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Subject of the presentation:
Anatomy-of-the-Arm
Prepared by:Prepared by: Dr. RasekhDr. Rasekh
Ms ortho, senior consultantM...
The Humerus
The humerus bone has two parts:
1-Upper part(All are insertion)
2-Lower part(All are origins)
Attachments on t...
Upper part
1-Inter tubercular sulcus
2-Greater tubercle
3-Lesser tubercle
4:Deltoid tuberosity
A-Inter tubercular sulcus
1-pectoralis major(Lateral lip)
2-Latissimus dorsi(Floor)
3-Teres major(Medial lip)
Mnemonic:
( ...
Mnemonic:
( Lady between two majors)
B:Greater tubercle:
1:Supraspinatus(in upper impression)
2:Infraspinatus(in middle impression)
3:Teres minor(in lower impr...
Mnemonic:
(Minor sit)
C:Lesser Tubercle:
1:Subscapularis
D:Deltoid tuberosity
Deltoid muscle
E:Medial aspect of shaft of humerus
Coracobrachialis muscle
Lower part(All are origins)
Medial
• A:Pronator teres (lower
1/3 of supracondylar
ridge)
• B:common flexor origin
• (Epico...
A:Pronator teres
(lower 1/3 of supracondylar ridge)
A:Pronator teres
Common flexor origin
(med.Epicondyle(5)
– 1:Pronator teres
– 2:Flexor carpi radialis
– 3:Palmaris longus
– 4:Flexor carpi ...
Lateral
A:brachioradialis(upper 2/3
Of supracondylar ridge)
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
is deep to other flexors
pg 302
Brachioradialis
Anterior View
Extensor carpi radialis longus(lower 1/3
of supracondylar ridge)
Anconeus(posterior surface
of epicondyle)
– 1:Extensor carpi radialis longus
– 2:Extensor digitorum
– 3:Extensor carpi ulnaris
– 4:Supinator
– 5: Extensor carpi rad...
Brachialis
Triceps muscle
Biceps
Fascial Septa
• Divide arm into anterior and posteriorDivide arm into anterior and posterior
compartments.compartments.
Medial Intermuscular Septum
• From subcutaneous sheath to humerus.
• Separates muscles of anterior arm from
medial side of...
Lateral Intermuscular Septum
• From subcutaneous sheath to humerus.
• Separates muscles of anterior arm from
lateral side ...
Arteries
• Subclavian
• Axillary
• Brachial
• Radial
• Ulnar
• Profundus Brachii
• Ant/Post Interosseus
Arch of the aorta
Ascending aorta
Descending aorta
Arch of the aorta
Left subclavian artery
Left common carotid artery
Brachiocephalic artery
Pectoralis minor
Subclavian
Internal thoracic artery
Thyrocervical trunk
Transverse cervical artery
Suprascapular artery
Vertebral artery
VIST Turkey
...
Axilary artery
• Continuation of subclavian artery at lateral border
of first rib
• Becomes brachial artery at lower borde...
Brachial Artery
• Direct continuation of axillary artery.
• Begins at inferior border of teres major.
• Main branch is dee...
Brachial artery
Radial Nerve
Brachial artery
Pronator teres
Brachialis tendon
Bicepital apponeurosis
Radial artery
Cephalic Vein
• Lateral continuation of dorsal venous arch.
• Ascends in superficial fascia along lateral
aspect of forear...
Basilic Vein
Antecubital Vein
Basilic Vein
• Medial continuation of dorsal venous arch.
• Ascends in superficial fascia along medial
aspect of forearm a...
Vein
Cephalic Vein
Basilic Vein
Anti cubital Vein
Median Cubital Vein
• Connects cephalic and basilic vein.
• Extends diagonally across bicipital
aponeurosis.
• Receives bl...
Basilic Vein
Antecubital Vein
Venae Comitantes
• Veins that parallel arteries:
• Usually two per artery.
Deltoid
Pectoralis major
Right brachiocephalic Vein left brachiocephalic Vein
Superior vena cava
Subclavian Vein
Nerves
• Principle Nerves are
– Radial Nerve (C5-C8, T1)
– Median Nerve (C6-C8, T1)
– Ulnar Nerve (C7, C8, T1)
– Musculocu...
