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  2. 2. Carbohydrates Aldehyde or ketone compound with multiple hydroxyl gp include sugars, starches, and fiber. Provides energy store in our body [4 kcal/1gm] Structural element of cell wall of bacteria/plant/arthropods Linked to many protein n fat compound (Glycoprotein in membrane) 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharide C6H12O6 4
  5. 5. Simple Carbohydrates Glucose Fructose • sweetest sugar • found in fruits and honey • added to soft drinks, deserts • mild sweet flavor • known as blood sugar • essential energy source • found in every Galactose disaccharide and • hardly tastes sweet polysaccharide • rarely found naturally as a single sugar 5
  6. 6. Maltose DISACCHARIDES pairs of the monosaccharide's C12H24O12 2 glucose units • Germinating grains • Sweet potatoes • Dates • beer Sucrose: – fruit, – vegetables, – grains Lactose : glucose+galactose main carbohydrate in milk 6
  7. 7. Complex Carbohydrates glycogen, starch, fiber 7
  8. 8. Glycogen Complex Carbohydrates • limited in meat and not found in plants – not an important dietary source of carbohydrate • BUT – all glucose is stored as glycogen • Long chain Must be broken down to be used by the body 8
  9. 9. Starches Complex Carbohydrates • plant foods (potatoes, beans, peas, and grains such as rice corn and wheat). • body hydrolyzes plant starch to glucose 9
  10. 10. Fiber Complex Carbohydrates • Nor- starch polysaccharides – found in grains, fruits and vegetables 10
  11. 11. Fiber types • cellulose • pectins • lignins • Plant gums • mucillage 11
  12. 12. Fiber • Fiber: provides little energy and is indigestible. Absorbs water-increase bulk of stool & soften stoolpromote bowel movements - alleviate constipation- formation of gas & toxic substances-Keeps your digestive tract healthy. • Inhibits mutagen in colon-CA colon • CHD- binds to BS-cholesterol • Gum/pectin-PPBS 12
  13. 13. Carbohydrate Digestion • begins in mouth – chewing releases saliva – enzyme salivary amylase hydrolyzes starch to polysaccharides and maltose • stomach – no enzymes available to break down starch – acid does some breakdown – fibers in starch provide feeling of fullness 13
  14. 14. small intestine Digestion – majority of carbs digestion takes place here – pancreatic amylase reduces carbs to glucose chains or disaccharides – specific enzymes finish the job • maltase – maltose into 2 glucose • sucrase – sucrose into glucose and fructose • lactase – lactose into glucose and galactose 14
  15. 15. large intestine Digestion –1-4 hours for sugars and starches to be digested –only fibers remain • attract water, which softens stool –bacteria ferment some fibers • water, gas, short-chain fatty acids (used for energy) 15
  16. 16. Carbohydrate Absorption • glucose can be absorbed in the mouth • majority absorbed in small intestine –active transport • glucose and galactose –facilitated diffusion • fructose 16
  17. 17. 1 Intestine Maintaining Blood Glucose Homeostasis When a person eats, blood glucose rises. 2 Pancreas High blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release insulin. Insulin Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into cells and storage as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Insulin also stimulates the conversion of excess glucose into fat for storage. 3 Liver Fat cell Muscle 4 5 Pancreas As the body's cells use glucose, blood levels decline. Low blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release glucagon into the bloodstream. Glucagon 6 Glucagon stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood.a Glucose Insulin Glucagon Glycogen Liver a The stress hormone epinephrine and other hormones also bring glucose out of storage. 7 Blood glucose begins to rise. 17
