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Hyderabad | Sep-16 | Green Homes for Smart Indian Villages

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Presenter : Ashok Jhunjhunwala
Prabhjot Kaur, IIT Madras

Publié dans : Sciences
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Hyderabad | Sep-16 | Green Homes for Smart Indian Villages

  1. 1. Green Homes for Smart Indian Villages Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Prabhjot Kaur, IIT Madras ashok@tenet.res.in
  2. 2. Power for Indian Homes: A dilemma • 50 million homes not connected to grid • About 100 million homes have load-shedding between 2 hours a day to 12 hours a day • 50% of Indian homes can not afford power even at subsidized rate of ₹5 per unit – At this tariff all DISCOMS lose money Smart Rural Homes 2September 16 $1 = ₹67
  3. 3. In first week of December 2015 • When whole of IITM had no power for 75 hours • Even 1 MW solar plant at IITM failed to provide any power – There was one home which continued to have lights and fans and cell- phone / lap-top charger • 125W solar panel + 0.5 kWh effective solar battery • Two tube-lights were used regularly + bulb and fan occasionally + laptop charged / discharged fully 15 times + cell phone charging • Failed to add up – Solar DC Inverterless • Full DC wiring, all Loads DC, solar and battery connected on DC line, input grid power converted to DC Smart Rural Homes 3September 16
  4. 4. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes • Solar PV gives DC Power – But load is AC – Needs a DC-AC converter • Now if we add a battery – Battery stores only DC • Require an AC-DC converter for charging • Require a DC-AC converter during discharging • For low power, each converter can have 10 to 15% loss – Solar with battery may have up to 45% loss + battery loss Smart Rural Homes 4September 16 AC Load DC-AC Battery AC-DC DC-AC Grid Solar DC
  5. 5. And it gets Worse • As one realises that home-loads have been slowly moving towards DC • All Electronics devices work on low-voltage DC – TV (LED/LCD), laptops. Cell-phones, speaker-phones, tablets, speakers • AC to DC conversion has losses from 20% to 50% in each device • Even the refrigerators, air-conditioners, washing machine in future will be BLDC motors • Use of DC-powered and energy-efficient devices – Consumption down by 50% Smart Rural Homes 5September 16 Fans AC fan BLDC fan At full Speed 72W 30W At speed 1 60W 9W Lighting CFL Tube light LED tube At Max. Intensity 36W 15W At Lowest Intensity NA 4W Volume prices similar for fans LED tube life much longer (DC powering enhances reliability)
  6. 6. Smart Homes should have Solar-DC • DC Micro-grid connecting – Solar Panel – Battery – DC Appliances • Highly efficient usage of Power – Low-power from grid alone converted from AC-DC (Designed to have minimal losses) • 48V DC chosen due to – Safety considerations – Lower cable losses compared to 12V/24V DC systems • But design non-trivial – Solar MPPT voltage varies – Battery needs independent charge voltage – Load is at some fixed voltage – DC-DC converters will add similar losses Smart Rural Homes 6September 16 AC-DC battery Loadgrid Solar 48VDC 48VDC 48VDC
  7. 7. IITM designed Solar-DC Inverterless Smart Rural Homes 7September 16 125W to 500W 48V DC (and possibly 150W uninterrupted AC) Power with BLE prepaid recharge 125W panels • Upto 500W possible 230V AC Special 1 kWh VRLA battery with 1600 cycles for 50% DoD • Up to 5 kWh possible Designed as an expandable product, still keeping losses low Monitored using Bluetooth
  8. 8. And worked with start-ups to build Appliances Smart Rural Homes 8September 16 8 LED Bulb • 5W instead of 30W bulb BLDC Fan • 30W instead of 72W AC fan • 9W at lowest speed Remote Control for Fan & Tube light • ON/OFF and for dimming Cell phone Charger/Socket • DC charger with USB port LED Tube light • 15W - dimmable to 4W, instead of 36W fluorescent tube Cost: ₹20000 for 125W SP + 1 kWh Battery+ appliances $1 = ₹67
  9. 9. Energy-efficient DC appliances being expanded Smart Rural Homes 9September 16 DC-powered 19/24” Colour TV • Consumes 30W along with set-top box at 48V DC DC Desert Cooler • Consumes 80W instead of 180W AC cooler Refrigerator and Stove • Still experimental DC Mixer • Consumes 150W, whereas AC Mixers consume 350W
  10. 10. Deployment in Rajasthan • Electrified 4000 off-grid homes in Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan – Tough terrain, no road connectivity, sandstorms, lack of local resources • 7500 homes in Assam being taken up in hills – More in other states: Orissa, Jharkhand Smart Rural Homes 10September 16
  11. 11. Deployments in deserts of Rajasthan Smart Rural HomesSeptember 16 11
  12. 12. Is reduction in losses realised in practice? • Measure solar-power, battery (in/out) power and Load power every few minutes – requires low-cost connectivity to the cloud • Inverterless costs ₹3000; wireless modem will cost similar + monthly cost of usage – Need a different approach • Most homes have a phone • Use Blue-tooth to connect – Use phone to relay to cloud Smart Rural Homes 12September 16 Over Internet $1 = ₹67