Radial Nerve
Musculocutaneous
Median Nerve
Ulnar Nerve
Auxiliary artery
pectoralis minor
Below pectoralis minor muscle
Auxiliary artery
Musculocutaneous
Radial Nerve
Median Nerve Ulnar NerveAuxiliary artery
Musculocutaneous Nerve
• Pierces coracobrachialis in upper half or
third of brachium.
• Innervates muscles of anterior bra...
Musculcutaneous Nerve
Biceps Brachii
Brachialis
Corcobrachialis
Coracobrachialis muscle
Biceps
Biceps
Brachialis
Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
Radial Nerve
• .
• Descends posterior to the axillary artery:
Spirals around the posterior surface of the
humerus in the s...
Radial Nerve
• Pierces lateral intermuscular septum distal
to deltoid insertion.
• Passes into forearm:
Between the brachi...
Radial Nerve
• Branches in the distal third of the arm:
Branch to brachioradialis.
Branch to extensor carpi radialis longu...
Latissimus dorsi
Long head
Medial head
After removing the long head of
triceps
lateral head
Medial head
Bone
lateral head
Bone
Brachioradialis
lateral epicondyle
Brachioradialis
Deep branch(motor)
Superficial branch
(sensory)
Median Nerve
• Supplies flexor muscles on the radial side of
the forearm.
• Travels with the brachial artery:
Lateral to a...
Median Nerve
Brachial Artery
Cubital Fossa
Radial
recurrent a.
Radial a.
Radial n.
Median n.
Ulnar n.
Ulnar a.
Ulnar recurrent a.
Ulnar n.
Brachial a.
Median Nerve
Ulnar Nerve
Brachial artery
Median Nerve
Ulnar Nerve
Brachial artery
Brachial artery
Pronator teres
Brachialis tendon
Ulnar Nerve
• Supplies flexor muscles on the ulnar side of
the forearm.
• Starts in anterior brachial compartment:
Medial ...
Ulnar Nerve
• Pierces medial intermuscular septum:
Enters posterior compartment of the
brachium.
Passes around (superficia...
Ulnar nerve
Fibrous tunnelFlexor carpi ulnaris
Triceps
Musculocutaneou
s n.
Median n.
Ulnar n.
Medial antebrachial
cutaneous n.
Superior ulnar coleteral a.
Deep brachial a.
Median n.
Axillary a.
Brachial a.
Medial
antebrachial
cutaneous n.
Superior ulnar coleteral a.
& Ulnar n.
Inferior ulnar c...
Nerves in the Brachium
• Medial brachial cutaneous nerve:
Direct branch from medial cord.
• Medial antebrachial cutaneous ...
CUBITAL FOSSA
Cubital Fossa Boundaries
• Lateral:
Brachioradialis muscle
• Medial:
Pronator teres muscle
• Superior base:
Line between t...
Cubital Fossa Contents
• Lateral to medial:
Biceps TTendon
Brachial AArtery
Median NNerve
Mnemonic
TAN
Articulations: The site where 2 or more
bones meet.
Joints are the weakest part of the skeleton.
Classification
Functional...
Fibula
Tibia
Ligament
(b) Syndesmosis
Joint held together by a ligament.
Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but
is longer ...
Classification
2). Cartilaginous Joints
Bones are united by cartilage
a). Synchondrosis
b). Symphyses
Immovable Joints
(synarthrosis)
• Bones united by ligament
suturesuture
Immovable Joints
(synarthrosis)
• Bones united by ligament
(syndesmosis)
Immovable Joints
(synarthrosis)
• Bones united by ligament
Interosseous
membrane
(syndesmosis)
• Ligaments hold tooth in bony socket
• Immovable joint
enamel
dentin
gum
root of
tooth
pulp
Socket of
alveolar
process
Pe...
Slightly Movable (ampharthrosis)
and Immovable (synarthrosis)
Joints
• Lacks a synovial cavity
• Bones connected by fibroc...
Immovable Joint
(synchondrosis)
Slightly Movable Joint
(ampharthrosis)
pubic symphysispubic symphysis
symphysis
femur
ligaments
pelvis
(Diarthrosis)- freely moveable
femur
hyaline
cartilage
synovial
cavity
Shoulder joint
Ankle Joint
• Planar Joint
• Hinge Joint
• Pivot Joint
• Saddle Joint
• Ball & Socket Joint
• Condyloid or Ellipsoid Joint
• Convex surface of bone fits in concave surface of
2nd
bone
• Unixlateral like a door hinge
• Examples:
- Knee, elbow, an...
