2. Power may be defined as the capacity to excert
influence over others
The capacity that A has to influence the behavior of
B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes
Function of dependence
Focuses on goal
Used as a means for
Used to gain lateral and
4. Formal Power
Is established by an individual’s position in an
organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward,
from formal authority, or from control of information
A power base dependent on fear
5. Reward Power
Compliance achieved based on the ability to
distribute rewards that others view as valuable
The power a person receives as a result of his or her
position in the formal hierarchy of an organization
6. Personal Power
Influence based on special skills or knowledge
Influence based on possession by an individual of
desirable resources or personal traits
7. The freedom and the ability of employees to make
decisions and commitments.
Managers disagree over definition of
8. There must be a clear definition of the values and
mission of the company.
Company must help employees acquire the relevant
Employees need to be supported in their decision
making, and not criticized when they try to do
Employees need to be recognized for their efforts.
9. The General Dependency Postulate
The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the
power A has over B
Possession/control of scarce organizational
resources that others need makes a manager
Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple
suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power
10. What Creates Dependency
The things you control must be important.
A resource must be perceived as scarce.
The resource cannot be substituted with
Ways in which individuals
translate power bases into
• Rational persuasion
• Inspirational appeals
• Personal appeals
13. • Legitimacy :Relaying on your authority position or
saying a request accords with organizational policies or
• Rational persuasion : Presenting logical arguments
and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is
• Inspirational appeals : Developing emotional
commitment by appealing to a target’s values,
needs,hopes and aspiration
• Consultation :Increase in taget support by involving
him/her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan
14. • Exchange :Rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for
following a request
• Personal appeals :Asking for compliance based on the friendship or loyalty
• Ingratiation : : using flattery , praise, or friendly behavior prior to
making a request
• Presure : Using warnings , repeated demands and threats
• Coalitions : : Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target
16. Sexual Harassment
Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors,
and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual
Act, 2013 ("Sexual Harassment Act") has been
made effective on April 23, 2013 by way of
publication in the Gazette of India.
17. Make sure a policy against it is in place.
Ensure that employees will not encounter
retaliation if they file a complaint.
Investigate every complaint and include the human
resource and legal departments.
Make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated.
Set up in-house seminars and training.