  13. 13. 13 Measurements from a home in Bhom Ji ka Gaon, Jodhpur from 9am to 5pm • Understanding use of solar Power and losses: performance evaluation • Is customer using more than what solar power provides? • Is she using less? Is power being wasted? • In Grid-connected system (no reverse feeding for small system), grid-usage can be optimized to use all of solar power Solar Battery Load Smart Rural Homes -75 -55 -35 -15 5 25 45 65 85 105 125 Jul-0100:00 1:55 3:50 5:45 7:40 9:35 11:30 13:25 15:20 17:15 19:10 21:05 23:00 Jul-0200:55 2:50 4:45 6:40 8:35 10:30 12:25 14:20 16:15 18:10 20:05 22:00 23:55 Day and Time Battery power (W) Load power (W) Solar power (W) Monitoring Usage September 16
  14. 14. Villagers thrilled • “Apne Vidyarthiyon ko ghar ka kaam dene laga hu. Khush hu ki is baar garmiyon mein bhi bachhe mann laga kar padhai karenge.” [now I give my students home-work. Happy that even in summer they will now be able to study] - Masterji • “Sab ko utshah se apne ghar ka Solar system dikhata hu ji, hamare ghar mein bhi pankha, light aur remote hai” [show my solar system to everyone at home. Have fan, light and remote] - Dunga Ram • feedback: https://youtu.be/NF6EgdRsBXk Smart Rural Homes 14September 16
  15. 15. Motivation for going Solar Inverterless • It is a Solar + power back-up, but far more efficient – as 100 Watts DC • Can support 3 lights + 2 fans + cell- phone charging • Or 3 lights + 1 fan + TV (24” LED/LCD) + cell-phone charging – Solar Panel and Batteries have to be appropriately sized • Devices can be added as required Smart Rural Homes 15September 16
  16. 16. Small Home AC Home DC Home Energy/ day kWh Cost per day ₹ Energy / day kWh Cost per day ₹ AC Grid + 0 LS 3.27 16.3 1.29 6.45 AC +Battery + Solar + 4h LS 3.75 28.9 1.35 7.3 off-grid + Battery + Solar 4.9 50.6 1.33 12.6 Small AC / DC Home Power Costs Device Numbers deployed Operation hrs/ day Tubelights 2 6 Fans 2 12 Bulbs 2 10 Phones 1 4 TV 1 10 Cost / day includes depreciation and interest for solar panel and battery assuming grid costs of ₹5 per unit Smart Rural Homes 16 Off-grid home power-costs with solar-DC (₹12.6 per day) less than the cost of on-grid AC homes with no power-cuts (₹16.3 per day) September 16 $1 = ₹67
  17. 17. Solar-DC: Equally important for grid-connected homes • Solar-DC Inverterless + DC power line + DC appliances: huge cost savings – Draws less from grid: reduces power-bill • Provides back-up power: frees homes from load-shedding, grid-fault • 500W solar power (50 sqft) with DC appliances can take care of most essential loads in middle class homes • Except washing machines, air-conditioners – 240M homes with 500W solar panel produces close to total domestic consumption in India in a year • 240Mx0.5 kWx1550 solar hrs/year = 190,000 GWh /year Smart Rural Homes 17September 16
  18. 18. Home2 N2 IRU IRU IRU Home3 Home4 E2 E3 N3 N4 E4 Bluetooth interface Keypad interface for recharge Home1 Normal Home1 Emergency Solar-DC micro-grid for 4 home cluster • Enables sharing of Solar and Battery Resources amongst multiple homes – Taking advantage of non-concurrent and unequal usage; each home metered and cut-off • Inverterless2500 can power 12 / 24 home clusters and some industries Solar-DC Microgrid for Indian homes 18
  19. 19. Solar Water Pumps • Agricultural-water can be pumped throughout the day – When sun is available – At low power early in morning, peaking at noon and again falling off – Induction motor pumps with Solar-driven Variable Frequency Drive will be ideal • Or solar-driven BLDC or SR motor pumps – Water may be stored in a sump and used when needed • Key is to have low-cost and easily maintainable in rural areas – Pump Sizing: pump only required water in a full sunny day Smart Rural Homes 19September 16
  20. 20. Can Solar-DC drive Rural Industry • Lack of quality power a big bottleneck for rural industry • Electricity in most industry is motor-centric – Use of Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors or better still Switched Reluctance (SR) Motors could reduce power requirement by 30 to 40% • SR motors in volume not expensive – Can be driven by solar power / grid / stored power – Can the whole system become affordable Smart Rural Homes 20September 16
  21. 21. To Sum Up • Roof-top Solar-DC addresses can change Rural Homes – 24 x 7 power and Power at affordable rates even during load-shedding • Lower / Middle Income homes can not afford power today even at subsidised rates – will draw less from grid: reduces losses for DISCOM • Properly designed roof-top solar and Solar-micro-grid can also – power agricultural pumps and – supplement power rural industry • India’s Rural Scenario can change as India aims to get 50% of Power produced using Solar by 2030 21September 16 Smart Rural Homes
  22. 22. But AC Power won 125 years ago! • In an AC Vs DC power-line debate between Tesla (for AC) and Thomas Edison (for DC) in 1880’s – AC won decisively due to transformer’s ability to step-up and step-down voltages easily • And reduce line losses • AC dominated ever-since – Transmission lines became all AC – Homes and offices were wired on AC line (230V AC in India) – All appliances became AC – All R&D focused on AC • R&D on DC virtually stopped Smart Rural Homes 22September 16