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Ang Kasunduan Tordesillas Hinati ni Pope Alexander VI ang lupain ng mundo para sa Espanya at Portugalnoong 1493. Ang pag hahati ay ang nag didikta kung anu mga lupain lng ang maaringtuklasin at angkinin ng bawat bansa. Ayon din sa Kasunduan lahat ng lupain napagmamay-ari ng isang bansa ay mananatili sa kanya kahit ito ay nasa kabilang parte.Noong 1494 nag kasundo ang dalawang bansa na iurong ang hati dahil ang hati ito aypaikot sa mundo at malelemitahan ang sakop ng Espanya sa Asya. Ferdinand Magellan Pinanganak noong 1480 sa Sabrosa, Portugal. Isa siyang Portugese namanlalakbay. Dahil sa pamana ng kanyang pamilya nagi sayang Page ni Reyna Leonor ngPortugal sa hukuman ng hari sa gulang na sampu. Noong Marso 1505 nakasama siya sapag lalayag ni Francisco de Almeida para makuha ang ruta ng pampalasa para saPortugal. Noong 1509 nag simula siyang makipag laban sa iba’t ibang gyera sa silangan.Pero noong 1517 nag mungkahi si Magellan na mag layag sa spice island gamit ang rutasa dagat pasipiko at hindi siya nito pinayagan. Kaya noong Octobre 1517 nakipagkontrata siya sa hari ng Espanya. Ang Limang Barko ni Magellan Trinidad na may bigat na 110 tonelada na may 55 katao sa pamumuno niMagellan. San Antonio na may bigat na 120 tonelada na may 60 katao sa pamumuno niJuan de Cartagena. Conception na may bigat 90 na tonelada na may 45 katao sapamumuno ni Gasparde Quesada. Santiago na may bigat na 75tonelada na may 32katao sa pamumuno ni Juan Serrano. At Victoria de na may bigat na 85 na toneladana may 43 katao sa pamumuno ni Luis Mendoza.
Ang paglalayag Noong ika 30 ng Marso 1520 sinubukan agawin ng 3 sa mga pinuno ng barko angpamumuno sa expedition, sila luis de Mendoza ng Victoria, Gasparde Quesada ngConception at Juan de Cartagena ng San Antonio. Bago nag patuloy papunta pasipikoinutus niya na mag scout ang Santiago pero nag karoon ng bagyo at nasira ang Santiagoat naudlot ang pag lalayag nila. Noong ika 21 ng Octobre nahanap na nila ang dulo ngAmerika at tinawag na Strait of Magellan. Pinauna niya ang conception at San Antonio sapag lalayag ngunit sa bago pamumuno ni Gomez sa San Antonio tumakas sila dahil satakot na lumayag sa pasipiko. Nakabalik ang san Antonio sa Espanya noong ika 20 ngNobyembre. Noong ika 28 ng Nobyembre nakadating ang tatlo barko sa timog pasipiko.Tinawag niya ito Mar Pacifico( Pacific Ocean) dahil sa panatag ng dagat na ito.
From the Battle of Mactan to Conquests of Spaniards Battle of Mactan On 16 March 1521 Magellan sighted the mountains of what is now Samar whileon a mission to find a westward route to the Moluccas Islands for Spain. This eventmarked the arrival of the first Europeans in the Archipelago. The following day,Magellan ordered his men to anchor their ships on the shores of HomonhonIsland. There, he befriended Rajah Kulambu and Rajah Siagu the chieftain of Limasawa,who guided him to Cebu. He, and his queen were baptized into the Catholic faith, takingthe Christian names Carlos, in honor of King Charles of Spain, and Juana, in honor ofKing Charles mother. To commemorate this event, Magellan gave Juana the Santo Niño,an image of the infant Jesus, as a symbol of their new alliance. As a result of Magellan’sinfluence with Rajah Humabon, an order had been issued to the nearby chiefs that eachof them were to provide food supplies for the ships, and convert to Christianity. Most chiefs obeyed the order. However, Datu Lapu-Lapu, one of the two chiefswithin the island of Mactan, was the only chieftain to show his opposition. Lapu-Lapurefused to accept the authority of Rajah Humabon in these matters. This oppositionproved to be influential when Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s voyage chronicler, writes, On Friday, April twenty-six, Zula, the second chief of the island of Mactan, sentone of his sons to present two goats to the captain-general, and to say that he wouldsend him all that he had promised, but that he had not been able to send it to himbecause of the other chief Lapu-Lapu, who refused to obey the king of Spain.Rajah Humabon and Datu Zula suggested that Magellan go to the island of Mactan andforce his subject chieftain Datu Lapu-Lapu to comply with his orders. Magellan saw anopportunity to strengthen the existing friendship ties with the ruler of the Visaya regionand agreed to help him subdue the rebellious Lapu-Lapu.
