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The Birth Of A Grand Strategist By Waqar Riaz

This journey is to learn about and understand models and ideas that are great enough to trigger our thinking, and may help us to imagine what is possible with what we have.

This effort has been exerted in an attempt to understand the grand concepts of planning and how it can help to strengthen the future for brands, people and communication companies.

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The Birth Of A Grand Strategist By Waqar Riaz

  1. for helping me challenge my thinking... Thank you In order of appearance (left to right) Rik Haslam Group Creative Architect, Rapp, Ian Haworth, Global Creative Director, Rapp, Guy Murphy, Worldwide Planning Director, JWT, Nick Kendall, Group Planning Director, BBH, Adam Arnold, Managing Director, Zag, Jim Carroll, Chairman, BBH, Russell Marsh, Group Digital Strategy Director, Rapp, Amelia Torode, Planning Director, VCCP, Bob Jeffrey, Worldwide chairman and CEO, JWT, Lorna Hawtin, Disruption Director, TBWA, Bruce Sinclair, Course Leader, BNU, Martin Runnacles, Former MD BMW, Dr Reg Winfield, VMC Tutor, BNU, Sarah Tate, Strategist, Mother, Ajaz Ahmed, Chairman, AKQA, Andrew Hovels, Planner, TBWA, Dr Paul Springer, Author of Ads to Icons, Stephen Maccrron< Planning Director, JWT Manchester, Aisha Shafiq – My Wife
  2. Waqar Riaz December 2009 MA Advertising Tutor: Dr Reg Winfield Module Code: ADM02 Bucks New University Faculty of Creativity & Culture MA Advertising © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  3. “ “ Unless you are prepared to give up something valuable you will never be able to truly change at all, because you will be forever in the control of things 1 you can’t give up. Andy law 1. Peter Fisk, Marketing genius,, 2006, Page 23 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  4. ...the Journey I took My journey into the realm of strategy began with a singular thought: What's Planning all about? I commenced with the next stage a few days later, travelling to the UK, having decided that I'd have a better chance of answering my questions on planning in its place of origin. The reaction on the thought was immediate. It was the result of my years of interaction with the communications industry at JWT (Pakistan) & DDB (Bahrain) as a creative and a planner respectively. From 2006 - 2008 I spent my time in the UK as a layman whilst trying to understand the "whats" and "ifs" of my new audience, whilst consulting MTN South Africa and USAID AED as an Online Brand Planner. At the end of 2008 I had enough ideas and understanding to begin my MA in Creative Planning at Buckinghamshire University to broaden my thinking and My first interaction with the London ad industry was of BBH. It was gain a good understanding of the industry. great! The place taught me how to create great communication stories and how to bring integration into my thinking. Call it Innovation Planning, Engagement Planning or just Planning... It all results in one conclusion - real, simple and relevant solutions. My addiction to advertising then took me to learn and understand the digital thinking of VCCP - and how to create useful and And then came "Mother" into my life offering her love, care and affection innovative communication connections with the audiences. which helped me to understand the fundamentals of creativity and how to inspire creatives; explaining how to challenge Big Ideas with Rich Ideas... and the ways to add magic to a product to turn it into an exciting brand. I think that I should stop here at the moment and not take too long explaining the wonders and magic of disruptive thinking (which I practised at TBWA). Just to let you know, I am currently working at OMINICOM (RAPP) in Strategy & Enablement. This is a newly-born discipline which combines the thinking of Data, Creativity, Technology and Media and encourages 'T' thinking to establish useful connections with the audiences. * * T-Shape Thinking: One area of specialisation with an understanding of multiple disciplines © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  5. One can’t be practically right if one is conceptually wrong In the times of Twitter phobia, YouTube craze, Farm Ville quest presentation’. Instead what I want to discuss in the next few on Facebook, Blogging adventures, 3D digital environments, chapters are the concepts which direct our actions, as I cannot Mobile purchases, iPhone apps, Flickr effects, Google imagine an action that can be conceptually incorrect and integration, Wiki wonders, Second World possibilities, Podcast practically sustainable. revival, Verizon Twitter and Facebook cable, Sidewiki’s threats, iPlayer’s experience, Digital data systems, Amazon’s This journey is to learn about and understand models and ideas commerce, iTunes distribution and so on... you would expecting that are great enough to trigger our thinking, and may help me to talk digital, as I believe this is the new Mantra nowadays. us to imagine what is possible with what we have. One way or another we all are trying to own digital – as if digital is not a language but a territory. This effort has been exerted in an attempt to understand the grand concepts of planning and how it can help to strengthen Please note that I won’t certainly be talking ‘cool’ as above the future for brands, people and communication companies. because if I were to do that then I would be making you aware of the stuff you already know too much, or you will know too much about by the time you prepare your next ‘trend © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  6. CONTENTS CHART © Intellectual Rights Reserved - Waqar Riaz 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  8. (Honda book of dreams) ORIGINAL Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?sa=3&q=pears+soap accessed on 12-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  9. THINKING (Charles Darwin) (Einstein) (Aristotle) Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&ei=WTkZS8PvB8-njAem76z7Aw&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=einstein&spell=1&start=0accessed on 12-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  10. © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  11. O R I G I N A L Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=innocent+smoothies&meta=&aq=1&oq=innocent+&start=0 accessed on 12-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  12. IDEAS Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=google+logo&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 12-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  13. 2, 3 One thing only I know, and that is I know nothing . Socrates 2 Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy, January 1953, Page 6 3 Image courtesy of Google Images, available at http://www.entelechy-magazine.com/images/socrates.gif - searched on 21st October 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  14. Ask an expert to define a planner’s role and the chances are that you will get a very vague answer. At least, this was true in my case. I was fortunate enough to meet some of the gurus of my field. Unfortunately, none of them ever gave a clear definition of what a PLANNING planner was actually supposed to do. Hmm… Well, you can’t define a planner, can you? That’s the best answer I got anyway. However, I strongly believe that there has got to be a definition for the subject – everyone IS else has one for theirs. It’s time to challenge all those no-definitions “definition” of planners, and maybe learn something useful on the way. Let's start this discussion by giving planner a defined role. But, where to begin? PROACTIVE First of all, planners are not just in advertising. In fact, advertising stole planning from the pre-existing services i.e. military, architecture etc. NOT Let’s look into the finest details of the subject and understand what planning does. Planning in any industry or sector, prepares the businesses for forecast potential risk factors REACTIVE and then recommends solutions to counter them whilst developing new areas for them e.g. A new sector, service, category or goal. I think we are getting somewhere defining planners and planning… Do you think I would be wrong to say that… © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  15. …a planner is a person who projects his thoughts forward in time and space to influence events before they occur rather than merely responding to events as they occur? © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  16. Great planning Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=egypt+history&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 14-11-2009
