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Research problem, indexing, scopus, web and publication strategies

  1. 1. Research problem, Indexing, SCOPUS, WEB and Publication Strategies Dr. Kirpa Ram Assistant Professor FOS, Baba Mastnath University Email- dr.kirparamjangra@gmail.com Research Methodology, Unit-3
  2. 2. How to publish the research or Research paper publication
  3. 3. How to write a research paper • A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research. • Research papers are similar to academic essays, but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate. • This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft. 1. Understand the assignment 2. Choose a research paper topic 3. Conduct preliminary research 4. Develop a thesis statement 5. Create a research paper outline 6. Write a first draft of the research paper 7. Write the introduction 8. Write a compelling body of text 9. Write the conclusion 10.The second draft 11.The revision process 12.Research paper checklist 13.Free lecture slides
  4. 4. Publishing research papers Publishing your research is an important step in your academic career. While there isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach, this guide is designed to take you through the typical steps in publishing a research paper. Discover how to get your paper published, from choosing the right journal and understanding what a peer reviewed article is, to responding to reviewers and navigating the production process. 1. When the paper writing is finished and the authors consider the paper to be worth publishing, the next step is to submit it for publication (e.g. to a conference, a journal or a book editor). 2. The selective focus here is on journal articles and conference papers.
  5. 5. Processes of Publishing a Journal Article 1. Identifying a target journal 2. Following the journal’s instructions 3. Submitting the paper 4. Understanding the decision process 5. Revising a paper 6. Answering queries 7. Reviewing proofs
  6. 6. 1. Identifying a target journal or Journal selection • After preparing a manuscript, your next step is to choose a journal for the publication of your research. • There are several criteria that should be considered in accurately selecting a journal for manuscript submission. Criteria 1 The most common yet avoidable reason for journal rejection is mismatch between the manuscript and the journal aims and scope. First, determine whether the subject matter of your article matches that of the target journal. Consider the sort of research that the journal focuses on. Is it theoretical or applied? Match between the subject of your article and the journal's aim and scope. Criteria 2 What is the readership and target audience? If your paper is highly specialized or technical, you’ll do better to publish in a journal with a small but very specific target audience. Reaching the right readership can sometimes be more important than reaching a wide readership.
  7. 7. Criteria 3 Is the journal highly visible? Once your paper is published, it should be easy to find by other researchers. Journal visibility plays an important role in this regard. Is the journal available online? Publishing in journals that are only circulated in print can seriously limit the number of people coming across or reading your work. Criteria 4 What is the “CV value of publication”? Some authors put a premium on journal prestige. Here are some factors to consider. Editorial board members. Prestigious journals usually have eminent researchers as members of their Editorial Board. Visit the journal website to check the names on the Editorial Board. Are the Board members well-known in your field of study? Journal sponsorship. Is the journal owned or sponsored by a prestigious society in your field? What is the journal's impact factor? Don’t just look at the actual impact factor, since impact factor values vary by field. Consider the impact factor relative to those of similar journals within your field. Criteria 5 What is the journal’s turnaround time? How many issues does the journal publish in a year? A monthly journal is much more likely to review your article quickly compared with a journal that only publishes once a year. Some journals list the date submitted and date accepted. Comparing these dates will give an approximate idea of the turnaround time.
  8. 8. 2. Checklist for journal selection While you choose a journal for publication, you should ensure the following: 1. Does the subject of your article match the journal's subject focus? 2. Does the journal accept the article type you intend to submit? 3. Is the journal read by your target audience? 4. Does the journal have an online edition? 5. Is the journal's impact factor in line with your requirements? 6. Is the journal regarded as a prestigious one in its field by colleagues and peers? 7. What is the turnaround time for articles submitted to the journal? 8. How many times a year is the journal published? 9. What are the publication charges? 10. Is the length and structure of you manuscript acceptable to the journal?
