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lowerlimb anatomy slideshare.pptx

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lowerlimb anatomy slideshare.pptx

  1. 1. Tips on using my ppt. 1. You can freely download, edit, modify and put your name etc. 2. Don’t be concerned about number of slides. Half the slides are blanks except for the title. 3. First show the blank slides (eg. Aetiology ) > Ask students what they already know about ethology of today's topic. > Then show next slide which enumerates aetiologies. 4. At the end rerun the show – show blank> ask questions > show next slide. 5. This will be an ACTIVE LEARNING SESSION x three revisions. 6. Good for self study also. 7. See notes for bibliography.
  2. 2. Lower Limb
  3. 3. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lower Limb • Skeleton (homologous with upper limb) • Muscles--anterior, posterior compartments • Nerves--sciatic, femoral • Surface anatomy
  4. 4. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Upper-Lower Limb Comparison
  5. 5. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Upper-Lower Limb Comparison See Table M&M, Table 8.1
  6. 6. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb
  7. 7. Tibia/fibula
  8. 8. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Tibia/fibula • Tibia--big toe side • Fibula--little toe side (no pronation/supination)
  9. 9. Ankle
  10. 10. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Ank • Tarsus--forms ankle joint • Calcaneus--forms heel
  11. 11. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Foot
  12. 12. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Foot  Function:  Support weight  Act as lever when walking  Tarsals  Talus = ankle • Between tibia + fibula • Articulates w/both  Calcaneus = heel • Attachment for Calcaneal tendon • Carries talus  Metatarsals  Homologous to metacarpals  Phalanges  Smaller, less nimble
  13. 13. Joints of Lower Limb
  14. 14. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Joints of Lower Limb  Hip (femur + acetabulum)  Ball + socket  Multiaxial  Synovial  Knee (femur + patella)  Plane  Gliding of patella  Synovial  Knee (femur + tibia)  Hinge  Biaxial
  15. 15. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Joints of Lower Limb  Proximal Tibia + Fibula  Plane  Gliding  Synovial  Distal Tibia + Fibula  Slight “give”  Fibrous  Ankle (Tibia/Fibula + Talus)  Hinge  Uniaxial  Synovial pg 218
  16. 16. Lower Limb Moveme
  17. 17. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lower Limb Moveme • Hip – Flexion/extension – Abduction/adduction – Lateral/medial rotation • Knee – Flexion/extension • Ankle – Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion – Inversion/eversion • Toes – Flexion/extension • Bending on posterior side is flexion (except hip) • Bending on anterior sided is extension (except hip)
  18. 18. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior/Posterior compartments
  19. 19. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior/Posterior com ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT MOVEMENT Extension Flexion MUSCLES Quads Shin Hamstrings Gastrocs NERVES Femoral n. (lumbar plexus) Sciatic n. (sacral plexus)
  20. 20. Thigh movements by compartmen
  21. 21. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Thigh movements by compartmen
  22. 22. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Posterior Thi • Gluts (gluteal nn.) – Maximus—extensor of thigh – Medius--pelvic tilt • Lateral rotators (spinal nn.) – Piriformis syndrome • Hamstrings (sciatic n.) – Biceps femoris – Semimembranous – Semitendinous
  23. 23. Anterior thigh (femoral n
  24. 24. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior thigh (femoral n • Sartorius (Tailor’s muscle) • Quads (four) – Rectus femoris (crosses hip) – 3 vastus mm. (vast-- big)
  25. 25. Medial compartment (obturator n.
  26. 26. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Medial compartment (obturator n. • Adductor muscles – Gracilis – Adductor • Magnus • Longus • brevis
  27. 27. Leg movements by compartment leg all nn are branches of scia
  28. 28. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Leg movements by compartment leg all nn are branches of scia
  29. 29. Anterior Leg (deep fibular n
  30. 30. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Anterior Leg (deep fibular n • Fibularis (peroneus) longus • Extensor digitorum longus • Extensor hallicus longus • Tibialis anteriorus
  31. 31. Lateral Leg (superficial fibular n
  32. 32. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Lateral Leg (superficial fibular n • Fibularis brevis/longus
  33. 33. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Posterior Leg (tibia
  34. 34. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Posterior Leg (tibia • Gastrocs and soleus • Flexor digitorum longus • Flexor hallucus longus
  35. 35. Intrinsics of foot
  36. 36. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Intrinsics of foot
  37. 37. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb • Lumbar plexus (femoral nerve) • Sacral plexus (sciatic nerve) With leg out to side like quadruped, lumbar-anterior, sacral-posterior makes sense
  38. 38. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Dermatomes show twisting of le in developme
  39. 39. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Dermatomes show twisting of le in developme
  40. 40. Blood supply to lower limb
  41. 41. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Blood supply to lower limb  Internal Iliac  Cranial + Caudal Gluteals= gluteals  Internal Pudendal = perineum, external genitalia  Obturator = adductor muscles  External Iliac  Femoral = lower limb • Deep femoral = adductors, hamstrings, quadriceps  Popliteal (continuation of femoral) • Geniculars = knee • Anterior Tibial = ant. leg muscles, further branches to feet • Posterior Tibial = flexor muscles, plantar arch, branches to toes
  42. 42. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Posterior Pelvis pg 789
  43. 43. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Posterior Pelvis • Iliac crest • Gluteus maximus = cheeks • Natal/gluteal cleft = crack • Gluteal folds = bottom of cheek pg 789
  44. 44. Surface Anatomy: Anterior Thigh + Leg
  45. 45. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Anterior Thigh + Leg • Palpate – Patella – Condyles of femur • Femoral Triangle – Sartorius (lateral) – Adductor longus (medial) – Inguinal ligament (superior) – Femoral a + v, lymph nodes pg 785 pg 792
  46. 46. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Posterior Leg pg 793
  47. 47. Frolich, Human Anatomy, Lower LImb Surface Anatomy: Posterior Le • Popliteal fossa – Diamond-shape fossa behind knee • Boundaries – Biceps femoris (sup-lat) – Semitendinosis + semimembranosis (sup-med) – Gastrocnemius heads (inf) • Contents – Popliteal a + v • Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon pg 793
  48. 48. Get this ppt in mobile 1. Download Microsoft PowerPoint from play store. 2. Open Google assistant 3. Open Google lens. 4. Scan qr code from next slide.
  49. 49. Get this ppt in mobile
  50. 50. Get my ppt collection • https://www.slideshare.net/drpradeeppande/ edit_my_uploads • https://www.dropbox.com/sh/x600md3cvj8 5woy/AACVMHuQtvHvl_K8ehc3ltkEa?dl =0 • https://www.facebook.com/doctorpradeeppa nde/?ref=pages_you_manage

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