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Bangkok | Mar-17 | Village Level Heath via Biomass Energy Access

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Presenter: Dr. Chaw Chaw Sein
Staff Officer, Forest Research Institute

Publié dans : Sciences
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Bangkok | Mar-17 | Village Level Heath via Biomass Energy Access

  1. 1. Enhancing Village Level Healthcare in Myanmar through Biomass Energy Access, ICS and ICT from Forest Sector By Dr. Chaw Chaw Sein , Staff Officer, Forest Research Institute
  2. 2. Country Profile Population 53million (2016) Location  located in main-land Southeast Asia  Latitudes = 9° 58 to 28° 29 North  Longitudes = 92° 10 to 101° 10 East Area  Total land area = 676,577 km2  Length (north to south) = 2,051 km Maximum width (west to east) = 936 km  Climate  Temperature 25° C to 33° C (Rainy Season) 10° C to 25° C (Cold Season) 32° C to 38° C (Hot Season) 43° C (Maximum Temperature)  Rainfall Minimum rainfall = 500 mm Maximum rainfall = 5, 000 mm  Forest cover - 31,773,000 ha  135 different nationalities  70% of total population lives in rural areas  More than 12 million people, or 24% of the total population, are living in the mountainous areas.  Agriculture and forestry industries are the main organs of the Myanmar economy of the country Introduction
  3. 3.  Myanmar has abundant renewable energy resources.  Almost 80% of the primary energy is being supplied (i) Fuel-wood, (ii) Charcoal, (iii) Bamboo (iv) Agricultural residue and (v) Animal waste.
  4. 4.  Wood & Bamboo is a biomass fuel & renewable.  Plant new trees to replace cut down,  Low cost and indigenous nature,  Almost 15% of the world's total energy supply  35% in developing countries, cooking and heating.
  5. 5. Forest Cover Status of Myanmar
  6. 6. Forest Cover Status of Myanmar (FRA 2015) FRA 2015 Area % of total country area(,000 ha) Closed forest 14585 21.55 Open forest 14456 21.37 Total forest 29041 42.92 Other Wooded land 15080 22.29 Others 21634 31.98 Water body 1903 2.81 Total 67658 100
  7. 7. Implementing activities by Forest Department to supply National Energy Policy
  8. 8.  Forest sector is supplying fuelwood and charcoal (76.41%) .  1990-2010, annual deforestation rate 0.55% Establishment of Village Supply Plantation Distribution of Improved Cooking Stoves Utilization of Agricultural Residues Awareness Raising and Research and Development
  9. 9. No. Year Village supply Plantation (Areas) 1 2011-2012 to 2015-2016 25,650 2 2016-2017 to 2020-2021 21,250 3 2021-2022 to 2025-2026 21,250 4 2026-2027 to 2030-2031 21,250 Total 89,400 Establishment of Village Supply Plantation
  10. 10. No. Year Community Forest (Areas) 1 2011-2012 to 2015-2016 327,996 2 2016-2017 to 2020-2021 352,563 3 2021-2022 to 2025-2026 312,231 4 2026-2027 to 2030-2031 1185,143 Total 2267,655 Establishment of Community Forest
  11. 11. No. Year Seedlings ( in Billions) 1 2011-2012 to 2015-2016 68.35 2 2016-2017 to 2020-2021 50.0 3 2021-2022 to 2025-2026 50.0 4 2026-2027 to 2030-2031 50.0 Total 218.35 Distribution of Seedlings for Green Programmes and Tree Planting Festivals
  12. 12. No. Year Improved Cooking Stoves ( number) 1 2011-2012 to 2015-2016 262,500 2 2016-2017 to 2020-2021 257,500 3 2021-2022 to 2025-2026 237,500 4 2026-2027 to 2030-2031 237,500 Total 995,000 Distribution of Improved Cooking Stoves
  13. 13. No. Year Fuel Briquettes (number in billions) 1 2011-2012 to 2015-2016 12.00 2 2016-2017 to 2020-2021 10.815 3 2021-2022 to 2025-2026 10.815 4 2026-2027 to 2030-2031 10.815 Total 44.445 Distribution of Fuel briquettes
  14. 14. No. Year Agricultural residues (Tons) 1 2011-2012 to 2015-2016 100,000 2 2016-2017 to 2020-2021 29,400 3 2021-2022 to 2025-2026 29,400 4 2026-2027 to 2030-2031 29,400 Total 188,200 Utilization of Agricultural residues
  15. 15. Improved Cookstove Development Programme in Myanmar The traditional open-fire stove which is most widely used in the rural area of Myanmar has and efficiency of only about 5 to 15%. This method is consumed more fuelwoods and pollution to environment.. To replace with improved ones, the demand for fuelwood would be reduced drastically. The Myanmar ICS programme started in Forest Research Institute, Yezin in 1986. Initially, traditional commercial stoves were studied and some ICS were developed and tested.