  17. Though it was built in around 2630 B.C.E., We can still learn some valuable lessons of planning from the great pyramid of Djoser. 4 Think big, give some space to your mind and put that seven what would appeal to the masses and who could add lasting points communications brief aside for a little while. Once you beauty to clay and sand for generations to come. have done that, try appreciating the science and art of pyramids. Indeed, it was a mind of a planner who thought well about everything and its placement, who exactly knew 4 Yahoo answers - available at http://www.geocities.com/athens/academy/7357/unaslayout_n.gif - searched on 26th October 2009 5 Image courtesy of Google Images, available at http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_year_was_the_first_pyramid_built - searched on 26th October 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  18. You could ask what architectural planning has in common with communications planning. I would say everything – The job of planning is to design solutions for potential problems and then add sense to them by making them relate to human nature. It’s not all science, but a balance combination of sense and creativity. The architect of the pyramid of Djoser could have made a simple massive hall which would have perfectly served the purpose to the given task i.e. “bury the dead king”. However, the genius thought of turning it into a brand known as... ‘The It was pyramid not just of Djoser.’ the idea which made Djoser different, but the whole experience it offers . Building a rectangular structure is not a very difficult task , but mastering it with the enclosure wall, the great trench, the roofed colonnade entrance, the south court, the south tomb, the step pyramid, the burial chamber, the north chamber, the serdab court and the heb-sed court is something not every rectangular shaped building can have. Adding all those details made it into something which holds value and recognition after all these 6 years. 6 SOURCED FROM WIKIPEDIA, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Djoser - searched on 26th October 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  19. 7 PLANNING IS A STATE OF MIND NOT MERELY A DISCIPLINE Imhotep (the man who built the pyramid of Djoser), the first architect, engineer, physician in history known by name, didn’t just spend his time understanding and finding out facts on different kinds of burial chambers for the kings all over the world. He may well have done, but one thing for sure is that he didn’t just finish working at that point. The point at which planning is today is not just being creative with what we have, but totally forgetting what we know and making things different from what we already have.7 7 SOURCED FROM WIKIPEDIA, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imhotep - searched on 26th October 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  20. Military planning Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=military+planning&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 14-11-2009
  21. Let’s now look at planning from a rather different perspective, let’s now look from the eyes of great military leaders who routinely face situations or problems where they have to decide which actions to take. I hope to learn how usefully they implement planning to grow their collective successes. In a literal sense, military leaders inescapably make all decisions in advance of taking action. Therefore, military planning as discussed here refers to situations where there is sufficient time to 8 employ a decision making process. (EFFECTS BASED MILITARY PLANNING) 8 Source - Paul K. Van Riper, PLANNING FOR AND APPLYING MILITARY FORCE: AN EXAMINATION OF TERMS, March 2006 – Page 2 9 SOURCED FROM GOOGLE IMAGES http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~cvrl/EBO/ebo_files/image001.gif - searched on 268h October 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  22. When it comes to discussing strategic planning in the military and its grand concepts there could be no one better than Clausewitz to quote. Prussian military thinker Carl von Clausewitz is widely acknowledged as the most important of the major strategic theorists. Despite the fact that he's been dead for over a century and a half, he remains the most frequently cited, the most controversial, and in many respects the most modern. In his classic ‘On War’, he wrote, “No one starts a war—or rather, no one in his senses ought to do so without first being clear in his mind what he intends to 10 achieve by that war and how he intends to conduct it.” He was the man behind the thinking and theory of concepts such as ends, the means model, and selected terms to support more detailed and explicit planning. That is, he recognized how the methods or ways, and means are employed is important. Thus, the current ends, ways, and means paradigm. In trying to understand where to focus the available means, he created concepts such as centre of gravity and decisive points. (Carl von Clausewitz) 10 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War, Michael Howard and Peter Paret, eds. And trans., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976, p. 579. © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  23. (JWT Planning cycle) Several contemporary scholars of strategy broadened the basic Clausewitzian ends-means concept. For example John Collins (a military writer), described ends, ways, and means based on the names Rudyard Kipling provided his “six honest serving men.” Collins set them forth this way: • “What” and “Why” correspond to perceived requirements (ends), • “How, When and Where” indicate optional courses of action (ways), 11 • “Who” concerns available forces and resources (means). If we look at the diagram above which shows the planning cycle Stephen King at JWT created in 1969, then we further realise that the points he touched upon were already in discussion at a much greater level way before his time. 11 John M. Collins, Military Strategy: Principles, Practices, and Historical Perspectives, Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 2002, p. 3.. 12 JWT Planning Cycle – JWT Planning Guide available at http://www.slideshare.net/williamtheliar/jwt-planning-guide accessed on 29th October 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  24. In its true sense, planning is not a domain like marketing, finance or even physics for that matter – instead, it’s something universal, applicable to all fields and categories (Figure 1). A good lawyer is the one who plans his case effectively, does research thoroughly and then finally has the courage to work his magic in the court room, based on facts and findings. and the story won’t be much different for a military general , a good financial officer or a chief executive of some fortune 500. “Planning is the origin of success ”. MILITARY LAW Figure 1 - Universal Model of Planning © Waqar Riaz © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  26. Okay, too much business. Let’s talk some learni The Story of William Lever 14 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Page 52 Images scanned from The King of Sunlight, accessed on 14-11-2009