  9. 9. Following the journal’s instructions • Read the instructions to authors before starting to prepare your paper, regard them while preparing your paper and check the them again before submitting your paper. • Look at some recent issues of the journal. Doing so can help you gear your paper to the journal. 1. What categories of article does the journal publish? 2. What is the maximum length of articles? 3. What is the maximum length of abstracts? 4. Does the journal have a template for articles? 5. If so, how can it be accessed? 6. What sections should the article include? 7. What are the guidelines for each? Some Questions the Instructions May Answer 8. What guidelines should be followed regarding writing style? 9. How many figures and tables are allowed? 10.What are the requirements for them? 11.In what format should references appear? 12.Is the a maximum number of references? 13.In what electronic format should the paper be prepared
  10. 10. 3. Submitting the Paper Find out the journals that could be best suited for publishing your research. Match your manuscript using the JournalFinder tool, then learn more about each journal. Prepare your paper for submission according to the understanding polices of selected journal. It covers topics such as authors' rights, ethics and plagiarism, and journal and article metrics. Methods of submission of paper 1. Traditional submission (by mail) 2. Electronic submission 3. Inclusion of a cover letter (conventional or electronic) 4. Completion of required forms Initial Screening by the Journal A. For appropriateness of subject matter B. For compliance with instructions C. For overall quality (sometimes) Peer Review Evaluation by experts in the field Purposes: • To help the editor decide whether to publish the paper. • To help the authors improve the paper, whether or not the journal accepts it Journal Polices
  11. 11. 4. Understanding the decision process Based on the peer reviewers’ advice, the editor’s own evaluation, the amount of space in the journal, other factors Options: • Acceptance without revision (a rare event) • Acceptance with minor revisions • Revise (major changes – usually with additional experiments required; Editor usually sends the revised manuscript back to one or more of original reviewers) • Reject (with encouragement to re-submit after extensive revisions and addition of new experimental data to address the flaws/issues in the original manuscript) • Reject (submit to another journal)
  12. 12. 5. Revising a Paper • The goal is to improve the paper and get it accepted for publication. So, Revise and resubmit promptly. • Include a letter saying what revisions were made. If you received a list of requested revisions, address each in the letter. • If you disagree with a requested revision, explain why in your letter. Try to find a different way to solve the problem the editor or reviewer identified. The reviewers may have made some changes in RED. Please, use the attached file to revise your paper. 1. Insert your paper in the journal template and format the paper as mentioned in the review details form. 2. Highlight your changes in BLUE so that we can easily find out what revisions you have made. 3. After highlighting the changes in the main paper in BLUE, you should complete the REVIEW CHECKLIST and send it to the journal with the final revised paper inserted in the template. In the REVIEW CHECKLIST, in every section including the abstract, introduction and …you should explain in short, how you have answered the reviewers’ comments (if any comment has been given). 4. Refer to the review result form for further possible comments. 5. Send the revised version (with changes highlighted in BLUE) and the cover letter not later than 5 days. 6. The final version should only be sent in word file.
  13. 13. 6. Answering Queries • Queries: questions from the manuscript editor 1. Some topics of queries: 2. Inconsistencies 3. Missing information 4. Ambiguities 5. Other 6. Advice: Respond promptly, politely, and completely yet concisely. 7. Reviewing proofs • After acceptance, authors are sent proofs of their manuscript but only changes to the title, author list, spelling, grammar, formatting, or scientific errors will be permitted. 8. Final Step First, Celebrate Publication of Your Paper! Then: Some journals publish the paper online as a PDF file of the final manuscript that was accepted for publication (days to weeks). • All corrections must be approved by the publishing team. • When all editorial issues are resolved, your paper will be formally accepted for publication.
  14. 14. FOR YOUR PUBLICATION: JOURNAL SELECTION TACTICS or Selection of Suitable Journal
  15. 15. 1. Make a List of the Journals Available • It is essential to obtain reasonably comprehensive knowledge about available journals in the given subject area. Consulting your peers, searching through online listings, and checking with professional associations can help us get a list of the journals. 2. Determine the Impact of the Journal • Quantitative measures such as the Impact Factor, Journal Rank, Article Influence, and h-Index are used to determine the impact of the journal. These are generally linked to the citation rate for articles published in the journal; however, these values and the absolute numbers of citations can both be scrutinized. 3. Make Sure the Journal Scope and Policies match your Needs • The subject areas covered and the types of articles published should be ascertained. This will contribute towards addressing the suitable target audience. Further, you should go through the editorial policies and practices of the journal. This would help to anticipate any situations that may emerge during the submission and peer review process.