  16. 16. Traditional Open-Fire Cookstove •More utilization of fuel woods ( lead to deforestation) •More emission of smoke •Dangerous for firing •Dirty to environment and cooking pots •Air pollution •Not Good for HealthCare
  17. 17. Research and Development of A-1 Fuelwood Cookstove Some fuelwood and charcoal cookstoves were made and tested at FRI in 1992.  160 fuelwood stoves were made initially.  Out of these, 45 stoves were given to the Pilot Watershed Management Project for field trial. According to the response of the users, A1 ICS - can save about 30% of fuelwood consumption compared to the traditional cookstove - take short time for cooking.
  18. 18. Comparative Testing on Open-Fire, A.1 Improved Cookstoves and Biomass Clean Cookstoves
  19. 19. Sr. No. Stove Name Fuelwood consumption (gm) Saving of fuelwood(%) 1. Open-Fire 287.48 - 2. Biomass Clean Cookstove 182.47 36.52 3 A.1 Improved Cookstove 180.06 37.36 Comparative Study on Fuelwood Saving Percent of Open-Fire Stove and Some Improved Cookstoves
  20. 20. A.1 Improved Cookstove ( Comparisons with Traditional Cookstove )  Saving of fuelwood consumption 40%  Reduced Cooking Time 40%  Reduce amount of Particulate Matter 35%  Reduce amount of Carbon monoxide 60%  Height efficiency  Stove Type Clay  Stove Price 1,500 Kyats  Producer Forest Department  Location Forest Research Institute, Yezin  Fuel Type Fuelwood and Agriculture residues
  21. 21. 7. Benefits  Can save about 40% fuelwood consumption compared to traditional open- fire cookstove.  Reduce cooking time (faster cooking) and also fuel wood consumption.  Less smoke compare to traditional open-fire cookstove.  Less carbon emissions to the atmosphere.  Potable stove can be easy to move.
  22. 22. Distribution of A-1 Improved Cookstoves to Rural People by REDD+ Project
  23. 23. Distribution of improved cooking stoves in REDD+ Site
  24. 24. Awareness Raising
  25. 25. Challenges • Most households from rural areas mainly depend on fuel-wood. • Due to sustainable utilization of fuel-wood from the natural forests, most of the forest are changes into degraded forests as bush types. • Climate change impacts is occurred; less rainfall and high temperature due to shortage of monsoon. • As a consequences, crop production is decreased and local people suffer from poverty.
  26. 26. How could we control fuel-wood consumption? Giving awareness  to use improved cooking stoves  to utilize fuel briquettes  to use agricultural wastes  by public talks  for the establishment of model village for the utilization of fuel-wood substitutes..
  27. 27. Why do we promote utilization of agricultural wastes ? • 70% of total population is rural people and their main livelihood activity is agriculture. • (10) tonnes of agricultural wastes is enough for annual household cooking . • Utilization of agricultural waste is save for collection of fuel-wood and for money in cooking. • Due to less dependence of forests for fuel-wood, the environment will be more pleasant and climate condition will be much better and as a consequence crop productivity and socio-economic conditions of local people can be improved.