  27. The man who makes no mistakes usually makes nothing. 13 William Hesketh Lever (William Hesketh Lever) 13 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Page 118 Line 11 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  28. We now know for certain that planning is a fundamental early days then it may help in understanding the real meaning element in making solutions for any given potential problem. of the subject. We have also identified that in the past, people have used planning in many different ways. Now let’s get back on track – back to the subject of communications. Let's try to understand planning from the perspectives of people as great as William Lever and of brands as unique as Lever brothers . If we try to understand how usefully they implemented planning in the Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=sunlight+soap&meta=&aq=0&oq=sunlight+s&start=0 accessed on 15-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  29. Did you know that William Lever, the founder of Lever Brothers (now Unilever) and one of the most successful and wealthy men in history, came from poor beginnings? It's true. He was born on 19 September 1851 in Bolton, a town described seven years earlier as one of the worst in Britain by no less of an authority than Friedrich Engels. William joined his father’s grocery business at the age of sixteen, starting right at the bottom, as an apprentice. He was put in charge of preparing sugar and soap. Both of the products arrived as foot-long, solid bars, which had to be sliced into manageable quantities and individually wrapped in greaseproof paper. You can imagine the tediousness involved in the process. However, William, the ever improver, couldn’t stop thinking that there had to be a better way. Soon William was moved to another department where his talents were put to greater use as he 15 looked after the company’s accounts. Eight year old William (top, sitting on the right) poses with his brother, James Darcy, and their oldest sister, Elizabeth Emma, in 1859. 15 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Page 16, 17, 18 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  30. William’s Bolton House (Left). William’s open air Port Sunlight bedroom (Right). The company’s account system was a mess – much of this of his modernised system granted the son new respect and 15 was due to the old way of working. However, William saw an increased voice in the company. potential problems that this system could create in the future and that this very system could become a threat to the company’s growth. He put his mind to creating an alternative, more efficient, robust and effective method of book-keeping. Creating the system was one part of what he did and selling the idea to his conservative father was another. William used all his strategic sense and before attempting to sell the idea to his father, he worked on winning the trust of his fellow clerks. Eventually, the success 15 Images and text Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Page 16, 17, 18 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  31. By the age of 23 William was married to Elizabeth and had something wonderful, but believe me, there is much more transformed his father’s company. However, he claimed money made in doing something better than ever it was 16 that he hadn't done anything revolutionary. In his 1915 done before than in doing something new – far more.” ‘Secrets of my success’ speech, he mentioned, “There is a general impression that in making money you have to do 16 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Page 27, 29, 31 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  32. He always remembered this self-created golden rule (which we discussed on the previous page) which he kept with him during his 1884 cruise. Even on a leisure tour, Lever was thinking of business ideas, remembering how successful ‘Lever Pure Honey’ was (their own patented product) – which made them loads more money than a normal honey could. I imagine Lever standing on the deck of his ship and asking himself – What’s Next, William? And it was one of those moments when he thought of the killer idea – why not make a branded washing soap? Clearly, there was a need in the market as washing clothes wasn’t as easy as it is now - It was a long, laborious task for women. And William exactly knew how to make the process easier, quicker and more enjoyable. 16 Sunlight was born and Lever Brothers took off. 16 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Page 27, 29, 31 Images courtesy of Google Images, available at http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=sunlight+soap&meta=&aq=0&oq=sunlight+s&start=0 accessed on 17-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  33. Do you know what soap is made of? Me neither and frankly Warrington and started to produce his own brand of soap, 17 speaking nor did William Lever . When he founded his the ‘Sunlight Self-Washer’. fortune on it, he claimed to be, “as ignorant of soap-making as baby in arms”. What William was doing was nothing normal. He was actually thinking of manufacturing his own soap and then patenting it with a brand called “Sunlight Self-Washer”. He took his stance against all odds and he began to turn his dream into a reality. He knew his audience would want his product and so he leased a soap works in Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=sunlight+soap&meta=&aq=0&oq=sunlight+s&start=0 accessed on 15-11-2009 17 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  34. Gone were the days of the foot-long soap bar. Sunlight (William’s biggest Invention) was cut at source and each tablet was wrapped individually in bright, colourful packaging. William was a unique man. There was no part of the business that he wasn’t directly involved, even advertising – especially ‘Advertising’. He specifically told his staff to let children inspect the brightly coloured Sunlight Boxes as they would then insist their parents to buy the product. Things as small as closing the house gate after a sales pitch were part of William’s staff syllabus. He created cookery books, direct marketing material, story books for children and so on. He was the first man to think of railways as a medium for advertising in his age and entered into a £50 contract with London and North-Western Railway company as part of Sunlight’s first advertising campaign. He then personally selected the spots where the ads should be displayed and he even wrote the 17 slogan himself. It read, ‘Sunlight Self-Washer: See how this becomes the house’. 