• Bone surfaces are slightly curved
• Side to side movement only
• Rotation prevented by ligaments
• Examples:
- intercarp...
• Rounded surface of bone articulates with
the ring formed by the 2nd
bone & ligament
• Monoaxial since it only allows rot...
• One bone saddle-shaped, other bone fits
like a person riding on the saddle
• Biaxial
- circumduction allows the tip of t...
• Ball fitting into a cup-like depression
• Multiaxial
- flexion/extension
- abduction/adduction
- rotation
• Examples:
- ...
• Oval-shaped depression fits into oval depression
• Biaxial= flex/extend or adduct/abduct is possible
• Examples:
- Wrist...
Figure 8.5a Movements allowed
by synovial joints.
Gliding
(a) Gliding movements at the wrist
Figure 8.5b Movements allowed
by synovial joints.
(b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and
hyperextension of the nec...
Figure 8.5c Movements allowed
by synovial joints.
Hyperextension Flexion
Extension
(c) Angular movements: flexion, extensi...
Figure 8.5d Movements allowed
by synovial joints.
Extension
Extension
Flexion
Flexion
(d) Angular movements: flexion and e...
Figure 8.5e Movements allowed
by synovial joints.
Abduction
Adduction
(e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and
cir...
Figure 8.5f Movements allowed
by synovial joints.Lateral
rotation
Medial
rotation
Rotation
(f) Rotation of the head, neck,...
Figure 8.6a Special body
movements.
Supination
(radius and
ulna are
parallel)
(a) Pronation (P) and supination (S)
Pronati...
Figure 8.6b Special body
movements.
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
(b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
Figure 8.6c Special body
movements.
EversionInversion
(c) Inversion and eversion
Figure 8.6f Special body
movements.
(f) Opposition
Opposition
Type of joint movement:
• Flexion- bent knee
• Extension- extend knee
• Hyperextension- bring leg back
• Dorsi flexion- he...
Questions?
Thanks for your kind
attention
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
Anatomy of the arm (detailed)
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Anatomy of the arm (detailed)

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Anatomy of the arm (detailed)

  1. 1. Subject of the presentation: Anatomy-of-the-Arm Prepared by:Prepared by: Dr. RasekhDr. Rasekh Ms ortho, senior consultantMs ortho, senior consultant Date :13/12/2015
  2. 2. The Humerus The humerus bone has two parts: 1-Upper part(All are insertion) 2-Lower part(All are origins) Attachments on the Humerus
  3. 3. Upper part 1-Inter tubercular sulcus 2-Greater tubercle 3-Lesser tubercle 4:Deltoid tuberosity
  4. 4. A-Inter tubercular sulcus 1-pectoralis major(Lateral lip) 2-Latissimus dorsi(Floor) 3-Teres major(Medial lip) Mnemonic: ( lady between two majors)
  5. 5. Mnemonic: ( Lady between two majors)
  6. 6. B:Greater tubercle: 1:Supraspinatus(in upper impression) 2:Infraspinatus(in middle impression) 3:Teres minor(in lower impression) Mnemonic: (Minor sit)
  7. 7. Mnemonic: (Minor sit)
  8. 8. C:Lesser Tubercle: 1:Subscapularis
  9. 9. D:Deltoid tuberosity Deltoid muscle
  10. 10. E:Medial aspect of shaft of humerus Coracobrachialis muscle
  11. 11. Lower part(All are origins) Medial • A:Pronator teres (lower 1/3 of supracondylar ridge) • B:common flexor origin • (Epicondyle) Lateral • A:brachioradialis(upper 2/3 Of supracondylar ridge) B:extensor carpi radialis longus(lower 1/3 of supracondylar ridge) C:Anconeus(posterior surface of epicondyle) D:common extensor origin (epicondyle)
  12. 12. A:Pronator teres (lower 1/3 of supracondylar ridge)
  13. 13. A:Pronator teres
  14. 14. Common flexor origin (med.Epicondyle(5) – 1:Pronator teres – 2:Flexor carpi radialis – 3:Palmaris longus – 4:Flexor carpi ulnaris • 5:flexor digitorum superficials
  15. 15. Lateral A:brachioradialis(upper 2/3 Of supracondylar ridge)
  16. 16. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis is deep to other flexors pg 302 Brachioradialis Anterior View
  17. 17. Extensor carpi radialis longus(lower 1/3 of supracondylar ridge)
  18. 18. Anconeus(posterior surface of epicondyle)
  19. 19. – 1:Extensor carpi radialis longus – 2:Extensor digitorum – 3:Extensor carpi ulnaris – 4:Supinator – 5: Extensor carpi radialis brevis 6:Extensor digiti minimi Common extensor origin (lat.epicondyle(8)
  20. 20. Brachialis
  21. 21. Triceps muscle
  22. 22. Biceps
  23. 23. Fascial Septa • Divide arm into anterior and posteriorDivide arm into anterior and posterior compartments.compartments.