  18. 18. Imbalance Diabetes: after food intake, blood glucose rises and is not regulated because insulin is inadequate Hypoglycemia: blood glucose drops dramatically too much insulin, activity, inadequate food intake, illness Starvation- inadequate supply of carbohydrates- ketone bodies (fat fragments) are an alternate energy source-excess ketones can lead to ketosis Lactose Intolerance intestinal bacteria feed on undigested lactose produce acid and gas, lactose molecules attract water cause floating, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea 18
  19. 19. Glycemic Index • way of classifying food according to their ability to raise blood glucose • Rate and degree of blood sugar elevation following consumption 19
  20. 20. Artificial Sweeteners •Saccharin •Aspartame •Sucralose •Neotame Diabetic pt. 20
  21. 21. RDA 45-65% of total energy intake Daily Value is 300 grams per day fiber intake: Daily Value 25-<40 gm added sugar = <10% of energy intake 21
  22. 22. FAT
  23. 23. are the body’s main form of longterm energy storage.  large molecules made up of FA and glycerol  Fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms attached to hydrogen atoms.  Fats 23
  24. 24. Classification Simple lipids - TG Compound lipid- phospholipids Derived lipid:- sterols • major class of dietary lipid • in adipose tissue-coconut oil, palm oil, cotton seed, butter, margarine • minor portion of lipids in diet • lecithin is most common • important part of cell membranes • Cholesterol • sex hormones, Vit D 24
  25. 25. classification Saturated fats Lauric acid Palmate Stearic acid • No double bond C-C • solid at room temp • Animal origin— ghee, butter, cheese, meat, fish.. – obesity, high cholesterol levels, increased risk of heart disease. 25
  26. 26. Unsaturated fats MUFA  Oleic acid PUFA  Lenolenic acid  Lenoleic acid  Arachidonic acid  Eicosapentenoic acid Safflower oil Corn oil Sunflower Soybean Groundnut Mustard Palm Cod liver oil 26
  28. 28. Class Source and function Major apoliproteins Chylomicrons (CM) Intestine. Transport of dietary TG to cell A, B48, C(I,II,III) E Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Liver. Transport of endogenously synthesised TAG B100, C(I,II,III) , E Low density lipoproteins (LDL) Formed in circulation by partial breakdown of IDL. Delivers cholesterol to peripheral tissues B100 High density lipoproteins (HDL) Liver. Removes “used” cholesterol from tissues and takes it to liver A, C(I,II,III), D, E 28
  29. 29. Trans Fat  An unhealthy substance made through the chemical process of partial hydrogenation of oils.  flavor & stability of foods  Deep fried fast foods, cake, chips…. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Is there reason for concern?  behave more like saturated fatty acids ◦ More atherogenic ◦ Takes many years to flush form body    ◦ Raises the LDL Lowers the HDL making the arteries more rigid causing major clogs in the arteries creating insulin resistance-contribute to DM significantly increase the chance of heart disease 31
  32. 32. Hydrogenation Vegetable oil vanaspati ghee catalyst Liquid Drastically semisolid form keeping quality EFA content 32
  33. 33. Refined oils Refining & deodorizing of raw oil  To remove free FA & rancid materials  Quality & taste  costly 33
  34. 34. Uses of Fat Energy- 9 kcal/gm Insulation beneath skin Support-Padding for organs structural integrity of Cell membranes Carry fat soluble vitamins Precursor of Prostaglandin- vascular homeostasis Make food more palatable 34
  35. 35. Health Effects Obesity Phrenoderma-toad skin-due to deficiency CHD »atherosclesis (cholestrol LDL)- >40% energy supply form saturated fat CA- colon/breast 35
  36. 36. Choice of cooking oil PUFA [safflower/sunflower/corn oil] MUFA Ground-nut oil Mustard oil 36
  37. 37. Know Your Lipid Profile Fasting Blood Level Level Total Cholesterol Ideal, Healthy < 200 mg/dl LDL-Cholesterol < 100 mg/dl HDL-Cholesterol ≥ 60 mg/dl Triglycerides < 150 mg/dl 37
  38. 38. 20-30 % of total energy intake • [The ICMR has recommended a daily intake of not more than 20 % of total energy intake through fats] >50% from vegetable oils saturated fat <10% trans fat Cholesterol PUFA <1% <300 mg/Day 6-10% of total energy intake 38
  39. 39. Thank you