17 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=sunlight+soap&meta=&aq=0&oq=sunlight+s&start=0 accessed on 15-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  35. In doing what he did, William actually solved all the audience. Very soon people across the UK loved Sunlight communications problems many companies still struggle and by the end of 1888, just after two years of the product with. launch, they were producing 14,000 tons a week. Sunlight boxes soon started to advertise a common phrase ‘has the 17 He didn’t go to a media house to buy a big ad space; he largest sale of any soap in the world’. didn’t even visit an ad agency for creative inspiration. He simply did what we all forget to do today – he followed the 17 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=sunlight+soap&meta=&aq=0&oq=sunlight+s&start=0 accessed on 15-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  36. (Port Sunlight) Lever brothers was now a business generating £50,000 profit a year. This made Lever more conscious of what he was doing, He started to think that he had the same works, the same soap boiler, the same manager and the same staff. The question he asked himself was ‘whose is that money?’ In answering his own question he totally changed the concept of how businesses would run by building a town for his employees and named it as ‘Port Sunlight’. Much of the architectural credit of ‘Port Sunlight’ goes to William Lever as he paid attention to detail with the look and feel of the town and its social values. He introduced the concept of large houses for communities with gardens, he built cafés, gyms, pubs and restaurants within the town, and school for the children of 18 his staff. 18 Text and Images Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  37. This may not be the right place to highlight William’s every success and achievement. However, by the time Lever died in 1925, the company had evolved from one brand to several, it had 187,000 shareholders, and 85,000 staff ‘living and working in almost every country in the world’. Lever Brothers issued capital was some £57,000 million and 18,000 of his staff were co-partners.18 18 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=sunlight+soap&meta=&aq=0&oq=sunlight+s&start=0 accessed on 15-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  38. The key to William Lever’s success was his unique approach to opened. Established there and making money I opened up in things in general. He always tried making sense of the processes William Hesketh Lever London, Scotland and elsewhere, and covered the United and their surroundings. Be it a sales boy selling soap to a lady at Kingdom.” This was the strategy William used for his impressive her doorstep, a retailer taking stock for the local market, the success. mayor of Bolton representing his people, a wholesaler opening his doors to the international market or an employer living in ‘Port He involved planning in every stage of his selling channels. He Sunlight’, William was focused and useful for everyone around used strategic techniques for every single business process he him. went through. Whether it was launching a new system for managing the company accounts, growing a happy door-to- In his 1915, Secrets of my Success speech, William said, “I started door customer base, selling his products by the power of a brand locally and when I got it established there and making money, I called ‘Sunlight’, or leading Lever Brothers successfully from ventured forth to Liverpool and Manchester. Established there challenging times, he never stopped adding creativity to the and making money I ventured as far north as Newcastle and as subject. Maybe Lever wanted us to know something. Maybe he far south as Plymouth with the intervening country more or less was trying to tell us to think rich and instead of creating 19 integrated systems, to become integrated individuals. 19 Adam McQueen, The King of Sunlight, 2004, Images courtesy of Google Images available at ; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=william+lever&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 20-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  39. (Fig 2) PEOPLE (CUSTOMERS/BUYERS) C O M M U N I C A T I O N S William Hesketh Lever MANUFACTURER DISTRIBUTOR RETAILER The times of Lever were simple and focused. Every system was totally integrated. Thanks to Lever’s command everyone was working for the people, without creating unnecessary additions in the process of manufacturing the product to selling it to the end user (Fig 2). The benefits of the services and products were communicated exactly when, where and how people required. The thinking was totally integrated and everyone involved in the process, knew exactly what the business was doing. 20 Fig 2 © Waqar Riaz 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  40. Just five years after the death of William Lever, Lever so they totally misunderstood the William’s secret; it wasn’t brothers became Unilever as a result of an international about owning the audience in different domains, instead merger. Whilst the merger brought benefits for both understanding their life in general and addressing their parties, it also had negative implementations. The biggest different needs by introducing products, services and of all was ‘disintegration’- not so much in the way things useful interactive communications. Nobody understood. It worked, but in the thinking of the business. wasn’t about segmenting people as if they were a species from another planet; rather, considering yourself as part of Then started the war of share, one way or another their community and addressing the needs of your everyone wanted to own the end user. However, in doing community. William Hesketh Lever 1935 – LUX Ad (Ain’t the William Way) 1932 – Sunlight Soap Ad 1932 – LUX Ad 21 Image courtesy of Google Images, available at http://www.adclassix.com/images/35luxsoap.jpg , accessed on 8-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  41. (Fig 3) William Hesketh Lever However, instead of continuing with integration what we got a strange concept – I wonder where this portal was when was ‘champions of consumers’. I hate that word - William was selling millions of tons of soap without consulting ‘consumers’. Anyway, no matter what you were selling, these consumer-geniuses? these were the guys you had to go through (Fig3). Because apparently they knew everything about the customers. They created a universe which was more like this; The Manufacturer is on planet Zoron, the Customer is on Planet Delta, and these geniuses know the secret portal that the seller (Manufacturer/Retailer/Distributor) can take to get closer to the buyer and eventually make a happy sale. What 22 Fig 3 © Waqar Riaz 2009 Think... © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  42. The point is... Planning has no limits © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  44. “Obviously everybody wants to be successful, but I want to be looked back on as Sergey being very innovative, very trusted ultimately William Hesketh Lever and ethical making difference in the world.” a and big Brin Peter Fisk, marketing Genius, Inspiration Google, 2004 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  45. “In a world filled with despair, we must still dare to dream, and in a world filled with distrust, we must still dare to believe.” Michael Jackson William Hesketh Lever Image scanned from the book, Micheal Jackson – Life of a legend, accessed on 8-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  46. “Somehappen. it to happen, some wish it would happen, others people want it to Some people want make it happen, some wish it would happen, others make it happen.” Michael Jordan Image courtesy of Google Images, available at; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=micheal+jordan&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 