  16. 16. 4. Check the Journal Requirements and Distribution • Most journals have a certain style for the article. The article must be consistent with the requirements of the journal. The mode of distribution (print/online) and number of subscribers determine the reach of the journal. For open access, where the content is available to all, having an estimate of the typical number of readers helps. This would mean that your article would reach that many number of people. 5. Collect Information about the Journal’s Peer Review Process • Information about the peer review process for the specific journal, including stature of reviewers, objectivity, and timelines, should also be gleaned from a variety of sources. Actual values or estimates of rejection rates should be obtained. 6. Check the “Instructions for Authors” thoroughly • The “Instruction for Authors” has certain additional information for the authors that one must keep in mind before submitting the manuscript. For example, topics that are welcome, discouraged, page limit etc. may be mentioned here, that are important for the authors. Therefore, this list must be thoroughly checked
  17. 17. 7. Other considerations Of course, given the sheer number of scientific publishers and journals out there, there are many more factors that may influence your decision. Below we discuss a few additional journal features that you may want to keep in mind when deciding where to submit: A. Indexing: Indexing services are essentially literature databases: PubMed and Scopus are the main indexing services used by researchers in the biomedical sciences. If you’re considering submitting to an unfamiliar journal, you may want to quickly check the information available on their website to ensure that they are indexed prior to submission. B. APCs: The article processing charge, or APC, is the fee that you will be charged to publish in a journal. APCs can vary dramatically, and often reflect differences in the editorial or peer review model of the journal. Every journal should state the amount they charge for an APC clearly on their website. Importantly, this charge will be assessed after your article has been accepted for publication; a journal that attempts to charge you upon submission is likely a predatory journal, and should be avoided. C. Peer review model: While the vast majority of journals follow a pre-publication peer review model, as publishing continues to evolve some journals are now experimenting with post-publication, in which a paper is published without peer review and reviewers are then invited to publically comment on or review the paper. While this option provides a much quicker route to publication than the standard pre-publication peer review model, it is new enough that some institutions or funding organizations may be unsure what to think of papers published within these journals, so consider carefully whether this is the right choice for you. D. Transfer cascades: One aspect of scientific publishing that many researchers are unfamiliar with is the existence of ‘families’ or portfolios of journals within a single publishing house. Many portfolios with prestigious journals that receive a high volume of submissions also contain less competitive journals that publish papers on the same or similar topics.
  18. 18. What is a predatory journal? • A predatory journal is a publication that actively asks researchers for manuscripts. They have no peer review system and no true editorial board and are often found to publish mediocre or even worthless papers. They also ask for huge publication charges. How are predatory journals different than Open Access journals? • Open Access journals may solicit authors to publish for a fee, but maintain high standards for peer review and editing. The goal of Open Access publishing is to disseminate research to a larger audience by removing paywalls. Open Access journals can have Impact Factors and can create a citation advantage for authors. How can you spot a predatory journal? 1. Do you or your colleagues know the journal? Do you recognize the editorial board? 2. Can you easily contact the publisher? 3. Is the journal clear about their peer review process? 4. Is it clear what fees will be charged? If the answer is no for any of these questions, the journal is most likely questionable, if not predatory.
  19. 19. How common are predatory journals? • As of 2015, there were an estimated 996 predatory publishers (including 447 publishers of standalone journals) that published over 11,800 journals. • Of those, roughly 8,000 journal titles were active and published a total of approximately 420,000 articles.