  28. 28. Production and distribution of A1improved cooking stoves  To reduce the production of fuel-wood from the natural forests.  To support the environmental conservation activities
  29. 29. Cooperation with NGOs and Forest Department
  30. 30. ENERGY ACCESS AT MERCY CORPS
  31. 31.  Increase rural communities’ access to clean stoves, reduce energy poverty and contribute to environmental conservation efforts in Myanmar Program Goal
  32. 32.  Myanmar’s first carbon project  Goal: To catalyze a market system to address energy poverty and create livelihood opportunities for sales agents Myanmar Stove Campaign (MSC)
  33. 33. Fund Providers
  34. 34.  Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation, Department of Forestry  Orbis Development Partners Implementing Partners
  35. 35. Distribution Models Agents Consumers ConsumersPartner Agents
  36. 36. Accomplishments  Network of 406 vendors in nearly 600 villages  537 awareness campaigns/month + follow-up support  19,234 stoves sold so far  Over Ks177 million collected in revenue  Women Empowerment Fund support to strengthen Myanmar Stove Campaign business model and is testing a hypothesis that a gender-informed business model is more effective
  37. 37. GERES
  38. 38. SCALE Project Overview Engaging in the national policy dialogue to develop favorable policy frameworks Policy Creating market conditions for upscaling, informed decision making and replication Demand Fostering high added- value ICS supply chain through best practices, technology and know- how transfer Supply Upscaling Improved Cookstove (ICS) Dissemination in Myanmar through replication of best practices from Cambodia and the region
  39. 39. These kinds of stoves were identified during the primary research across 7 regions of Myanmar GERES - Overview of Clean Cookstove and Fuel Sectors in Myanmar | 01/03/2017 | • FUEL USED: Almost exclusively wood, and rarely with charcoal • FUEL USED: Wood, charcoal or biomass • FUEL USED: Almost exclusively wood Three Stone Fires Mud StovesTripods • FUEL USED: Mainly wood but also charcoal and residue • FUEL USED: Mainly charcoal but also wood identified • FUEL USED: Wood or charcoal A1 Stoves Charcoal / Multipurpose StovesCarved Stone Stoves
  40. 40. • FUEL USED: Mainly rice husks, but also other agricultural residues • FUEL USED: Use only with wood was identified Rice Husk Stoves Iron Stoves • FUEL USED: Electricity • FUEL USED: Liquid petroleum Electric Stoves LPG Stoves Source: GERES ,2017
  41. 41. 37% 24% 13% 10% 4% 4% 2% 2% 1% 0% Country Wide Across the country, the electric stove was reported to be the aspirational stove for most peri-urban (43%) and rural (33%) respondents Rural & Peri-Urban Preferred Stoves Source: Myanmar Household Survey Preferred Stove, % of respondents (Country, Peri-Urban and Rural)
  42. 42. “Establishment of a Knowledge and Training Centre for Bioenergy and other Renewable Energy Sources in Myanmar”  The Energy Farm, International Foundation Roykenviklinna 611,2760 Brandbu  TREI & FRI , Myanmar Proposed Project
  43. 43.  Gasifier for power production  Demonstration of biomass gasifier for institutional cooking  Demonstration and dissemination of Improved cook stoves  Solar energy for power production  Solar energy for rural lighting  Solar water pumping  Solar street lighting  Energy for Telecom towers Implemented Activities
  44. 44.  Floating Drum Plants KVIC type  Janta Model Biogas Plant  Deenbandhu Model Biogas Plant  Developing Model biomass plantations for securing rural energy Demonstration of improved design of biogas plant
  45. 45.  Need to create energy access not only forest biomass but also off grid assess and sustainability within villages.  To improve livelihood and quality of life in the rural sector.  To address the carbon footprint at village level.  To promote social ventures to challenge grassroots issues.  To lead community-driven interventions to smart villages and rural development. Key Issues
  46. 46. Wayforward  Utilize Bio Wastes by modifying as renewable fuel and producing Electricity & Thermal Energy  Conduct more Research and Innovation on Bio energy Technology to mitigate Pollution and Energy Efficiency  Important to pay attention on current commercially available Gasifier Electrification System to improve and make use as a source for Off Grid Electrification for rural development.  Introducing Bio energy Farm and Smart Villages
  47. 47. Thanks a Lot for Your Kind Attention

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