13-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  47. “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.” William Hesketh Lever Charles Darwin Image courtesy of Google Images, available at; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=charles+darwin&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 13-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  48. Ahhhhh.... It has been a long Let’s stay loyal to our subject and intensive journey. Though, and jump straight into the I hope that it was enjoyable PLANNING IS 1960’s. Oh yes, the time when and worth experiencing – we Stephen King and Stanley started from understanding the grand definition of NOT ABOUT Pollitt had their ‘Planning- Wars’. The time, because of planning and how in different which I am able to write and fields and times people have used it. Then we fast ANSWERING you are able to read all this. Let’s discuss those precious forwarded to the times of moments when Planning was ‘Sunlight’ and learnt that WHAT’S sticking its neck out in the planning is not just about William Hesketh Lever Communications industry, ‘by finding the target name’. Let’s make an audience and effectively RIGHT OR attempt to understand all communicating to them, but those intelligent concepts designing the whole business King and Pollitt introduced around people. On our way, WRONG, BUT and if we are lucky enough to we analysed Planning from cover them, then we’ll try to different perspectives and points of views. However, I am WHAT’S understand the current disintegration and the myths glad that there was one thing of specialisation in the common endeavours: in all Sense our and RELEVANT subject. Let’s learn ‘relevant’ and delete the the Creativity. ‘stupid’ (from our memories). © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  49. ‘It’s all in the The mantra brand, every brand, marketer was brand’. singing. I am afraid, but in order to understand King’s and Pollitt’s advertising’. The second possible reason could be too effort we have to go a little back in William Hesketh Lever time – as the much specialisation in the communications discipline. It development of planning department is directly linked with also made it difficult for the brands to decide between the evolution of brands. right and wrong communications partners because everybody was saying the same thing – ‘I am the Before the Fifties or even the Forties, ‘Marketing’ as a consumer-genius you need’. Therefore, brands needed a 23 department had no existence as far as companies were neutral voice within the company (FIG 4, 5). involved. However, when companies started to realise the importance of brands and sensed the increased control of advertising agencies on their businesses, they immediately thought of a counter strategy which was to open a marketing department within their corporations. Thus, the marketing department was born in companies as a ‘second wife, married to the husband (Client) of 23 Henrik Habberstad, The Anatomy of Account Planning, accessed on 10th November 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  50. (Fig 4) (Fig 5) Research Research ATL ATL Brand MARKETING Brand DEPARTMENT BTL BTL MEDIA MEDIA William Hesketh Lever The example of the birth of marketing department scares me planning as a department is obvious: the disintegration within a lot and forces me to think. The specialisation/disintegration the advertising industry started to take media away from the in the Advertising / Communications business forced clients large advertising agencies and other jobs e.g. production into having a marketing department, so maybe the same and printing. In order to recover from this situation, a common thing could happen to planning. In recent years we have bridge was needed immediately to help integrate the added too much irrelevant material to the subject. There’s systems and make things make sense for everyone i.e. just too much disintegration in planning – We have taken ‘P’ agency and client. ‘L’ ‘A’ ‘N’ ‘N’ ‘I’ ‘N’ ‘G’ out of planning and started to call it whatever we like it to be. And still we complain, why don’t the clients trust us? The other reason that made King and Pollitt introduce © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  51. William Hesketh Lever Before we advance with our discussion, we must understand Bernbach is a good example to consider. The campaign that the birth of planning in advertising doesn’t, by any was delivered before the times of Planning. Yet it had all the means, mean that advertising before Planning was not ingredients of planning that any brand could ever have. It planned. Good advertising has always been planned and helped the company to develop a philosophy around the campaigns have always been post-rationalized. People like brand and business whilst achieving all the business James Webb Young, Claude Hopkins, Rosser Reeves, David objectives, both in terms of volume and value. Ogilvy and Bill Bernbach were all superb planners. What was new was the existence in an agency of a separate department whose primary responsibility was to plan advertising strategy and evaluate campaigns in 24 accordance with this. The revolutionary Volkswagen ‘Think small’ campaign by Bill 24 Henrik Habberstad, The Anatomy of Account Planning, accessed on 10th November 2009, Page 4 25 Images courtesy of Google Images, available at http://mootee.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/01/11/1113.jpg, accessed on 10th November 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  52. Officially, the origin of account planning occurred at about the same time (in the mid to late 1960s) in two of the leading British advertising agencies, and was in each case the product of a single, dominant thinker. The agencies were the J Walter Thompson (now JWT) London Office, and the new, very small agency Boase Massimi Pollitt (BMP), now BMP DDB, also in London. It is also worth mentioning that the two dominant personalities involved were JWT’s Stephen King and the late Stanley Pollitt of BMP. Apart from a shared emphasis on the consumer, the approach of these two agencies was very different, William Hesketh Lever representing two distinct ideologies. However, both were useful and have had a profound influence on subsequent advertising practice. Inevitably, there has been some dispute about which 26 came first, and which was the better. 26 Henrik Habberstad, The Anatomy of Account Planning, accessed on 10th November 2009, Page 5 24 Images courtesy of Google Images, available at http://mootee.