  20. 20. Abstracting and Indexing
  21. 21. • An abstracting service is a service that provides abstracts of publications, often on a subject or group of related subjects, usually on a subscription basis. • An indexing service is a service that assigns descriptors and other kinds of access points to documents. The word indexing service is today mostly used for computer programs, but may also cover services providing back-of-the-book indexes, journal indexes, and related kinds of indexes. • An indexing and abstracting service is a service that provides shortening or summarizing of documents and assigning of descriptors for referencing documents. Full list of databases and services •Academic OneFile •Academic Search Alumni Edition •Academic Search Complete •Academic Search Research and Development •Advanced Technologies Database with Aerospace •Aerospace Database •Aluminium Industry Abstracts •ANTE: Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering •Cabell’s Directories •Civil Engineering Abstracts •CNKI Scholar •Computer and Information Systems Abstracts •Corrosion Abstracts •Current Abstracts •Current Index to Statistics (CIS) •Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) •EBSCO Discovery Service •EBSCO Engineering Source •EBSCO MainFile •EBSCO MegaFILE •EBSCOhost Connection •EBSCOhost Research Databases •Electronics and Communications Abstracts •Engineered Materials Abstracts •Engineering Research Database •Euclid Prime •Google Scholar •HighBeam Research •InfoTrac Custom journals •J-Gate Portal •Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet) •Mechanical and Transportation Engineering Abstracts •Open Access Journals Integrated Service System Project (GoOA) •Primo Central Index •ProQuest Advanced Technologies and Aerospace Collection •ProQuest Computer Science Journals •ProQuest Engineering Collection •ProQuest SciTech Premium Collection •ProQuest Technology Collection •Referativnyi Zhurnal (VINITI) •RePEc •Scopus •Statistical Theory and Method Abstracts (STMA-Z) •Technology Research Database •The Electronic Library of Mathematics (EMIS ELibM) •The Summon Service •TOC Premier •WorldCat Discovery Services •Zentralblatt MATH Database (zbMATH) https://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/ai/
  22. 22. Indexation of a journal • Indexation of a journal is considered a reflection of its quality. Indexed journals are considered to be of higher scientific quality as compared to non-indexed journals. • Indexation of medical journals has become a debatable issue. For a long-time Index Medicus has been the most comprehensive index of medical scientific journal articles from since 1879. • Over the years, many other popular indexation services have developed. These include MedLine, PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, EBSCO Publishing's Electronic Databases, SCIRUS among others. General and discipline-specific scholarly indexing databases 1. Ulrichsweb: A general database for periodicals across disciplines. 2. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ): A community-curated online directory of peer- reviewed open access journals (we compiled a complete guide to DOAJ indexing here). 3. Scopus: The largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. 4. Web of Science: One of the largest global citation databases (we compiled a complete guide to WoS indexing here). 5. Academic Search (EBSCO): A full-text coverage database of scholarly journal, magazine, and newspaper articles.
  23. 23. Scopus is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. Delivering a comprehensive overview of the world's research output in the fields of science, technology, medicine, social sciences, and arts and humanities, Scopus features smart tools to track, analyse and visualise research. Scopus is Elsevier’s abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences. It covers three types of sources: book series, journals, and trade journals. All journals covered in the Scopus database are reviewed for sufficiently high quality each year according to four types of numerical quality measure for each title; those are h-Index, CiteScore, SJR (SCImago Journal Rank) and SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper). Searches in Scopus also incorporate searches of patent databases.
  24. 24. Features of the database • Covers scientific literature citations and web resources • Content updated daily • 46 million records • 22,794 active titles • 13,583 inactive titles • 11,678 publishers (Approximately) • 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals • Includes conference papers and proceedings, scientific web pages, and patents Other Features • Citations - Total number of citations received by journal in each year • Docs - Total number of documents published in the journal in each year • Percent Not Cited - Percentage of articles not cited in each year • Percent Reviews - Percentage of articles that are review Coverage of source types 1 Serial source types • Journals • Trade journals • Book series • Conference material 2 Non-serial sources A non-serial source is a publication with an ISBN unless it is a report, part of a book series, proceeding (non-serial) or patent. It can have differentphysical formats (e.g., print, electronic) and is usually a monograph or composed work.
  25. 25. Subjects covered under Scopus Conclusion This guide is updated annually and is designed to provide a complete overview of the content coverage in Scopus and corresponding policies. As Scopus is updated daily, the numbers presented in this guide may differ from current numbers. To find up-to-date content numbers, please refer to the content page of our info site: https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus/content. The numbers presented on the info site are updated regularly throughout the year.
