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Understanding Human Behavior<br />Why bother trying to understand it?<br />Dr. E. J. Sarma<br />Saama Technologies, Inc.<b...
8/29/2011<br />Page 2<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Human Behavior Why bother trying to understand it? And… <br />We hea...
8/29/2011<br />Page 3<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The beast in usa<br />
8/29/2011<br />Page 4<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Nature and Nurture<br />Human behavior is a product both of <br />ou...
Understanding Human Behavior :What is the key to success? : <br />8/29/2011<br />Page 5<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
8/29/2011<br />Page 6<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Scientific Approach: :<br />The Scientific Approach: The late 18...
8/29/2011<br />Page 7<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The important drivers <br />
What is personality<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 8<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
Few steps in mastering the behavioural skills <br />8/29/2011<br />Page 9<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
Human Relation- organisational context:<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 10<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />People are motivated b...
Reflection<br />
Personality<br />
Personality<br />
How do we start to understand people management?<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 15<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
Review  of what we learned<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 16<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Technical skills are necessary but ...
nature is the product of innate and learned experiences.
traditional approaches to managing people in organisations have limited or no validity in modern complex organisations .</...
8/29/2011<br />Page 18<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
8/29/2011<br />Page 19<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Behavioral Movement: Supervisors learned they needed communicat...
The Development of Personality<br /><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture
Heredity and biology - genes, nervous system, endocrine system and other systems
Environment and life experiences
Identical twins share the same template but have different “states”
Twins raised in different families have often demonstrated similar tastes, choosing the same profession and even using the...
The initial few years are critical in the formation of personality
Plaster vs. Plasticity hypothesis
Set like plaster
Changes throughout adulthood</li></li></ul><li>Views on Personality<br /><ul><li>Trait Theories – personality is a set of ...
Humanist Theories – difficult to predict behaviour – lives are not scripted – personalities are defined by their own diffe...
Behavioural Theories – Personality is the constantly changing set of learned behaviour,  influenced by reinforcements</li>...
Personality traits
The situation
The interaction between personality and situation
How one perceives or defines a situation is a critical factor of behaviour</li></li></ul><li>CASE<br /><ul><li>Doctors rep...
How did the parents define the situation?
How did the child define the situation?
How did it influence their behaviour?</li></li></ul><li>Other Attributes<br /><ul><li>Locus of Control(internal/external)T...
Self-Esteem - Feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and ...
Self-awareness - being aware of oneself, including one's traits, feelings, behaviours and limitations
Risk Taking - a person’s willingness to take chances or risks</li></li></ul><li>Personality Models<br />
Is this Personality Good or Bad?<br /><ul><li>Before we examine various types of personalities we should remember:
There is no “right”, “wrong”, “good” or “bad” type
Each type has “strengths” and “weaknesses”
A personality may however be more “suitable” for a given role or situation
Personality traits may shift over time
Behaviour/performance is not dependent on personality alone</li></li></ul><li>Personality Models<br /><ul><li>The Big Five
Cattell’s 16 Primary Factors
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator</li></li></ul><li>The Big Five<br />
Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)<br /><ul><li>4 Scales
Extraversion - Introversion
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behavioural training

personality and behavior are critical in people management.here are few tips to do it well

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behavioural training

  1. 1. Understanding Human Behavior<br />Why bother trying to understand it?<br />Dr. E. J. Sarma<br />Saama Technologies, Inc.<br />
  2. 2. 8/29/2011<br />Page 2<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Human Behavior Why bother trying to understand it? And… <br />We hear this everyday from line managers<br />Everyone wants this<br />Constantly we are searching the meaning of these<br />People skills is the success factor<br />
  3. 3. 8/29/2011<br />Page 3<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The beast in usa<br />
  4. 4. 8/29/2011<br />Page 4<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Nature and Nurture<br />Human behavior is a product both of <br />our innate human nature and <br />of our individual experience and environment.<br />
  5. 5. Understanding Human Behavior :What is the key to success? : <br />8/29/2011<br />Page 5<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
  6. 6. 8/29/2011<br />Page 6<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Scientific Approach: :<br />The Scientific Approach: The late 1800’s brought the Industrial Revolution <br />There was no one best way to do a job .<br />Scientific methods and tools can solve people’s problems <br />The Hawthorne Effect :<br />Paying attention to workers’ needs affected output. Social and psychological factors play important roles in productivity. <br />
  7. 7. 8/29/2011<br />Page 7<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The important drivers <br />
  8. 8. What is personality<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 8<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
  9. 9. Few steps in mastering the behavioural skills <br />8/29/2011<br />Page 9<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
  10. 10. Human Relation- organisational context:<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 10<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />People are motivated by many factors, not just pay/money<br />Employees have feelings and attitudes that affect the work . <br />Informal workgroups affect performance .<br />Employees like and need to participate in decision making .<br />Communication channels should flow down, up and horizontally <br />
  11. 11. Reflection<br />
  12. 12. Personality<br />
  13. 13. Personality<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. How do we start to understand people management?<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 15<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
  16. 16. Review of what we learned<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 16<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Technical skills are necessary but not sufficient for career success as go up in career ladder.<br /><ul><li>human nature is to combine behaviour with emotions
  17. 17. nature is the product of innate and learned experiences.