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/01/11/1113.jpg, accessed on 10th November 2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  53. Okay – now briefly, let’s look at the development of account planning in JWT and BMP. William Hesketh Lever The Thompson T Plan (today widely known as ‘The Planning planning and the responsibilities of an Account planner, as Cycle’ and recently strengthened by ‘The New JWT defined by Stephen King, were (FIG 6). Planning Model’ by Guy Murphy, Worldwide Planning Director, JWT) was developed in early/mid 1960s. However, in 1968 the agency realised the potential of The Thompson T Plan working, and thus decided that the approach should be integrated in agency thinking which gave a reason for the birth of a new department (which was later named as Account Planning). The reason for setting up Account © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  54. FIG 6 – JWT ACCOUNT PLANNING Implications for the Agency Account Planner Responsibilities Set objectives for Plan Integrate Develop Link technical creatives, media buying commission Plan Campaign specialist skills planning and and scheduling, and Media in research its information merchandising and help and plan advertising develop objectives into advertising experiments Objectives and planning sources action research William Hesketh Lever Account planning Evaluate Present work advertising to account and groups and experiments clients 27 Extract from Stephen King’s Internally Circulated Document, 1968 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  55. Ultimately, this system became the reason for a new kind of working and team setup. JWT created an integrated, new, three person team for each of its accounts (fig 7). William Hesketh Lever Guy Murphy, Worldwide Planning Director at JWT, defines JWT theory works as a grand business consultant for the client and planning by quoting Stephen King “strategic imagination on agency, is actually working as a logical connection between the grand scale”. By definition, this sounds impressive and creativity and sales. highly appealing. However, it seems as though this ideology has been somewhat compromised in the formation of this team structure, which has been in practice at JWT since 1968. We suddenly realise that the job of a planner at JWT, who in © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  56. (Example of JWT Creative Brief) However, this doesn’t mean at all that JWT didn’t benefit by the introduction of this discipline. Of course, there are plenty of campaigns where planning played a very significant and important role and actually made things happen for both the client and the agency. But unfortunately, the influence of planning has never on anything beyond campaigns Nevertheless, I wondered why the role of a planner has always been limited to a communications problem solver? What Stephen King introduced was a business consultant, a grand strategist; someone with the ability to take a holistic view of William Hesketh Lever every single business process and then design solutions around success. Someone who could see all the potential problems and address them before they occurred, rather than simply responding to problems as they occur. As an industry, we are not currently encouraging the kind of thinking that we need – every single brief has a very dominant ‘what’s the problem?’ part. Why are we always addressing problems and why can’t we stop being so negative? I wonder when will we start thinking of brand opportunities instead of brand problems? © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  57. From 1965, Stanley Pollitt, then at Interpublic Group agency Pritchard Wood & Partners in London, drew similar conclusions to his contemporaries and friends at JWT. His legacy to the advertising industry would be a new agency structure revolving around a set of principles which also attracted the title ‘account planning’. There’s the potential of writing a complete book all Pollitt’s ideas blossomed when, in 1968, he helped set up Boase about the magic of King Massimi Pollitt and established what he called a ‘consumer alliance’, openly adopting the phrase from JWT. The new account and the superiority of JWT, planning department at BMP was quite different from that at the but I guess that’s not the London office of JWT. BMP was a tiny agency with no international point of this primer. So let’s connections at that stage, but it was soon to develop a reputation William Hesketh Leverwork, thanks to the efforts of the young and very for good creative look at the other side of talented John Webster. The aim of BMP was to show that its planning – Pollitt’s way, advertising was both accountable and effective. Martin Boase was which took place at a very once quoted as saying that he did not accept that there had to be a choice between strategically relevant and creatively original small agency, BMP (now advertising. This remains something of a mantra at BMP DDB. DDB). Planners at BMP mainly got involved in the following principles: - Advertising research, and often fieldwork. - Working with creative teams and researching rough creative ideas. - Using consumer research to clarify the issues and enrich the 28 advertising development process. 28 Henrik Habberstad, The Anatomy of Account Planning, accessed on 10th November 2009, Page 7 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  58. (Example of BMP DDB Creative Brief) FIG 8 – NEW BMP TEAM STRUCTURE William Hesketh Lever © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  59. To conclude, BMP and JWT both realised the importance of planning in the advertising process and introduced a new department into their agencies. However, the role played by planners at BMP was more focused on the development of ‘creatives’ while JWT encouraged its planners to look at the bigger picture ‘The Grand Concepts’. To better understand the relationship between planning and communications, let’s study some brand communications. We’ll look at examples where agencies and brands used planning (intentionally or unintentionally) and benefited from it. Image courtesy of Google Images, available at; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=charles+darwin&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 13-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  60. It all started with “1984”, the Big brother voice-over: groundbreaking Super Bowl For today we celebrate the commercial that introduced first glorious anniversary of the Macintosh and is still the information purification directives. talked about two and half decades later. Director Ridley We have created, for the first Scott paid homage to time, in all history, a garden of pure ideology, where each George Orwell’s classic tale worker may bloom secure by creating a vision of a bleak from the pests of conformist world, in which a contradictory and confusion lone heroine rebels against truths. the automatons by throwing Our unification of thought is a hammer. The ad only ran more powerful a weapon than once, but it helped change any fleet or army on Earth. the world of computers, and William Hesketh Lever We are one people. of advertising. With one will. One resolve. One cause. Our enemies shall talk themselves to death. And we will bury them with their own confusion. We shall prevail. Announcer voice-over: On January 24th Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll notice why 1984 won’t be like “1984”. © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  61. William Hesketh Lever © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  62. Long the pacesetter in the business machine sector, IBM had become the company for Apple to beat. Before IBM entered the personal computer market in 1982, Apple had more than 40 percent of the sales. By 1983 IBM had gained first place, capturing 36 percent of the market, while Apple's share had fallen to 25 percent. Industry analysts were not sure how Apple's Macintosh would fare against IBM. The Macintosh could not run programs written for IBM personal computers, and most new programs on the market adhered to the standards set by IBM. The Macintosh would be a test of Apple's ability to compete head-on with IBM while remaining true to its own design criteria. The new product would sell only if Apple could convince users that IBM compatibility was not all that 29 important when a big enough company was behind the computer. William Hesketh Lever It first happened a little over two decades ago, on a Sunday afternoon Macintosh, welcomed in January of 1984. no one expected it, which was part of what made it people to a new age of so powerful. As millions of people sat before their television sets, watching a football game and shifting their attention to snacks and computers. conversations when the commercials came on, something round about the third quarter – a kind of tremor. But it was above ground and right on the TV screen, in the form of a woman charging full speed, wielding a hammer and preparing to fly. Once she did that a lot was shattered the way people thought about big business and entrepreneurial brands, the way people thought about computers, and most of all the way people thought about a company named Apple. 