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Internet Radio“Radio Connected” ResearchProjectPaul DwyerCAMRI, University of Westminster
Internet & Radio Being the gatekeeper was the most profitable place to be, but now we‟re in a world half without gates. Digital distribution gives everyone worldwide, instant access to music. And filters are replacing gatekeepers Courtney Love (2000) “radio in the digital era will produce new forms, battles over gateways and increased interactivity on the part of listeners … rather than a fundamental reorientation: a limited increase in choice for the listener, and greater industry concentration among producers” David Hendy (2000)
• substitution mass audiences/advertis ers switched from radio to TV as main medium• Radio delivers a continuous linear stream of live (real- time) or pre- recorded music audio• differentiation Costs of operation enables tailoring services to niche audiences/advertis ers
Audience Research Advertiser sRecord Selection Playlist Niche (format CallCompany Audience(Catalogue) ) Music Knowledg Music e Sales Data
Problem: Playlist Selection Music Knowledge - Recommendation1. personal taste/musicology – genre experts search and recommend new/quality music2. „professional‟ – search & recommend on tastes of „typical listener‟ Ahlkvist (2001)
Problem: Standard Formats economies of scale (share marketing, audience research and advertising sales) and scope (developing standardized music formats and playlists (for stations in different markets) favour networks over stations Target most profitable demographic groups networks succeed vs independents/small groups standard formats succeed vs diverse or niche content. Many case studies Canada (Berland, 1990, 1993; Grenier, 1993), Sweden (Wallis and Maim, 1993), Britain (Bamard, 1989), France (Miller, 1992), and Australia (Tumer,1993)
Playlist (chart) Established music selection was responsibility of network management music selection based on audience research/advertising sales not music knowledge DJs/presenters (at best) responsible for the non-music elements reduce diversity by reducing the number of different songs played Select songs with big sales (hits) or airplay or industry promotion Tendency for playlists to become shorterand more similar to other stations/the charts (Alkhvist and Fisher 2000)
Internet & Digitisation Reduce economies of scale and scope technical and on air staff costs are low, presenter costs can be nil cost efficient to serve very small niche musical tastes Server logs provide instant, free 100% accurate audience research is (e.g. songs/playlists with biggest audience ) enables the listener to interactwith music databases to select their own playlist reduces radio networks power as gatekeepers between record companies, advertisers and audiences
Niche Audience Music MetaRecord Advertiser dataCompany Pull Pull Playlist Audience(Catalogue) Data Music Listenin g Data Music Knowledge
Long Tail and Internet Radio From selecting ‘hit’ songsfor playlists to making all music available for listeners to create customized continuous music playlists of almost unlimited diversity A niche of one – last.fm internet radio stations compete on: ‘findability’/discovery control/customisation cost (amount of ads/subscriptions) size of songs database
Findability& Customisation Music metadata (e.g. pandora 400 music genes – find „genetically similar‟ songs) Fan metadata (e.g. folksonomies “love/ban”) Audience metadata (e.g. last.fm‟saudioscrobbler which tracks your music habits across devices – PC, ipod etc.)
Supplier Power Big Four record companies want new royalty stream but don‟t want „radio‟ to compete with „music download‟ Only cooperate with internet stations which mimic functionality of radio – live streaming not free „on demand‟ Limits to skip and pause functions
• Live radio providescommunicationand companywhich music streamcannot•entertainment, comfort,security•Moodmanagement– Getting you up orcalming you down• Information – esp.musicOfcom (2004) iPodgeneration
DJ Chat (Monologue) Twitter1. “fun atmosphere” (mood 1. “playful self” management) 2. daily chatter2. “what I‟m doing now” (company, communication) 3. reporting news – leaders and followers3. comments on topical issues, pop music, sex and relationships (information) 4. Conversations (peer to peer)4. Phone-ins (interact with celebs)5. Dave says hi to Maggie (peer to peer) Brand &Scannell (1992) Java et al. (2007) Ferguson & Greer (2011)