  26. 26. Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is a website that provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic disciplines. It was originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and is currently maintained by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters. HISTORY OF Web of Science 1. "As We May Think" is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society. It was first published in The Atlantic in July 1945. 2. Eugene Eli Garfield inspired by Vannevar Bush’s highly cited 1945 article “AS WE MAY THINK”, then he founded Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) in 1955. 3. Eugene Garfield the “father of citation indexing”, who launched the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1964. 4. At first citation indexing publishes in print and compact disc forms, now available in web. 5. ISI formed a major part of the science division of Thomson Reuters. In October 2016 Thomson Reuters completed the sale of its intellectual property and science division; it is now known as Clarivate Analytics. 6. Web of Science previously known as “Web of Knowledge”
  27. 27. AIMS AND SCOPE • WEB OF SCIENCE AND ACADEMIC RESEARCHER is an international journal intended to fill the present need for the dissemination of new information, ideas and methods, to both practitioners and academicians in the Law area, Political Science, Philosophy, Psychology and Linguistics. WOS-Journal is concerned with all aspects of Law system in terms of their relationships to each other. • Although materials are presented relating to sections with several subject, the emphasis of the WOS-Journal is to tie together the functioning of these elements and to illustrate the effects of their interactions. Articles that reflects the application of new disciplines or analytical methodologies to the issues of chosen scientific sections are of special interest. • Since the purpose of WOS-Journal is to provide a forum for the dissemination of new ideas, new information, and the application of new methods to the problems and functions of the Law system, Political Science, Philosophy, Psychology and Linguistics, the WOS-Journal emphasizes innovation and creative thought of the highest quality, presenting by itself best Ukrainian Scientific Platform.
  28. 28. Relation between WOS and Citation Indexing • A citation is the text reference and acknowledgement of documented information. • Count is the frequency of an article cited by other articles. • A citation index is a kind of bibliographic database, an index of citation between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later document site which earlier document. • Citation indexing consists of the charting of the text details of each such reference. • Citation indexing publishes the citation indexes in print and compact disc forms, which are generally accessed through the web under the name ‘Web of Science’ (WOS).
  29. 29. CORE COLLECTION OF WEB OF SCIENCE Web of Science is a curated collection of over 20,000 peers - reviewed; high-quality scholarly journals published worldwide (including Open Access journals) in over 250 science, social sciences, and humanities disciplines. Conference proceedings and book data are also available. • Content: Life sciences, biomedical sciences, engineering, social sciences, arts & humanities • Number of journals: 20,300 journals + books and conference proceedings • Coverage: Over 71 million records, More than 94,000 books, Over 10 million conference papers DATABASES COVERED: Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts & Humanities Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Book Citation Index, Emerging Sources Citation Index. Time period covered: • Sciences: 1900-present, • Social Sciences: 1900-present, • Arts & Humanities: 1975-present, • Proceedings: 1990-present, • Books: 2005-present, • Emerging Source Citation Index: 2005-present Cited references: > 1 billion (1900 to present) 64 million items with cited references • Author indexing: All authors from all publications are indexed. • Institution indexing: Institution’s variants and parent/child relationships are mapped and connected to a preferred institutional name through a manually-curated process. Regional databases 1. Chinese Science Citation Database 2. SciELO Citation Index 3. Korea Citation Index 4. Russian Science Citation Index
  30. 30. Search technique of Web of Science • OPERATOR: AND, OR, NOT, NEAR, and SAME • Boolean Operators: Boolean Operators are words used to combine or exclude keywords in a search. They help to produce more focused search result. AND: Use AND to find records containing all terms separated by the operator. EXAMPLE: Blood pressure AND Stroke OR: Use OR to find records containing any of the terms separated by the operator. EXAMPLE: Myocardial OR Heart attack NOT: Use NOT to exclude records containing certain words from your search. EXAMPLE: Cardiovascular disease NOT Heart attack Note: When searching for organization names that contain a Boolean (AND, NOT, NEAR, and SAME), always enclose the word in quotation marks ( “ ”) EXAMPLE • (Japan Science "and" Technology Agency (JST)) • ("Near" East Univ) • ("OR" Hlth Sci Univ) ANOTHER TECHNIQUE • "Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)" • "Near East Univ" • "OR Hlth Sci Univ
  31. 31. Impact factor An Impact Factor is a quantitative measure of the relative importance of a journal, individual article or scientist to science and social science literature and research. • The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citations of articles published in the last two years in a given journal, as indexed by Clarivate's Web of Science. • As journals with higher impact factor values are given status of being more important, or carry more prestige in their respective fields, than those with lower values. • While frequently used by universities and funding bodies to decide on promotion and research proposals, it has recently come under attack for distorting good scientific practices Calculation In any given year, the two-year journal impact factor is the ratio between the number of citations received in that year for publications in that journal that were published in the two preceding years and the total number of "citable items" published in that journal during the two preceding years This means that, on average, its papers published in 2015 and 2016 received roughly 42 citations each in 2017. Note that 2017 impact factors are reported in 2018; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2017 publications have been processed by the indexing agency.
