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FORENSIC IMPORTANCE
OF SKULL
Skull.
CALVARIA:
• 2 parietal.
• 2 temporal.
• 1 frontal.
• 1 occipital.
• 1 sphenoid.
• 1 ethmoid.
Facial bones.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

2 maxilla.
2 zygoma.
2 nasal.
2 lacrimal.
2 palatine.
2 inferior nasal concha.
1 mandible.
...
Determination of Race.
The cranium is the only reliable bone and, even then, can only tell
general category as below:
• Mo...
• Cephalic index = max.breadth/max.length x 100.
• Dolico-cephalic: 70-75.(aryans,
negroes).
• Mesati-cephalic: 75-80. (eu...
Height index.
•
•
•
•
•

Height of skull / length of skull x 100.
Europeans – 71.
Negros – 72.
Mongoloid – 75.
Height is m...
Nasal index.
• Breadth of the nasal aperture/length of the
nasal aperture x 100.
• European – 46.
• Mongoloid – 50.
• Negr...
• RACE DE E INAT
T RM
ION F
ROM T
OOT .
H
- Civilized societies > 1st molar largest and 3rd molar

smallest.
- Primitive s...
ADULT SEX CAN BE DETERMINED FROM SKELETON.
ACCORDING TO KROGMAN ACCURACY IN SEXING ADULT
SKELETAL REMAINS IS:-

•ENTIRE SK...
Determination of Sex
2. Cranium second best
• Crests and ridges more
pronounced in males (A, B, C)
• Chin significantly mo...
• Males tend to have a more prominent brow ridge and slanting of
the frontal bone (forehead).
• A squared chin.
• Females ...
SKULL
GENERAL
APPEARANCE

LARGER,LONGER
(DOLICHOCRANIA)

SMALLER,LIGHTER,W
ALLS THINNER
(BRACHYCRANIA) &
SMOOTHER

CAPACIT...
SKULL

SUPRAORBITAL
RIDGES

PROMINENT

LESS PROMINENT
OR
ABSENT

ZYGOMATIC
ARCH

MORE PROMINENT

LESS PROMINENT

NASAL
APE...
SKULL
MASTOID
PROCESS

MEDIUM TO
SMALL TO
LARGE,ROUND,BLUNT MEDIUM,SMOOTH,
POINTED

BASE

SITES OF MUSCULAR
IMPRESSIONS
MA...
MANDIBLE
GENERAL
SIZE

LARGER & THICKER

SMALLER &
THINNER

CHIN

SQUARE

ROUNDED

BODY HEIGHT

GREATER AT
SYMPHISIS

SMAL...
Chin more square in males, teeth larger in
males

Chin rounded in females;
MANDIBLE.

AGE:
TRAIT

INFANCY

(1) BODY

SHALLOW

(2) RAMUS

SHORT AND OBLIQUE
FORMS OBTUSE ANGLE
(175°) WITH BODY .

ADU...
AT BIRTH

IN THE ADULT

IN CHILDHOOD

IN OLD AGE
Determination of Age from Bones
• Ages 0-5: teeth are best – forensic
odontology.
FONTANALLES:
• Lat & occip, fontanalles ...
SUTURES.
• Mandible unites – 2nd year.
• Metopic suture at 3rd year.
• Condylar part of the occip. Bone fuses with squama
...
• Height of the skull = 1/8th of the stature.
• Tooth eruptions and secondary changes in
teeth.
INJURIES.
FRACTURES:
• Linear fractures.
• Diastatic fractures.
• Comminuted fractures.
• Fracture-a-la signature.
• Pond/...
Puppe’s rule..
• When there are more than two fracture lines
“the coarse of the later fracture is always
interrupted by th...
Bewelling of skull..
• Is a funnel shaped wound with the funnel
opening out along the direction of the missile.
• It occur...
IDENTIFICATION OF INDIVIDUALS.
Forensic Odontology
• Identification of bite marks on victims

• Comparison of bite marks with teeth of a
suspect
• Identi...
Forensic Odontology – Age Determination

Neonatal Line – allows forensic
odontologists to determine if a
child was alive a...
Facial Reconstruction.
1. Obtain skull
• Determine demographic
information
(female, Caucasian, early 40s)
• Note unique fe...
Facial Reconstruction
4. Add muscle to average
depth for race
5. Add skin, nose, ears
6. Add features related to age and
r...
Super imposition technique.
Hyper ostosis interna frontalis.
Bite marks…
Victim:
• Swab for saliva from bite mark.
• Victim’s salaivary swab.
• Life size photography.
• Scaling .
• Ma...
1. Finger print powder lift method.
2. Free hand tracing.
3. Photo copier generation.
4. 2-D poly line method.
5. 3-D imag...
Casts.
• Study cast made.
• Stable dental impression material.(poly
vinyl siloxane).
• Impression of suspects mouth is mad...
OTHERS…
•
•
•
•
•