  24. 24. Medial Intermuscular Septum • From subcutaneous sheath to humerus. • Separates muscles of anterior arm from medial side of triceps complex.
  25. 25. Lateral Intermuscular Septum • From subcutaneous sheath to humerus. • Separates muscles of anterior arm from lateral side of triceps complex.
  26. 26. Arteries • Subclavian • Axillary • Brachial • Radial • Ulnar • Profundus Brachii • Ant/Post Interosseus
  27. 27. Arch of the aorta Ascending aorta Descending aorta
  28. 28. Arch of the aorta Left subclavian artery Left common carotid artery Brachiocephalic artery
  29. 29. Pectoralis minor
  30. 30. Subclavian
  31. 31. Internal thoracic artery Thyrocervical trunk Transverse cervical artery Suprascapular artery Vertebral artery VIST Turkey Mnemonic
  32. 32. Axilary artery • Continuation of subclavian artery at lateral border of first rib • Becomes brachial artery at lower border of teres major • Divided into three parts by overlying pectoralis minor – A:First portion, above muscle - gives rise to 1:highest thoracic artery – B:Second portion, behind muscle - gives rise to – 1:thoraco acromial artery – 2:lateral thoracic artery. – C:Third portion, below muscle - gives rise to 1:subscapular artery – 2: posterior and anterior humeral circumflex artery 1:Hi 2:Tell Laila 3:Samad Passed Away! Mnemonic
  33. 33. Brachial Artery • Direct continuation of axillary artery. • Begins at inferior border of teres major. • Main branch is deep brachial artery. • Other branches: Superior ulnar collateral: To posterior ulnar recurrent. Inferior ulnar collateral: To anterior ulnar collateral.
  34. 34. Brachial artery
  35. 35. Radial Nerve
  36. 36. Brachial artery Pronator teres Brachialis tendon
  37. 37. Bicepital apponeurosis
  38. 38. Radial artery
  39. 39. Cephalic Vein • Lateral continuation of dorsal venous arch. • Ascends in superficial fascia along lateral aspect of forearm and arm. • Passes through deltopectoral triangle. • Empties into axillary vein.
  40. 40. Basilic Vein Antecubital Vein
  41. 41. Basilic Vein • Medial continuation of dorsal venous arch. • Ascends in superficial fascia along medial aspect of forearm and arm to middle of arm. • Pierces deep fascia and ascends in upper aspect of arm in deep fascia. • Joins venae comitantes to form axillary vein: Usually near inferior border of teres major.
  42. 42. Vein Cephalic Vein Basilic Vein Anti cubital Vein
  43. 43. Median Cubital Vein • Connects cephalic and basilic vein. • Extends diagonally across bicipital aponeurosis. • Receives blood from median antebrachial vein. • Drains blood from palmar hand.
  44. 44. Basilic Vein Antecubital Vein
  45. 45. Venae Comitantes • Veins that parallel arteries: • Usually two per artery.