  32. 32. JOURNAL IMPACT FACTOR - (THOMSON REUTERS) • Developed in the 60’s • Eugene Garfield and Irving Sher • To help select journals for the SCI Journal Citation Reports first produced in 1975. Implications of Impact Factor 1. Tell us how frequently has the average article in a journal been cited in a particular year. 2. Tell us something about a journal as a whole e.g. the extent to which its recently published papers were cited in a given year. 3. Impact factor > 1 implied a journal is frequently cited 4. Higher citations rate means your article has higher chances of getting cited or read by researchers. 5. Tells us NOTHING concrete about any specific paper or specific author. SUMMARY 1. The impact factor is a very useful tool for evaluation of journals, but it must be used discreetly. 2. Considerations include the amount of review or other types of material published in a journal, variations between disciplines, and item-by-item impact. 3. The journal's status in regard to coverage in the JCR databases as well as the occurrence of a title change are also very important.
  33. 33. The H-index or Hirsch index • The H-index was proposed by J.E. Hirsch in 2005 and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. The h-index correlates with obvious success indicators such as winning the Nobel Prize. Hirsch JE. An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 November 15; 102(46): 16569–16572. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0507655102 The H index takes into account two things: 1. The researcher’s PRODUCTIVITY (number of publications a researcher has produced) 2. The IMPACT of that researcher’s publications (how many citations the researcher’s publications have received) • The h index is a quantitative metric based on analysis of publication data using publications and citations to provide “an estimate of the importance, significance, and broad impact of a scientist’s cumulative research contributions.” • According to Hirsch, the h index is defined as: “A scientist has index H if h of his or her Np papers have at least H citations each and the other (Np – H) papers have ≤h citations each.”
  34. 34. How Calculated Number of papers (h) that have received at least h citations. • For example, a scholar with an h-index of 5 had published 5 papers, each of which has been cited by others at least 5 times. The links below will take you to other areas within this guide which explain how to find an author's h-index using specific platforms. • For example, an author with only one publication can have a maximum h-index of 1 (if their publication has 1 or more citations). • On the other hand, an author with many publications, each with only 1 citation, would have a h-index of 1. The following resources will calculate an h-index: 1. Scopus 2. Web of Science 3. Google Scholar 4. Pure (MD Anderson Faculty and Fellows listed)
  35. 35. Advantages of the h-index • Simple: easy to generate and easy to understand • Valid: correlates well with career achievements and soft judgments about reputation • Credible: difficult to game • Flexible: any set of papers can have an h-index Scopus Search Steps: 1. Do Author search 2. Click on author’s name in the search results 3. H index is provided underneath the Research heading (a number of other indicators of research output are also provided here) Web of Science Steps: 1. Search for researcher name and select Author from drop down menu 2. Click create citation report Google Scholar Two ways to get a researcher’s h index in Google Scholar: 1. Google Scholar Profile (you need to create one) 2. If no scholar profile, download Publish or Perish and use it to calculate your h-index using Google Scholar data . Search Steps in different database
  36. 36. What is Research? • Research is “Creative and Systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of Humans, Culture and Society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new Applications”. • It involves the Collection, Organization, and Analysis of information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.
  37. 37. Steps Involve in research Problem 1. Pose a question. 2. Collect data to answer the question. 3. Present an answer to the question. This should be a familiar process. You engage in solving problems every day and you start with a question, collect some information, and then form an answer.
  38. 38. 1. Research adds to our knowledge: Adding to knowledge means that educators undertake research to contribute to existing information about issues 2. Research improves practice: Research is also important because it suggests improvements for practice. Armed with research results, teachers and other educators become more effective professionals. 3. Research informs policy debates: research also provides information to policy makers when they research and debate educational topics Why research is important ?
  39. 39. What is a Research Problem ? •A research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation.