30 29 Robert Schnakenberg, Apple Computer, Inc.: 1984 campaign, Encyclopaedia of major marketing campaigns, Volume 1 2000 30 Warren Berger, Disruption Stories, 2004, Page 16 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  63. William Hesketh Lever Commissioned to provide the advertising strategy for the Macintosh Apple was actually following a time-honoured rule of advertising—grab launch was advertising agency Chiat/Day. The creative team the consumer's attention. The company was aware that whenever a assembled in the ad shop's San Francisco office consisted of executive new product is introduced the first thing its maker must do is make vice president and creative director Lee Clow, vice president and people aware of it and its brand name. The Apple ad did so in a associate creative director Steve Hayden (who wrote the final spot), fashion quite innovative for its time. vice president and associate creative director Brent Thomas (who served as art director), and producer Richard O'Neill. These people Also part of the marketing strategy for the Macintosh was a partnership worked for more than a year—"65-hour weeks, without vacation," with Microsoft, the Richmond, Washington-based personal computer according to account director Paul Conhune—to produce what would software company. On the same day Apple unveiled the computer, become one of the most talked-about spots in the history of Microsoft introduced five new programs for the Mac in ads in the Wall advertising. The spot, entitled "1984," began a six-day ran in January Street Journal. "Apple's new baby has our best features," read the 1984 that concluded with its final airing during ABC's telecast of Super copy. "It's called Macintosh. And it has our brains and a lot of our Bowl XVIII. In foisting the elaborate "1984" on an unsuspecting public, personality." The one-time-only ad was created by Microsoft's ad Image courtesy of Google Images, available at; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=mac+mouse&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 accessed on 13-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  64. agency, Keye/Donna/Pearlstein (KDP), which worked in tandem with Thirdly, the communication strategy for the new Macintosh, which Chiat/Day on the project. The ads went on to describe the five new insured the presentation of the machine as different as the company programs that Microsoft planned to release for the Macintosh over the representing it and as innovative as the product itself. From the first few months of 1984. selection of media channels to the inspiration of creative theme from controversial novelist George Orwell, it was made sure that nothing As a result of “1984”, early sales of the Macintosh were brisk. Industry looked, sounded or felt like anything people had experienced before. sources estimated that in the first six hours on the product's launch day The most fascinating thing of the story of “1984” is the consistency in the 200,000 consumers visited the country's 1,500 Apple dealers. The dealers overall transaction of Macintosh for the Apple Business i.e. from the reported selling $3.5 million worth of Macs and making of the product to its actual sale. Of course, accepted cash deposits for another $1 million. In the the credit of Macintosh success goes to many minds, first two months of the new computer's availability, however, if I have to select the ‘Grand Strategist’ 31 an additional $8 million in deposits was taken. among those, then that would be, without a doubt, the inventor, the strategist, the thinker, Steve Jobs. Fast forward to 2009, and you can’t name a single thing used in “1984” that didn’t have the rules of Jobs didn’t just think of the product proposition to be planning embedded in it. the machine ‘For the rest of Us’, but also carefully built the brand world around the idea. As a Grand First of all, the product was designed with the user and their needs in Strategist, Steve Jobs made sure that everything went according to the mind. Thanks to Steve Jobs, intensive planning work took place in product idea, his focus was on building a long-term personality for the actually creating and designing the machine. It featured a fast Apple, by delivering consistent, innovative solutions for people in need, processor powered by a Motorola 68,000 chip and had 128,000 than merely executing what technology was offering at that time. characters of memory. No computer jargon was needed to operate the machine. To carry out a particular function, the user simply moved a The point which differentiated Macintosh from the rest of the pointer, or mouse, to a symbol on the screen and pushed a button. The competition was its ability to have a balance combination of logic screen could also be broken up into windows, thus allowing several and creativity. Without a doubt, Steve Jobs realised that it was functions to be handled at the same time. possible to defy convention and put forth a completely original vision, and to create the machine that was designed to adapt to Secondly, the penetration strategy adopted by the product. A smart the user (instead of the other way around). move of including Microsoft as a technology partner, which insured the superiority of the machine, both in its looks and working. 31 Robert Schnakenberg, Apple Computer, Inc.: 1984 campaign, Encyclopaedia of major marketing campaigns, Volume 1 2000 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  65. William Hesketh Lever The point is... Businesses and Brands need deeper logic and more creativity to succeed amidst complexity. © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  66. Peter Fisk, in his book Marketing Genius wrote, ‘the blurring of In Google doing what it does, it truly understands the following; boundaries, of virtual and real worlds, and fusion of previously • Customers: "They only want what they want." unrelated industries, is a daunting challenge but also a • Advertisers: "They want low cost and low risk." fantastic opportunity’. • Media/Publishers: "They need to engage customers and they want to do so at a low cost and with low risk. With a doubt, the modernisation within the technology discipline introduced countless opportunities to the business In a traditional world, for each to get what it wants, someone world. Today, it’s possible for any brand to work with or against has to sacrifice. If a publisher wants to make more money, an any other. It’s no more about finding what the technology has advertiser has to pay more. If an advertiser wants lower risk and done, instead it’s about realising the potential it has for us. It’s still get out in front of customers, the customers may not get an open book, easily accessible to those who have the what they want. dreams, brains, confidence and persistence to benefit from it. However, this is where Google differentiates itself from the rest William Hesketh Leverby coming up with a ‘Grand Solution’, something Very similar to this was the