – the importance of stepping in, rather than standing back … digital allies…
  28. If we refuse to engage – what is that doing .. Can be scary, but this phrase is powerful..
  29. Things move fast, so others can pile in – but can also use this to your advantage to get other friends, etc. to support you as well…
  30. Note – very interested in who takes responsibility for all this – here we have the BBC, but I think we all have responsibility TOGETHER – schools, parents, researchers, churches – you name it – we can’t just make stuff and not think about how/why it might be used…
  31. Often kids don’t understand – especially as online = “disinhibition” = sometimes being exposed to what they’ve done is ‘enough’ – if not, then there’s a bigger problem there, which the digital is just part of … exercise is saying some of that stuff out loud to others can make it “real”...
  32. ‘Stranger Danger’ (incredibly rare) – and as parents increasingly make friends online, again, seems ironic to say to kids ‘don’t’, rather than helping them do so safely.. Latest figures from UK = around 550 abductions recorded by police in 2012/13, less than 1/5 by a stranger, most are by people known to the victim (we get a different impression from the media!) *Remember – you wouldn’t leave a child to play alone in the park, would you? Be with them, support them as they learn to stand on their own 2 feet! ‘Stranger Danger’ (incredibly rare) – and as parents increasingly make friends online, again, seems ironic to say to kids ‘don’t’, rather than helping them do so safely.. US survey in 2006 – out of nearly 300k abducted, only 12 were unknown… again, down to good comms… - Rarely were the offenders of young victims strangers. Strangers were the offender in just 3% of sexual assaults against victims under age 6 and 5% of the sexual assault of victimizations of youth ages 6 through 11. -Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement, 7/00, NCJ 182990, U.S. Department of Justice Read More Unfortunately recent years have seen an increase in child abductions in Britain. But - and it's an important but - although the percentage increase may seem high, in terms of the numbers involved they are still very small. On average 11 children are killed by a stranger each year in the UK (and there are more than 11 million children in the UK), a figure that has not increased since the 1970s. Statistically children are more at risk of abuse from someone they know. Of course the murder or abuse of any child is a tragedy but the actual statistics do imply that our parental anxieties about stranger danger are misplaced. (2012?) - difficult to know how much numbers are about the way things are reported…
  33. Mobile = cheaper, more accessible, appropriate contracts – so now the tool of choice for many – including kids. FOMO/need to respond = little digifree time – is the mobile becoming an intruder on other situations – many have set rules re e.g. mealtimes, etc. Worries about e-babysitter – though “OK” for educational purposes.. Work with them as they download apps (and ensure password on – throughout = are simple things that can be done…) Ensuring mobile phone costs are managed, and what age (I said secondary school for most, smartphone GCSE.. This is WAY out of date, esp when phones are handed down – some people decide via contracts, some turn off the data/wifi elements – but most try and be alongside… ) No surprise, then, that Facebook is no longer a place for uninhibited status updates about pub antics, but an obligatory communication tool that younger people maintain because everyone else does: All the fun stuff is happening elsewhere. On their mobiles. Worries about shortform text = damaging use of English = more creative…
  34. Explain recent radio show re Snapchat – what a streak is, the pressure, the need to talk about this (like Loom bands) … and recognise are also positive options.
  35. Again = human behaviour exaggerated = more vulnerable offline, also online… Issues of the dangers of porn = complex, but tend to be condensed in the press… for years children have gone through ‘rite of passage’ – but now = easier to get hold of, more explicit, etc.. And changing expectations of what is normal sexual behaviour. Numbers of pedophiles difficult to determine as tend not to self-declare, and most stats comes from e.g. filtering companies… there is a danger, but more from those who are known – so good to be aware – and remember the technology can help you FIND children too… Sexting = age old pressure ‘if you don’t going to ditch you’ … so children need same advice to take care what share/when – as once out there – can spread fast…
  36. Seen as Wild West, but it’s not – laws still apply (usually the originating country) Plagiarism, music, film, apps… dangers of viruses with illegal info… far more likely than many of the other things we might expect (though can also be traumatising = e.g. breaking the family computer!)
  37. Need to set up desk properly … More worrying = pro-mia sites, etc. advice on how to eat even less, etc. and even ‘clean eating’ with HUGE followers = no qualifications, although also groups such as BeyondChoc that I belong to.. (as always, quite often a positive follows the negative) Brain changing – everything you do affects brain change = not necessarily bad… Can people really multitask? Are these things all bad or are we just holding onto things that we treasure? Conversational ability (more social) Danger of couch potatoes – use whatever interest online and take it offline E.g. geocaching, or, yes Pokemon Go!
  38. Addiction – is it really addiction? Is it affecting schoolwork, attention spans? Seem familiar? Most are not ‘truly addicted’ – and what about the difference between e-books/’real’ books = at least they are reading! Recently, Dr Alicia Blum-Ross who is part of a team at the LSE looking at parenting in a digital age, challenges the language of addiction and control that’s so common in conversations around children and the internet … Only the other week, I was challenging the language of ‘addiction’ = out of control = most of it is bad habits – which we can challenge!
  39. We saw that programme was also about screen time - standard advice = keep computer in a central room in the house – especially once teenage years = not really possible… Am Assoc Pead = consistently says 2 hours of screentime max … and none before age of 2 – are now re-assessing their advice, particularly in light of better tech and will issue new advice this year … and there is a growing sense of different TYPES of screen time, from consumption, to communication, to creation... Bedroom culture; digital time out; reading online (is it about the book content or the book format?)
  40. Gaming – not so much my thing, but increasing complexity of games online – without an end point, and rewards for the more time spent online/just one more level… but have been asked to write/talk on it quite a bit – and watching e.g. ‘gamification’ taking over the way life works… added a link to a radio broadcast done in Feb this year with myself and a number of parents and the tactics they use (yes, I found most of them – I don’t think I have all the answers – I want to collect insights from others!) ... And yes, I experimented with Pokemon – more of a fan of exploring than competition! Some argue has increased dexterity, sociability, esp for autistic kids… Are worries is violent, addictive and expensive… similar fears about horror films, most of which disproved by media ‘experts’ in previous eras … and evidence often points in other direction, but not enough in-depth research done, although believe one of my colleagues is looking into this…
  41. Technology = prepares kids for the job market, OK to lurk & learn. Need for criticality (not always seen amongst early students) – need to be aware to avoid scams/Snopes, etc. Collaboration Social Justice (clicktivism/activism) Wide range of information Increased connectivity and collaboration Educational benefits Global nature of online New creative opportunities Learning criticality Increased accessibility for those with disabilities
  42. I spotted this on Facebook as I was coming to the end of writing this book. It was posted by Will Taylor (communications manager, youth worker, and dad), and seems to sum up what is required of parents in the digital sphere: Do it for them Do it with them Watch while they do it Let them do it for themselves.
  43. Parents increasingly taking responsibility for grandkids – need to be consistent – greatest growth = accessing pics Teachers = an opportunity for group space, but also teachers need to ‘take care’. Youth leaders = need for good boundaries, etc. but also look at the opportunities for peer review, etc.
  44. Only constancy is change … more visual, more audio, higher broadband speeds, more hacker attacks? Cannot make Internet 100% safe so need to give children confidence/skills – by giving them opportunities to engage online… and understand what they do have responsibility for. First and foremost, I think if children are confident that their parents (and other responsible adults, etc.) care for them, and are there to back them up, they develop resilience in all aspects of life. The more that parents, etc. understand the internet, the more they can help their children with this particular aspect of life (swimming pool analogy)
  45. Final word – remember – there is always a human being at the other end of the keyboard… think before you type…