  40. 40. Formulating a researchproblem • The general topic or problem has been identified, this should then be stated as a clear research problem, that is, taken from just a statement about a problematic situation to a clearly defined researchable problem that identifies the issues you are trying to address. • The certain aim of this chapter is to detail the process of problem formulation. The specific process that you are likely to adopt depends upon: 1. Your expertise in research methodology 2. Your knowledge of the subject area 3. Your understanding of the issues to be examined 4. The extent to which the focus of your study is predetermined
  41. 41. The importance of formulating a research problem • The formulation of a research problem is the first and most important step of the research process. • Kerlinger (1986) ‘If one wants to solve a problem, one must generally know what the problem is. It can be said that a large part of the problem lies in knowing what one is trying to do’. Sources of research problems Most research in the humanities revolves around four Ps: 1. People 2. Problems 3. Programs 4. Phenomena. The ways you formulate a problem determine almost every step follow: 1. The type of study design that can be used 2. The type of sampling strategy that can be employed 3. The research instrument that can be used or developed 4. The type of analysis that can be undertaken The importance of formulating a research problem.
  42. 42. Considerations in selecting a research problem When selecting a research problem/topic there are a number of considerations to keep in mind. There are seven main points such as: 1. Interest: should be the most important consideration in selecting a research problem. 2. Magnitude: should have sufficient knowledge about the research process to be able to visualize the work involved in completing the proposed study. 3. Measurement of concepts : if you are using a concept in your study, make sure you are clear about its indicators and their measurement. For example: if you plan to measure the effectiveness of a health promotion program, you must be clear as to what determines effectiveness and how it will be measured. Do not use concept in your research problem that you are not sure how to measure. 4. Level of expertise : Make sure you have an adequate level of expertise for the task you are proposing. 5. Relevance : select a topic that is of relevance to you as a professional. Ensure that you study adds to the existing body of knowledge, bridges current gaps or useful in policy formulation. 6. Availability of data : if you topic entails collection of information from secondary sources(office record, client , records, census or other already-polished reports, ect..) before finalizing your topic make sure that these data are available and in the format you want. 7. Ethical issues : other important consideration in formulating a research problem is the ethical issues involved.
  43. 43. • A step in the formulation of a research problem is the most crucial part of the research journey on which the quality of the entire project depends. Steps in formulating research problem: • Step1: Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you. Asked yourself, what is it that really interest me as a professional. • Step 2: Dessert the broad area into subareas. You will relies that all the broad areas mentioned. • Step 3: Select what is of most interest to you. It is neither advisable nor feasible to study all subareas. Select issues or subareas about which you are passionate. • Step 4: Raise research questions What is it that I want to find out about in the subareas? Asked the question what you want to find yourself in a situation. Steps in the formulation of a research problem Steps in the formulationof a research problem
  44. 44. Step 5: Formulate objectives Formulate your main objectives and your sub objectives The main difference between objectives and research questions is in to behavioral aims by using action –oriented words such as to find out, to determine’ , ‘to ascertain and ‘to examine’. Step 6: Assess your objectives - Now examine your objectives to ascertain the feasibility o achieving them through your research endeavor. Consider them in the light of the time, resources (financial and human) and technical expertise at your disposal. Step 7: Double-check. - Go back and give final consideration to whether or not you are sufficiently interested in the study, and have adequate resources to undertake it. Ask yourself , am I really enthusiastic about this study? Do I really have enough resources to undertake it? Answer these questions thoughtfully and realistically?
  45. 45. Importance of Formulating a ResearchProblem 1. Formulation means translating and transforming the selected research problem into a scientifically researchable question. 2. The formulation of a research problem is the first and most important step of the research process. 3. It is like the identification of a destination before undertaking a journey. The problem selected for research may initially be vague. 4. The question to be studied may not be clear. Why the answer/ solution is wanted also may not be known. 5. The formulation of a problem is like the ‘input’ to a study and the ‘output’(quality of the contents and validity of the associations or causation established) is entirely dependent upon it.