realisation of Larry Page and Sergey of the world, Brin back in 1995, when they created Google in their Stanford which only the brains of Page and Brin could realise. In the University bedroom. What Google did was not a one off magic case of Google, the searcher types in a query; advertisers, in performance, but a simply a case of focusing the business advance, bid on a click because they assume a click around people, and not the other way around. translates to interest; and, with each click, publishers presumably make money. This model of working is something Within five years, Google had started to deal with 100 million all three want i.e. (People, Advertiser, Publisher): Something is internet searches every day, and made Brin and Page multi- exchanged at a price that's market-determined. billionaires in less than a decade. Similar to this is what Steve Jobs did for the Apple brand. For Google their vision is simple, ‘ to be the perfect search engine’ or, ‘one that understands exactly what you mean and gives you back exactly what you want’. Image courtesy of Google Images, available at; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=google+logo&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 on 28-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  67. FIG 9 – Google Search Model of Working PUBLISHER ADVERTISER DIGITAL/ONLINE RESOURCES OF THE USER RECEIVING RELEVANT CONTENT GOOGLE WORLD In reality, Google’s (search) model of working is extremely In whatever Google does, it’s always the ‘searcher’ who is given simple (FIG 9). Google as a brand understands the value of utmost priority. Whether it’s an advertiser using Google William Hesketh Lever keeping the audience ‘on your side’. In all its operations whatAdWords to promote its products and services on the web with Google sells ultimately is, ‘You’. You, ‘the audience’ that every targeted advertising, or a website manager taking advantage brand and publisher is looking for and Google makes it sure that of the Google AdSense programme to deliver ads relevant to everybody gets what they really want. In simple words, Google the content of his website, the whole Google system works is the web’s library: archival, organized and oriented around around customer democracy. Google search rankings are research. determined by the most popular sites amongst global internet users, assisted by those sites that encourage more open Now you must be thinking, what on earth this all has to do with networking, linking one to another. Communications Planning? But if you look deeper, you will find Google as the champion of planning. As planners we stand for It’s no accident that Google’s New York office has more ‘champions of people’, we celebrate the fact that it’s the end humans than servers. This conviction in the power of people is user whose voice is heard and listened, at all levels in designing also truly reflected in how Google creates awareness for its a business proposition. brand. Until recently, no one had experienced a traditional piece of advertising from Google. © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  68. In terms of its value, Google stands at number one in the world, William Hesketh Lever – tell it to an advertising agency and they will ridiculous, I know above Coca Cola, Microsoft and many others who spend think you are crazy, and would like to stay as far from you as millions of advertising dollars in creating their brand value. But possible. for Google, the case is different. Anyone who uses Google products automatically becomes its advocate. And if my But then try asking Google, and they might tell you how memory serves me correctly, then it wasn’t very different when successfully they did it when they thought of promoting Gmail. Google revolutionised the e-mail world with the launch of The month was August, the date was 28th and the year was Gmail. 2007. This was the day when Google broadcasted their Behind the Scenes video on YouTube, which to date has received Okay, so how do you launch a global communications 5,634,302 views – not really a bad reach for an advertising piece campaign for a global brand, that caters to all cultures and that lasts for two minutes and nineteen seconds. The video was markets, whilst using the power of single idea and then created by Gmail lovers from all around the world based on a broadcast it to millions of people – with just one condition , that simple communications idea, ‘Help us imagine how an email you don’t have any advertising budget? It sounds message travels around the world’. The execution platform was Image courtesy of Google Images, available at; http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&sa=1&q=top+10+brands&meta=&aq=f&oq=&start=0 on 28-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  69. William Hesketh Lever © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz
  70. even simpler, ‘Take a look at the collaborative video we started, and then film what happens next. We'll rotate a selection of the clips we receive on this page, and add the best ones to the video. The final video will be featured on the Gmail homepage and seen by users worldwide’. And there it was – all the world out with their video cameras and letter ‘M’. Hats off to the thinking of Gmail Labs. If we look at this activity from an advertising effectiveness point of view, then we come across some amazing results. Thousands of blogs across the world wide web, started to talk about Gmail’s clever stunt – it them successfully, then I wonder what need for an advertising/media reached a worldwide audience of millions, and represented the partner will they have in the future? multicultural, global outlook of the brand in its communications. All this at apparently zero media, production and advertising budget. So, what was actually that thing which made people so interested in doing what they did for Gmail? In my opinion a good product is a It is indeed a very innovative case study, but also a bit scary at the ‘product’ of focused thinking. Thinking, that is planned and actually William Hesketh Lever same time. If advertisers are able to produce such effective brings benefit to the people, is more effective for any business, than communications on their own and then have the ability to execute selling people dreams and hopes, without a tangible benefit. Google doesn’t sell dreams – it simply brings utility to all of us. And that’s why we believe that whatever it does, it’s doing for our benefit. The product ‘Gmail’ has been bombarded with utility, whilst using a very commercially viable model – which again satisfies the three point criteria that we discussed for Google Search earlier i.e. • Customers: They only want what they want. • Advertisers: They want low cost and low risk. • Media/Publishers: They need to engage customers and they want to do so at a low cost and with low risk. The advertising within emails is targeted and focused, and there won’t be any advertising displayed that is not relevant to the email text. Image accessed through taking screenshot of personal email account – accessed on 22-11-2009 © All Rights Reserved Waqar Riaz

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This journey is to learn about and understand models and ideas that are great enough to trigger our thinking, and may help us to imagine what is possible with what we have. This effort has been exerted in an attempt to understand the grand concepts of planning and how it can help to strengthen the future for brands, people and communication companies.


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