  18. 18. traditional approaches to managing people in organisations have limited or no validity in modern complex organisations .</li></li></ul><li>mastering behavioural skills involve<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 17<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
  19. 19. 8/29/2011<br />Page 18<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
  20. 20. 8/29/2011<br />Page 19<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Behavioral Movement: Supervisors learned they needed communication skills .<br />Managers now had to handle conflict and change .<br />Employees treated more as equals and informal relationships started <br />
  21. 21. The Development of Personality<br /><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture
  22. 22. Heredity and biology - genes, nervous system, endocrine system and other systems
  23. 23. Environment and life experiences
  24. 24. Identical twins share the same template but have different “states”
  25. 25. Twins raised in different families have often demonstrated similar tastes, choosing the same profession and even using the same brands of products</li></li></ul><li>The Development of Personality<br /><ul><li>Some traits may be more strongly linked to heredity than others
  26. 26. The initial few years are critical in the formation of personality
  27. 27. Plaster vs. Plasticity hypothesis
  28. 28. Set like plaster
  29. 29. Changes throughout adulthood</li></li></ul><li>Views on Personality<br /><ul><li>Trait Theories – personality is a set of mental structures/systems, different for each individual, resulting in characteristic responses to situations
  30. 30. Humanist Theories – difficult to predict behaviour – lives are not scripted – personalities are defined by their own different perceptions and experiences
  31. 31. Behavioural Theories – Personality is the constantly changing set of learned behaviour, influenced by reinforcements</li></li></ul><li>Interactionism<br /><ul><li>Human behaviour is influenced by:
  32. 32. Personality traits
  33. 33. The situation
  34. 34. The interaction between personality and situation
  35. 35. How one perceives or defines a situation is a critical factor of behaviour</li></li></ul><li>CASE<br /><ul><li>Doctors report that the child would never be able to play any physically exerting sport… the child grows to be the fittest athlete in the world
  36. 36. How did the parents define the situation?
  37. 37. How did the child define the situation?