Dating of skull remains.
Serological examinations.
Skull suture patterns and vascular markings.
Palatal...
THANK YOU…
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
identification of Race- forensic medicine
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identification of Race- forensic medicine

  1. 1. FORENSIC IMPORTANCE OF SKULL
  2. 2. Skull. CALVARIA: • 2 parietal. • 2 temporal. • 1 frontal. • 1 occipital. • 1 sphenoid. • 1 ethmoid.
  3. 3. Facial bones. • • • • • • • • 2 maxilla. 2 zygoma. 2 nasal. 2 lacrimal. 2 palatine. 2 inferior nasal concha. 1 mandible. 1 vomer.
  4. 4. Determination of Race. The cranium is the only reliable bone and, even then, can only tell general category as below: • Mongoloid: wider cheekbones, square shaped skull, rounded apertures, concave incisors, width between eyes greatest • Negro: Narrow elongated skull, squared orbit, rounded nasal aperture, more prominent ridges, wider nasal opening • Caucasian: Rounded skull, elongated nasal aperture, triangular palate.
  5. 5. • Cephalic index = max.breadth/max.length x 100. • Dolico-cephalic: 70-75.(aryans, negroes). • Mesati-cephalic: 75-80. (europe, chinese). • Brachy-cephalic: 80-85. (mongoloids).
  6. 6. Height index. • • • • • Height of skull / length of skull x 100. Europeans – 71. Negros – 72. Mongoloid – 75. Height is measured from the tip of the mastoid process to bregma. • Length – glabella to occipital protuberance.
  7. 7. Nasal index. • Breadth of the nasal aperture/length of the nasal aperture x 100. • European – 46. • Mongoloid – 50. • Negros – 55.
  8. 8. • RACE DE E INAT T RM ION F ROM T OOT . H - Civilized societies > 1st molar largest and 3rd molar smallest. - Primitive societies > reverse is true - Mongolians may have three cusps in 1st premolars and lower molars have three roots. - Enamel pearls- Mongols. - Carbelli’s cusps-whites. - Taurodentism (bull tooth) tooth fused and bentmongoloids - Shovel shaped upper central incisors in Mongols. =congenital lack of third molar- mongoloids.
  9. 9. ADULT SEX CAN BE DETERMINED FROM SKELETON. ACCORDING TO KROGMAN ACCURACY IN SEXING ADULT SKELETAL REMAINS IS:- •ENTIRE SKELETON 100% •PEVIS + SKULL 98% •PELVIS ALONE 95% •SKULL ALONE 90% •LONG BONES ALONE 80%
  10. 10. Determination of Sex 2. Cranium second best • Crests and ridges more pronounced in males (A, B, C) • Chin significantly more square in males (E) • Jaw (I, E), mastoid process wide and robust in males • Forehead slopes more in males (F)
  11. 11. • Males tend to have a more prominent brow ridge and slanting of the frontal bone (forehead). • A squared chin. • Females tend to have a slightly more rounded jaw with a pointed chin. • The female brow ridge tends to be smoother and the frontal bone is rounded. •In males, the occipital protuberance is sometimes --but not always-- more pronounced.
  12. 12. SKULL GENERAL APPEARANCE LARGER,LONGER (DOLICHOCRANIA) SMALLER,LIGHTER,W ALLS THINNER (BRACHYCRANIA) & SMOOTHER CAPACITY 1500 to1550 ml 1350 to 1400 ml FOREHEAD STEEPER,LESS ROUNDED VERTICAL, ROUNDED,FULL, INFANTILE GABELLA MORE PROMINENT SMALL OR ABSENT ORBITS SQUARE,LOW SET,SMALLER & ROUNDED MARGINS ROUNDED,HIGHER SET,LARGER& SHARP MARGINS
  13. 13. SKULL SUPRAORBITAL RIDGES PROMINENT LESS PROMINENT OR ABSENT ZYGOMATIC ARCH MORE PROMINENT LESS PROMINENT NASAL APERTURE HIGHER,NARROWER LOWER & BROADER FRONTAL &PARIETAL EMINENCE SMALL LARGER OCCIPITAL AREA MUSCLE LINES & PROTUBERENCE PROMINENT NOT PROMINENT
  14. 14. SKULL MASTOID PROCESS MEDIUM TO SMALL TO LARGE,ROUND,BLUNT MEDIUM,SMOOTH, POINTED BASE SITES OF MUSCULAR IMPRESSIONS MARKED LESS MARKED OCCIPITAL CONDYLE LARGE SMALL PALATE LARGE,BROAD, U-SHAPED SMALL,PARABOLA FORAMEN MAGNUM LARGER & LONGER SMALLER & ROUNDED TEETH LARGER SMALLER
  15. 15. MANDIBLE GENERAL SIZE LARGER & THICKER SMALLER & THINNER CHIN SQUARE ROUNDED BODY HEIGHT GREATER AT SYMPHISIS SMALLER AT SYMPHYSIS ASCENDING RAMUS GREATER BREADTH SMALLER BREADTH ANGLE OF BODY & RAMUS LESS OBTUSE(<125) MORE OBTUSE CONDYLES LARGER SMALLER MENTAL TUBERCLES LARGE & PROMINENT INSIGNIFICANT
  16. 16. Chin more square in males, teeth larger in males Chin rounded in females;