  46. 46. Deltoid Pectoralis major
  47. 47. Right brachiocephalic Vein left brachiocephalic Vein Superior vena cava Subclavian Vein
  48. 48. Nerves • Principle Nerves are – Radial Nerve (C5-C8, T1) – Median Nerve (C6-C8, T1) – Ulnar Nerve (C7, C8, T1) – Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5-C7)
  49. 49. Radial Nerve Musculocutaneous Median Nerve Ulnar Nerve Auxiliary artery pectoralis minor
  50. 50. Below pectoralis minor muscle Auxiliary artery
  51. 51. Musculocutaneous
  52. 52. Radial Nerve
  53. 53. Median Nerve Ulnar NerveAuxiliary artery
  54. 54. Musculocutaneous Nerve • Pierces coracobrachialis in upper half or third of brachium. • Innervates muscles of anterior brachial compartment. • Pierces fascia lateral to biceps tendon: Continues as lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. Supplies skin on lateral forearm as far as wrist.
  55. 55. Musculcutaneous Nerve Biceps Brachii Brachialis Corcobrachialis
  56. 56. Coracobrachialis muscle
  57. 57. Biceps
  58. 58. Biceps Brachialis
  59. 59. Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
  60. 60. Radial Nerve • . • Descends posterior to the axillary artery: Spirals around the posterior surface of the humerus in the spiral (radial) groove. Accompanied by deep brachial artery.
  61. 61. Radial Nerve • Pierces lateral intermuscular septum distal to deltoid insertion. • Passes into forearm: Between the brachialis medially and the brachioradialis laterally. • Divides into superficial and deep branches near lateral epicondyle.
  62. 62. Radial Nerve • Branches in the distal third of the arm: Branch to brachioradialis. Branch to extensor carpi radialis longus (brevis?) Articular branches to elbow joint.
  63. 63. Latissimus dorsi
  64. 64. Long head Medial head
  65. 65. After removing the long head of triceps lateral head Medial head Bone
  66. 66. lateral head Bone Brachioradialis
  67. 67. lateral epicondyle Brachioradialis Deep branch(motor) Superficial branch (sensory)
  68. 68. Median Nerve • Supplies flexor muscles on the radial side of the forearm. • Travels with the brachial artery: Lateral to artery in upper half of brachium. Medial to artery in lower half of brachium. • Crosses cubital fossa superficially: With brachial artery Deep to bicipital aponeurosis
  69. 69. Median Nerve Brachial Artery Cubital Fossa
  70. 70. Radial recurrent a. Radial a. Radial n. Median n. Ulnar n. Ulnar a. Ulnar recurrent a. Ulnar n. Brachial a.
  71. 71. Median Nerve Ulnar Nerve Brachial artery
  72. 72. Median Nerve Ulnar Nerve Brachial artery
  73. 73. Brachial artery Pronator teres Brachialis tendon
  74. 74. Ulnar Nerve • Supplies flexor muscles on the ulnar side of the forearm. • Starts in anterior brachial compartment: Medial to brachial artery Runs with superior ulnar collateral artery.
  75. 75. Ulnar Nerve • Pierces medial intermuscular septum: Enters posterior compartment of the brachium. Passes around (superficial) medial epicondyle. Passes into forearm between two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.
  76. 76. Ulnar nerve Fibrous tunnelFlexor carpi ulnaris Triceps
  77. 77. Musculocutaneou s n. Median n. Ulnar n. Medial antebrachial cutaneous n. Superior ulnar coleteral a. Deep brachial a.
  78. 78. Median n. Axillary a. Brachial a. Medial antebrachial cutaneous n. Superior ulnar coleteral a. & Ulnar n. Inferior ulnar coleteral a.
  79. 79. Nerves in the Brachium • Medial brachial cutaneous nerve: Direct branch from medial cord. • Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve: Direct branch from medial cord.