  38. 38. How did it influence their behaviour?</li></li></ul><li>Other Attributes<br /><ul><li>Locus of Control(internal/external)The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate
  39. 39. Self-Esteem - Feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and capable
  40. 40. Self-awareness - being aware of oneself, including one's traits, feelings, behaviours and limitations
  41. 41. Risk Taking - a person’s willingness to take chances or risks</li></li></ul><li>Personality Models<br />
  42. 42. Is this Personality Good or Bad?<br /><ul><li>Before we examine various types of personalities we should remember:
  43. 43. There is no “right”, “wrong”, “good” or “bad” type
  44. 44. Each type has “strengths” and “weaknesses”
  45. 45. A personality may however be more “suitable” for a given role or situation
  46. 46. Personality traits may shift over time
  47. 47. Behaviour/performance is not dependent on personality alone</li></li></ul><li>Personality Models<br /><ul><li>The Big Five
  48. 48. Cattell’s 16 Primary Factors
  49. 49. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator</li></li></ul><li>The Big Five<br />
  50. 50. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
  51. 51. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
  52. 52. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
  53. 53. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
  54. 54. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)<br /><ul><li>4 Scales
  55. 55. Extraversion - Introversion
  56. 56. Sensing – Intuition
  57. 57. Thinking – Feeling
  58. 58. Judging - Perceiving
  59. 59. 16 Types</li></li></ul><li>MBTI Scales<br />
  60. 60. MBTI Scales<br />
  61. 61. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
  62. 62. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
  63. 63. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
  64. 64. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
  65. 65. Application<br /><ul><li>Self-management
  66. 66. Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences
  67. 67. Predict, plan and avoid failures
  68. 68. Self-optimize, excel and adapt
  69. 69. Managing relationships
  70. 70. Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences
  71. 71. Predict, plan and avoid conflict and failures
  72. 72. Adapt and support</li></li></ul><li>Application<br /><ul><li>Try to accommodate type mismatch
  73. 73. Remember, type mismatch is unavoidable
  74. 74. Remember, 50% of the mismatch is caused by you 
  75. 75. Do not blame the person for something s/he hasn’t done
  76. 76. Do not forget that the perceived weakness could be a real advantage in a different situation</li></li></ul><li>Application<br /><ul><li>Diversity
  77. 77. Recognizing differences as natural
  78. 78. Appreciating diversity
  79. 79. Developing complementary work teams
  80. 80. Expertise and task assignment </li></ul>Caution: other components of behaviour + development of others<br /><ul><li>Synergy
  81. 81. n1 + n2 = k x (n1 + n2)where k > 1</li></li></ul><li>Application: Other Considerations<br /><ul><li>For those traits that are not dominant
  82. 82. Avoid over exposure and over commitment
  83. 83. Understand the consequences
  84. 84. Cognition (thinking)
  85. 85. Self-monitoring
  86. 86. Positive attitude
  87. 87. Learning and practice
  88. 88. Changes in socio-technical environment</li></li></ul><li>Exercise: Trait Recognition<br />Can you visualize someone who:<br /><ul><li>would panic under stress, is a frequent worrier or would be intensely tense on slightest criticism
  89. 89. is very open to change, new idea or suggestion
  90. 90. would do all it takes to get the job done, on time, even if it involves taking on enormous stress
  91. 91. Enjoys parties and gatherings, is talkative even with strangers, is adventurous and is action oriented
  92. 92. Is very considerate and sympathetic, and works hard to ensure that others feelings are not hurt</li></li></ul><li>Exercise: “Undesirable” Traits<br /><ul><li>Identify a trait that you perceive as a “weakness”, then think of a situation where it could be utilized as a strength</li></li></ul><li>Afterthoughts<br /><ul><li>Awareness and recognition is the first step towards change
  93. 93. After self-evaluating your personality, observe other available templates and see how that may help you in adapting into a “new” person or adopting a different response set
  94. 94. If no traits are absolutely bad, then recognize that differences, perspectives and conflicts are actually opportunities to broaden our thinking and prospects</li></li></ul><li>Final Word<br /><ul><li>While dealing with people, lose your spectacle and put on their glasses – try to understand first before being understood</li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />
  95. 95. Q & A<br />
  96. 96. 8/29/2011<br />Page 51<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Behavioral Movement: Expanded role of manager Managers became more people focused Incentives and sources of motivation were studied <br />
  97. 97. 8/29/2011<br />Page 52<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Management Theory Today :<br />Management Theory Today The Systems Theory Approach: every system has input, transformation and output Ripple effects <br />
  98. 98. 8/29/2011<br />Page 53<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Management Theory Today :<br />Management Theory Today :<br />Management Theory Today The Systems Theory Approach: every system has input, transformation and output Ripple effects <br />
  99. 99. 8/29/2011<br />Page 54<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Contingency Approach: :<br />The Contingency Approach: No two situations are exactly alike. With each event, you size up the situation and choose the best course of action <br />The Quality of Work Life Approach: :<br />The Quality of Work Life Approach: Seeks to make work productive as well as satisfying to workers Quality Circles <br />
  100. 100. 8/29/2011<br />Page 55<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Caring and Trust: The bottom line in Human Relations today. <br />Herb Kelleher of Southwest Airlines :<br />He doesn’t put making a profit first or put customers first – so who comes first? <br />To lead yourself,use you head.To lead others,use your heart. :<br />

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