  17. 17. MANDIBLE. AGE: TRAIT INFANCY (1) BODY SHALLOW (2) RAMUS SHORT AND OBLIQUE FORMS OBTUSE ANGLE (175°) WITH BODY . ADULT THICK AND LONG LESS OBTUSE ANGLE (ALMOST STRAIGHT, OLD AGE SHALLOW OBTUSE ANGLE (140°) WITH THE BODY. 110° to 120°) WITH THE BODY. (3) MENTAL FORAMEN OPENS NEAR LOWER OPENS MIDWAY OPENS NEAR ALVEOLAR MARGIN. BETWEEN UPPER & MARGINS. LOWER MARGINS. (4) CONDYLOID AT A LOWER LEVEL PROCESS THAN CORONOID PROCESS. ELONGATED & PROJECTS ABOVE CORONOID PROCESS. AT A LOWER LEVEL THAN CORONOID PROCESS.
  18. 18. AT BIRTH IN THE ADULT IN CHILDHOOD IN OLD AGE
  19. 19. Determination of Age from Bones • Ages 0-5: teeth are best – forensic odontology. FONTANALLES: • Lat & occip, fontanalles - closes within 2 months. • Post. Fontanalles - closes 6-8 months. • Ant. Fontanalles – closes 18 – 24 months.
  20. 20. SUTURES. • Mandible unites – 2nd year. • Metopic suture at 3rd year. • Condylar part of the occip. Bone fuses with squama on 3rd year and with basi-occiput on 5th year. • 25 yrs – sutures fuse in the inner side. • 30-40 yrs – post. Half of sagital suture. • 40-50 yrs – Ant. Half of sagital suture & lower half of coronal suture fuses. • 50-60 yrs – Middle half of sagital suture & lower half of coronal suture fuses. • 60 yrs – Sq.temporal fuses with other bones.
  21. 21. • Height of the skull = 1/8th of the stature. • Tooth eruptions and secondary changes in teeth.
  22. 22. INJURIES. FRACTURES: • Linear fractures. • Diastatic fractures. • Comminuted fractures. • Fracture-a-la signature. • Pond/indented fracture. • Gutter fracture. • Hinge fracture. • Ring fracture. • Countre-coup fracture.
  23. 23. Puppe’s rule.. • When there are more than two fracture lines “the coarse of the later fracture is always interrupted by the ‘pre-existing’ fracture line”.
  24. 24. Bewelling of skull.. • Is a funnel shaped wound with the funnel opening out along the direction of the missile. • It occurs due to the larger UNSUPPORTED layer of bone, which gets punched out.
  25. 25. IDENTIFICATION OF INDIVIDUALS.
  26. 26. Forensic Odontology • Identification of bite marks on victims • Comparison of bite marks with teeth of a suspect • Identification of unknown bodies through dental records • Age estimations of skeletal remains • Victim identification through DNA analysis
  27. 27. Forensic Odontology – Age Determination Neonatal Line – allows forensic odontologists to determine if a child was alive at birth • Gustafson’s Method.
  28. 28. Facial Reconstruction. 1. Obtain skull • Determine demographic information (female, Caucasian, early 40s) • Note unique features (had lost all back teeth on upper and lower jaw) • Anything known about this individual? 2. Add tissue depth markers • Based on largely on sex and race 3. Begin to add common fat deposits and underlying muscles
  29. 29. Facial Reconstruction 4. Add muscle to average depth for race 5. Add skin, nose, ears 6. Add features related to age and race (wrinkles, eye and hair color) 7. Add clothing etc appropriate for the time period, religious affiliations, etc
  30. 30. Super imposition technique.
  31. 31. Hyper ostosis interna frontalis.
  32. 32. Bite marks… Victim: • Swab for saliva from bite mark. • Victim’s salaivary swab. • Life size photography. • Scaling . • Making moulds / impressions. • Tracing of the skin marks.
  33. 33. 1. Finger print powder lift method. 2. Free hand tracing. 3. Photo copier generation. 4. 2-D poly line method. 5. 3-D image perception method. (arch, width, shape, labio lingual position, Inter tooth distance, tooth dimensions, curvatures, hollow volume).
  34. 34. Casts. • Study cast made. • Stable dental impression material.(poly vinyl siloxane). • Impression of suspects mouth is made. • Mellot’s metal, is poured. • Contact print is made. • Tone line photography is obtained.
  35. 35. OTHERS… • • • • • Dating of skull remains. Serological examinations. Skull suture patterns and vascular markings. Palatal pattern prints for identification. Poisoning detection.
  36. 36. THANK YOU…

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