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THE INTERNET AND TOURISM

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THE INTERNET AND TOURISM

  1. 1. THE INTERNET AND TOURISMTHE INTERNET AND TOURISM -------------------------------------------------------------- DR.NINGAPPA.N.ARABAGONDADR.NINGAPPA.N.ARABAGONDA LIBRARIAN,LIBRARIAN, GOVT FIRST GRADE COLLEGEGOVT FIRST GRADE COLLEGE GUDAGERI-581107GUDAGERI-581107
  2. 2. INFORMATIONINFORMATION & COMMUNICATION& COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY- Current TrendsTECHNOLOGY- Current Trends Optical laser technology./Optical laser technology./ Broad BandBroad Band ServicesServices  Satellite communication./Satellite communication./ TeleconferencingTeleconferencing  Growth of web sphere. /Growth of web sphere. / Paperless societyPaperless society  Advent of digital libraries./Advent of digital libraries./ Online accessOnline access
  3. 3. INFORMATION NEEDSINFORMATION NEEDS Geographical information on location, climate, landscape,Geographical information on location, climate, landscape, etc.etc. Attraction featuresAttraction features Social customs, culture and other special features of theSocial customs, culture and other special features of the placeplace Accessibility though air, water, rail and road and availabilityAccessibility though air, water, rail and road and availability of scheduled means of transportof scheduled means of transport Accommodation, restaurant and shopping facilitiesAccommodation, restaurant and shopping facilities Activities and entertainment facilitiesActivities and entertainment facilities Seasons of visit and other unique featuresSeasons of visit and other unique features Quality of facilities and their standard prices includingQuality of facilities and their standard prices including exchange ratesexchange rates Entry and exit formalities and restrictions if any on tourists,Entry and exit formalities and restrictions if any on tourists, etc.etc.
  4. 4. INFORMATION EXPLOSION- PROBLEMSINFORMATION EXPLOSION- PROBLEMS Tedious to get Precise – Relevant – TimelyTedious to get Precise – Relevant – Timely Information on account ofInformation on account of  Overabundance of informationOverabundance of information  Scatter of informationScatter of information  Seepage of informationSeepage of information  Pollution of informationPollution of information
  5. 5. SCATTER OF INFORMATIONSCATTER OF INFORMATION HardboundHardbound Paper-backPaper-back Micro-filmMicro-film Micro-ficheMicro-fiche FloppiesFloppies Pen DrivesPen Drives CD-ROMCD-ROM Tapes & CartridgesTapes & Cartridges Web pagesWeb pages
  6. 6. DR. JOHNSONDR. JOHNSON.. ““Knowledge is of two kinds; one, inKnowledge is of two kinds; one, in knowing the subject yourself and theknowing the subject yourself and the other, is in knowing where you can findother, is in knowing where you can find information upon it.”information upon it.”
  7. 7. SOURCES OF INFORMATION-SOURCES OF INFORMATION- CATEGORISATIONCATEGORISATION A.A. Traditional Sources/ Conventional SphereTraditional Sources/ Conventional Sphere 1 Primary Sources (Research materials)1 Primary Sources (Research materials) 2. Secondary Sources ( Reference materials)2. Secondary Sources ( Reference materials) B.B. Web Resources/ Web SphereWeb Resources/ Web Sphere 1. Subscription Based1. Subscription Based 2. Open Sources2. Open Sources ------------------------------------------------ 1. Index Level1. Index Level 2. Abstract Level2. Abstract Level 3. Full-Text Level3. Full-Text Level
  8. 8. Primary sources (Research Materials)Primary sources (Research Materials) 1)1) Periodicals/ JournalsPeriodicals/ Journals 2)2) Technical ReportsTechnical Reports 3)3) StandardsStandards 4)4) PatentsPatents 5)5) Conference and Seminar ProceedingsConference and Seminar Proceedings 6)6) Theses and dissertationsTheses and dissertations 7)7) Reports of Committees and CommissionsReports of Committees and Commissions 8)8) Govt. PublicationsGovt. Publications