  80. 80. CUBITAL FOSSA
  81. 81. Cubital Fossa Boundaries • Lateral: Brachioradialis muscle • Medial: Pronator teres muscle • Superior base: Line between two humeral epicondyles • Floor: Supinator and brachialis muscles
  82. 82. Cubital Fossa Contents • Lateral to medial: Biceps TTendon Brachial AArtery Median NNerve Mnemonic TAN
  83. 83. Articulations: The site where 2 or more bones meet. Joints are the weakest part of the skeleton. Classification Functional: Amount of movement allowed 1). Synarthroses: Immovable joints 2). Amphiarthrosis: Slightly movable joint 3). Diarthroses: Fully movable joints
  84. 84. Fibula Tibia Ligament (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures. Classification Structural: based on material binding the bone. 1). Fibrous: Bone ends united by collagenic fibers a). Sutures b). Syndesmoses c). Gomphoses
  85. 85. Classification 2). Cartilaginous Joints Bones are united by cartilage a). Synchondrosis b). Symphyses
  86. 86. Immovable Joints (synarthrosis) • Bones united by ligament suturesuture
  87. 87. Immovable Joints (synarthrosis) • Bones united by ligament (syndesmosis)
  88. 88. Immovable Joints (synarthrosis) • Bones united by ligament Interosseous membrane (syndesmosis)
  89. 89. • Ligaments hold tooth in bony socket • Immovable joint enamel dentin gum root of tooth pulp Socket of alveolar process Peridontal ligament (membrane)
  90. 90. Slightly Movable (ampharthrosis) and Immovable (synarthrosis) Joints • Lacks a synovial cavity • Bones connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage • 2 types - synchondrosis - symphyses
  91. 91. Immovable Joint (synchondrosis)
  92. 92. Slightly Movable Joint (ampharthrosis) pubic symphysispubic symphysis symphysis
  93. 93. femur ligaments pelvis (Diarthrosis)- freely moveable
  94. 94. femur hyaline cartilage synovial cavity
  95. 95. Shoulder joint
  96. 96. Ankle Joint
  97. 97. • Planar Joint • Hinge Joint • Pivot Joint • Saddle Joint • Ball & Socket Joint • Condyloid or Ellipsoid Joint
  98. 98. • Convex surface of bone fits in concave surface of 2nd bone • Unixlateral like a door hinge • Examples: - Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints • Movements produced: - flexion - extension - hyperextension
  99. 99. • Bone surfaces are slightly curved • Side to side movement only • Rotation prevented by ligaments • Examples: - intercarpal to intertarsal joints - sternoclavicular joint - vertebrocostal joints
  100. 100. • Rounded surface of bone articulates with the ring formed by the 2nd bone & ligament • Monoaxial since it only allows rotation around longitudinal axis • Examples: - proximal radioulnar joint - supination - pronation - atlanto-axial joint - Turning head side to side “no”
  101. 101. • One bone saddle-shaped, other bone fits like a person riding on the saddle • Biaxial - circumduction allows the tip of the thumb to travel in a circle - Opposition allows thumb to touch tip of other fingers • Examples: - Trapezium of carpus and metacarple of thumb
  102. 102. • Ball fitting into a cup-like depression • Multiaxial - flexion/extension - abduction/adduction - rotation • Examples: - shoulder joint - hip joint
  103. 103. • Oval-shaped depression fits into oval depression • Biaxial= flex/extend or adduct/abduct is possible • Examples: - Wrist and metacarpophelangeal joints for 2 to 5 digits
  104. 104. Figure 8.5a Movements allowed by synovial joints. Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist
  105. 105. Figure 8.5b Movements allowed by synovial joints. (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck Hyperextension Extension Flexion
  106. 106. Figure 8.5c Movements allowed by synovial joints. Hyperextension Flexion Extension (c) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column
  107. 107. Figure 8.5d Movements allowed by synovial joints. Extension Extension Flexion Flexion (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee
  108. 108. Figure 8.5e Movements allowed by synovial joints. Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction
  109. 109. Figure 8.5f Movements allowed by synovial joints.Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb
  110. 110. Figure 8.6a Special body movements. Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna)
  111. 111. Figure 8.6b Special body movements. Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
  112. 112. Figure 8.6c Special body movements. EversionInversion (c) Inversion and eversion
  113. 113. Figure 8.6f Special body movements. (f) Opposition Opposition
  114. 114. Type of joint movement: • Flexion- bent knee • Extension- extend knee • Hyperextension- bring leg back • Dorsi flexion- heal • Plantar flexion- toe • Abduction- leg out • Adduction-leg in • Rotation- twisting • Circumduction- circular motion • Supination- palm up • Pronation- palm down • Eversion- foot out • Inversion- foot in • Protraction- chin forward • Retraction- chin back • Elevation- shoulders up • Depression- shoulders down
  115. 115. Questions?
  116. 116. Thanks for your kind attention

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