Increasingly medical practice is coming under intense scrutiny as to what is appropriate and affordable care, including serious considerations of patient safety issues and protection. Medical professionalism must be consciously adhered to as we try and find the best health care for our patients at the best value and outcomes for our patients themselves, and also for society at large. In view of escalating health care costs, physician autonomy to practice as he or she likes or deems fit has now come under siege with more and more performance monitoring, not just for appropriateness, but also for outcomes, necessity and cost-effectiveness. Physician' vested interests must be tempered with evidence-based benefits or at least be associated with no increase in harm or incur affordability issues. Fraudulent physician malfeasance are now being uncovered via whistle-blowers, or through greater more meticulous audit of various validated performance measures, and those physicians found to have flouted these due to pecuniary self-interests, overuse of tests or procedures have been found guilty and sanctioned with heavy fines, return of reimbursements as well as imprisonment, and erasure from medical registries and the removal of license to practice.