  9. 9. Secondary sourcesSecondary sources (Reference Materials)(Reference Materials) 11 DictionariesDictionaries 2.2. EncyclopediasEncyclopedias 3.3. DirectoriesDirectories 4.4. Yearbooks & AlmanacsYearbooks & Almanacs 5.5. HandbooksHandbooks 6.6. ManualsManuals 7.7. Atlases & MapsAtlases & Maps 8.8. GazetteersGazetteers 9.9. BibliographiesBibliographies 10.10. Indexes & AbstractsIndexes & Abstracts 11.11. Review documentsReview documents 12.12. Digests of newspapersDigests of newspapers 13.13. Book of awards and honoursBook of awards and honours
  10. 10. WEB SPHEREWEB SPHERE 1.VAST INFORMATION1.VAST INFORMATION Textual-Audio-Video-GraphicsTextual-Audio-Video-Graphics 2.PROVIDES ACCESS TO INFORMATION2.PROVIDES ACCESS TO INFORMATION AnytimeAnytime AnywhereAnywhere 3.TRADITIONAL LIBRARY vs DIGITAL LIBRARY3.TRADITIONAL LIBRARY vs DIGITAL LIBRARY MisplacementMisplacement DisruptionDisruption Economy of time, effort, money and spaceEconomy of time, effort, money and space
  11. 11. WEB RESOURCES & SERVICESWEB RESOURCES & SERVICES  Send and receive e-mails, Chat, Discussion ForumsSend and receive e-mails, Chat, Discussion Forums  Movies, Games, Music, EntertainmentMovies, Games, Music, Entertainment  Tutorials, Examinations, Viva voce, AppointmentsTutorials, Examinations, Viva voce, Appointments  Geographical and Biographical informationGeographical and Biographical information  Scientific inventions, data/ statisticsScientific inventions, data/ statistics  Books, Journals, Reports, Encyclopedias, ReviewsBooks, Journals, Reports, Encyclopedias, Reviews  Current events, Newspapers and MagazinesCurrent events, Newspapers and Magazines  Industries, Institutions, AssociationsIndustries, Institutions, Associations  Products and services, Software packages, MarketingProducts and services, Software packages, Marketing  Banking, Tourism,Travelling and Ticket bookingBanking, Tourism,Travelling and Ticket booking
  12. 12. Google Earth: ViewGoogle Earth: View
  13. 13. TYPE OF ACCESSTYPE OF ACCESS  OPEN ACCESSOPEN ACCESS 1.1. No restrictionNo restriction 2.2. No feeNo fee 3.3. No restricted destinationNo restricted destination  SUBSCRIPTION ACCESSSUBSCRIPTION ACCESS 1.1. Fee basedFee based  CONSORTIA LEVEL ACCESSCONSORTIA LEVEL ACCESS 1.1. Group of institutionsGroup of institutions 2.2. Like minded groupsLike minded groups 3.3. Institution sister concernInstitution sister concern  INSTITUTION REPOSITORIESINSTITUTION REPOSITORIES 1.1. Individual institution in house publicationIndividual institution in house publication 2.2. In house media’s like news, news reviews, films, film strips ,cd’s, dvd’sIn house media’s like news, news reviews, films, film strips ,cd’s, dvd’s
  14. 14. APPLICATION OF INFORMATIONAPPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESTECHNOLOGIES IN TOURISMIN TOURISM  RESERVATION SYSTEMSRESERVATION SYSTEMS  HOTEL MANAGEMENTHOTEL MANAGEMENT  BANKINGBANKING  HOSPITAL MANAGEMENTSHOSPITAL MANAGEMENTS  CATERING MANAGEMENTSCATERING MANAGEMENTS  TRANSPORTATIONTRANSPORTATION
  15. 15. INDIAN SCENARIOINDIAN SCENARIO Department of Tourism took the first initiative to introduceDepartment of Tourism took the first initiative to introduce information technology in tourism in the year 1989 byinformation technology in tourism in the year 1989 by establishing TOURNET with the technical assistance of CMCestablishing TOURNET with the technical assistance of CMC Ltd.Ltd. Recently, multimedia databases on tourism have beenRecently, multimedia databases on tourism have been developed by Rajasthan and Maharashtra Tourism Departmentsdeveloped by Rajasthan and Maharashtra Tourism Departments with the assistance of some of the private software developmentwith the assistance of some of the private software development firms.firms. In the online field, the CRS Amadeus and PARS are alreadyIn the online field, the CRS Amadeus and PARS are already operational in India. Amadeus was established in 1993 andoperational in India. Amadeus was established in 1993 and PARS came in 1995.PARS came in 1995. INTERNET facilities are also presently available in india.INTERNET facilities are also presently available in india.