  46. 46. Discussion The discussion chapter is where you delve into the meaning, importance and relevance of your results. It should focus on explaining and evaluating what you found, showing how it relates to your literature review and research questions, and making an argument in support of your overall conclusion. There are many different ways to write this section, but you can focus your discussion around four key elements:  Interpretations: what do the results mean?  Implications: why do the results matter?  Limitations: what can’t the results tell us?  Recommendations: what practical actions or scientific studies should follow? There is often overlap between the discussion and conclusion, and in some dissertations these two sections are included in a single chapter. Occasionally, the results and discussion will be combined into one chapter. If you’re unsure of the best structure for your research, look at sample dissertations in your field or consult your supervisor.
  47. 47. The common mistakes people make when writing their discussion 1. Simply repeating their results section, with little reference to existing literature. 2. Making conclusions that cannot be made from their data — you need to be able to differentiate between strong and weak results (do not exaggerate your findings). 3. Focusing too much on the limitations of the study, which can make readers question the relevance of the work. In contrast, some can completely forget to acknowledge the limitations of their study. 4. Repeating what was already said in the introduction without linking it to the results. 5. Providing no conclusions. 6. Introducing topics that were not covered by the study’s results/findings. 7. To avoid these mistakes, bear in mind that in your discussion section you are expected to interpret and explain your results, link them to other studies, answer your research question(s) and evaluate your study. You can consider following this sequence: (1) refer to your research question; (2) provide the answer; (3) justify it with relevant results; (4) link your work to the work of others.
  48. 48. Reference and Reference Writing Pattern Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. 1. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. 2. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. 3. A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation. 4. Its referent may be anything – a material object, a person, an event, an activity, or an abstract concept.
  49. 49. References in Dissertation/Thesis and Research Article The Bibliography or List of References appears after the Body of the Document. It is a complete listing of all cited resources used to create your document. Even though Journal Model authors may have individual Reference sections for each article, this complete Reference list of all citations must appear at the end of the entire manuscript. The basics of a Reference List entry for an unpublished thesis: 1. Author. The surname is followed by first initials. 2. Year. 3. Title (in single inverted commas). 4. Level of Thesis. 5. University. 6. City. Example of unpublished thesis: ​Kyei-Nimakoh, M 2017, ‘Management and referral of obstetric complications: a study in the upper east region of Ghana’, PhD thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne.
  50. 50. Submission and Handling of Reviewer Comments When a manuscript is submitted to a peer reviewed journal, if it is not rejected then it is almost inevitable that the authors will be asked to revise their manuscript before re- submission. Purpose of peer review 1. To improve quality of the published paper Ensure previous work is acknowledged 2. Frequently detects fraud and plagiarism 3. Determine the importance of findings 4. Assess the originality and significance of the work Identify mistakes in the methodology, lack of originality, conclusions not supported by results 5. Highlight omissions in the reference list and any ethics concerns. A simplified flowchart of peer review is illustrated in the figure.
  51. 51. Why do reviewers review? 1. Sense of “duty” to the field “Sharing economy” of reviewers as authors (and vice versa) 2. Enjoy reviewing 3. Awareness of new research and developments at an early stage 4. Career development 5. Help with own research or new ideas 6. Association with journal, editor or scholarly society How to address reviewers' comments The best advice here is to follow the process outlined by Williams (2004) who said: 1. Answer Politely 2. Answer Completely 3. Answer With evidence Answering politely means never being insulting to the reviewers, the editor or the journal publishers; it is pointless and unlikely to advance your case for publication. As editors we do our best to discourage inappropriate comments by reviewers and to edit out any that they may make. If any of these to filter through to you then do not 'rise to the bait' and reply in kind; stick to the point that is being raised. Answering completely means two things: responding to all the points that are raised; and responding to each of the points as thoroughly as you can. Your 'default' setting ought to be a willingness to make any necessary changes but if there are contradictory points between reviewers and/or a reviewer has actually misunderstood you or is patently wrong, then these points still need to be addressed. The worst mistake you can make is to ignore a point. And, if you are pointing out an error or a misunderstanding, then refer to the point above about being polite.
  52. 52. Answering completely means two things: responding to all the points that are raised; and responding to each of the points as thoroughly as you can. Your 'default' setting ought to be a willingness to make any necessary changes but if there are contradictory points between reviewers and/or a reviewer has actually misunderstood you or is patently wrong, then these points still need to be addressed. The worst mistake you can make is to ignore a point. And, if you are pointing out an error or a misunderstanding, then refer to the point above about being polite.