VILLABOS EXPEDITION Ruy Lopez de Villalobos was commissioned in 1541 by the Viceroy of NewSpain, Antonio de Mendoza, who was the first colonial administrator in the New World,to send an expedition to the Islas del Poniente, meaning Island of the West, now knownas the Philippines. His fleet of six galleon ships, the Santiago, Jorge, San Antonio, SanCristóbal, San Martín, and San Juan, left Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico with 370 to400 men on November 1, 1542. On December 25, the fleet headed towards RevillaGigedo Islandsoff the west coast of Mexico. Between January 6 to 23, 1543, the galleon San Cristóbal piloted by Gines deMafra, who was a member of the crew of the Magellan expedition in 1519-1522, wasseparated from the fleet during a severe storm. This ship eventually reached the islandof Mazaua, a place where Magellan anchored in 1521. This was the second visit of deMafra to the Philippines, which is identified today as Limasawa in the southern island ofLeyte. The story of Limasawa was written in 1667 by a Jesuit priest, Friar FranciscoCombés. His documents on"Limasawa" has been translated by historians. On February 29, 1543, they entered Baganga Bay, which they named Malaga onthe eastern coast of Mindanao. López de Villalobos named Mindanao "Caesarea Karoli"after the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Spain. The fleet stayed there for 32 days;the entire crew suffered extreme hunger. He ordered his men to plant corn but it failed.On March 31, 1543, the fleet left in search of Mazaua for food. Because of low-windsthey could not sail on. After several days of struggle, they reached Sarangani.The galleon San Cristóbal, which had been driven ashore on Limasawa Island 2 monthsbefore, appeared unexpectedly with a load of rice and other foodstuffs for thecommander. On August 4, 1543, the San Juan, and San Cristóbal were sent back to Leyteand Samar for more food, with the San Juan to stock up for the Pacific crossing and toproceed to Mexico. A Portuguese contingent arrived on August 7, and delivered a letterfrom Jorge de Castro, governor of the Moluccas, demanding an explanation for thepresence of the fleet in Portuguese territory. López de Villalobos responded, in a letterdated August 9, that they were not trespassing, and were within the Demarcation Lineof the Crown of Castile. The San Juan left for Mexico on August 27, 1543, with Bernardo de la Torre ascaptain. Another letter from Castro arrived in the first week of September with thesame protest, and López de Villalobos wrote a reply dated September 12, 1543, with thesame message as his first. He departed to Abuyog, Leyte with his remaining ships,the San Juan, and the San Cristóbal. The fleet could not make headway because ofunfavorable winds. In April 1544, he sailed for Island of Amboyna. He, and his crew
members then made their way to the islands of Samar, and Leyte, which he named LasIslas Filipinas (The Philippine Islands) in honour of the Prince of Spain, Philip II. Drivenaway by hostile natives, hunger, and a shipwreck, López de Villalobos was forced toabandon his settlements in the islands, and the expedition. He, and his crew memberssought refuge in the Moluccas, where they quarrelled with the Portuguese, whoimprisoned them. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos died on April 4, 1544, in his prison cell on the islandof Amboyna, of a tropical fever, or as the Portuguese said "of a broken heart". Some 117remaining crew members survived, among them were de Mafra, and Guido deLavezaris. De Mafra produced one manuscript on the Magellan circumnavigation, andhad this delivered to Spain by a friend on board. They sailed for Malacca, where thePortuguese put them on a ship bound for Lisbon. Thirty elected to remain, including deMafra. His manuscript remained unrecognized for many centuries. It was discovered inthe 20th century, and published in 1920.