  16. 16. INTERNETINTERNET HISTORY •IN 1969 LOS ANGELES ,CALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY KLIEN D ROCK INNOVATED TWO COMPUTERS SHARING INFORMATION. •IN 1970 EMAIL TCP/IP PROTOCOL CAME INTO EXISTENCE DOTCOM AND DOT ORG AND WEB ADDRESS IN 1980 •IN 1990 BRITAIN PHYSICS SCIENTIST TIM BERNERS LEE EXPANDED “WWW ON AMERICA ONLINE”.
  17. 17. INTERNET USAGEINTERNET USAGE •.. In 1996,3.1 million consumers used these systems and this jumped to 33.8 millionIn 1996,3.1 million consumers used these systems and this jumped to 33.8 million consumers in 1998.consumers in 1998. •It was predicted that by 2008, 30% of the whole tourism business will be Internet based. • Travel revenues on the Internet have consistently ranked highly in comparison with other goods and services . •Online technologies within the tourism industry have significantly impacted on communications, transactions and relationships between the various industry operators and with the customer . •The ability to turn ideas into marketable innovation for a wide range of customers, with reduced buyer search costs and costs of access to markets; •Increased speed to market and access to new product offerings via the Internet; •Changed processes and the sharing of information within and between organizations; and •A shift in the balance of power between suppliers and customers due to the increased availability of information. • The issues raised above point to the benefits emanating from IT, especially the Internet.
  18. 18. BENEFITS OF INTERNETBENEFITS OF INTERNET Internet provides many advantages to players in theInternet provides many advantages to players in the tourism industry. Some of these benefits are:tourism industry. Some of these benefits are: ••enhanced level of collaboration between tourism operators, forenhanced level of collaboration between tourism operators, for example, between travel agencies and service providers;example, between travel agencies and service providers; ••pre-arrangements with respective suppliers no longer necessary;pre-arrangements with respective suppliers no longer necessary; •• web service discovery will identify alternatives, enabling holidayweb service discovery will identify alternatives, enabling holiday packages to be constructed;packages to be constructed; ••greater negotiation of service to be purchased and customization ofgreater negotiation of service to be purchased and customization of services/activities; andservices/activities; and ••generally greater levels of interoperability with internal and externalgenerally greater levels of interoperability with internal and external applications.applications.
  19. 19. ISSUES RAISED BY INTERNETISSUES RAISED BY INTERNET •A Yahoo search reveals in excess of 250,000 tourist oriented websites.A Yahoo search reveals in excess of 250,000 tourist oriented websites. This exponential growth in the number of tourist related web sites means aThis exponential growth in the number of tourist related web sites means a ‘lack of notoriety in a saturated market’.‘lack of notoriety in a saturated market’. •The internet reduces distribution costs as intermediaries commissions are eliminated, however this is frustrated by the emergence of intermediaries, the squeeze on price, yield and revenue and the homogeneity of websites. •For these benefits and others to be achieved however, and so full exploitation of web services, ‘it is necessary to introduce semantics to web services’(Dogac et al. 2004). •The structure imposed by semantic webs is achieved through the imposition of an ontology to give meaning to information. The ontologies created by semantic web users allow machines to process and “understand” this information by specifying ‘standard
  20. 20. INTERNET FORUMSINTERNET FORUMS An Internet forum is ‘an online facility thatAn Internet forum is ‘an online facility that provides local businesses with an internetprovides local businesses with an internet portal using the locale, or an industry particularportal using the locale, or an industry particular to the locale, as the unique selling point, orto the locale, as the unique selling point, or common brand’ .This acts as an anchorcommon brand’ .This acts as an anchor providing more of a profile to entice visitors toproviding more of a profile to entice visitors to the web site that represents the location orthe web site that represents the location or destination.destination.
  21. 21. INTERNET AS A FACILITATOR OFINTERNET AS A FACILITATOR OF COLLABORATIONCOLLABORATION In their study Palmer & McCole (2000)In their study Palmer & McCole (2000) examine independent businesses withexamine independent businesses with unique resource locators (URLs) located inunique resource locators (URLs) located in one region. They then followed links out ofone region. They then followed links out of those sites to identify the extent to whichthose sites to identify the extent to which such sites were linked. Little evidence wassuch sites were linked. Little evidence was found to show the use of websites forfound to show the use of websites for cooperative tourism in the study area. Theycooperative tourism in the study area. They concluded there was a lack of cooperativeconcluded there was a lack of cooperative initiatives between tourist operators in theinitiatives between tourist operators in the region of interest. This study is of interestregion of interest. This study is of interest since lessons can be learned forsince lessons can be learned for consideration in other regions to promoteconsideration in other regions to promote tourist destinations.tourist destinations.
  22. 22. THANKSTHANKS

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