SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Kent Ridge Secondary School
Secondary 3 Social Studies
Source-based Question Skills: Reliability
Name: ________________________ Class: ___________ Date: _______________
What is reliability?
- how believable or trustable something is.
- E.g. “The world is square.” How believable is this? Why or why not?
Why do we need to know if a source is believable?
- this determines if the source can be used or not, in our arguments! [especially
when we have to prove an opinion.]
HOW TO CHECK FOR RELIABILITY?
Step 1: Check your provenance
- Who wrote this source?
- Is it possible that this person has a PURPOSE in writing this source? If this is so,
then this source MAY be bias and unreliable.
Step 2: Read your source
- Does the source have FACTS or just OPINIONS?
o Facts: A truth that can be measured or checked.
E.g. Singapore became independent in 1965. [There is no way that
this can be changed.]
o Opinions: A person’s own judgment or perspectives about something OR
general statements and ideas that may or may not be true.
E.g. I think Social Studies is the best subject ever. [This
perspective will be different for different people. It cannot be
E.g. Singaporeans generally are interested in YOG.
o If the source is supported by FACTS, then it is quite reliable. But is this
all you need to check?
o If the source has ONLY opinions, then we need double check. How?
- Does the source show only ONE perspective or does it show BOTH
perspectives on the issue?
o If the source shows only ONE side, then the source can possibly by BIAS.
o If the source shows TWO or more perspectives, then it is a BALANCED
and FAIR source. The author is willing to consider different perspectives
about the issue.
- Is there a PURPOSE?
o Is the source trying to INFLUENCE the readers to a particular opinion?
o Are there hidden meanings?
o Is there ANY possible reasons that the writer can choose to be bias?
o Who is the author writing this to? What is the message that the
author is trying to say? What is the aim of the message?
ALWAYS answer these 3 questions if you realize that there’s a
PURPOSE that the author has.
Step 3: Typicality
- Is the information from the source typical and common of what you know about
o E.g. Student A says that studying is most fun for students.
Issue: studying is fun for students
Is this a fact or opinion? _______________
Is this opinion common and typical for students?
Would this source be considered MORE reliable or LESS reliable?
Step 4: Cross-referencing
- Doublecheck the source with OTHER sources in the SBQ.
- Look for ONE or TWO other sources that talk about the SAME ISSUE as the
source you are checking about.
- What do the OTHER sources say?
o Do the other source SUPPORT what this source says?
o Do the other source DISAGREE with what this source says?
o How many sources AGREE or DISAGREE with what this source says?
- If OTHER sources support this source, then this source is MOST LIKELY reliable.
If not, then it is NOT.
Step 5: Evaluate and decide if the source is reliable or unreliable.
- Is it TOTALLY reliable or TOTALLY unreliable?
- Is it reliable to SOME extent?
How do you answer a question on reliability?
Qn: How reliable is source A? How to score well for such
Point: Source A is ______________. (to get high levels and
Is Source A reliable or more marks)
ALWAYS explain and
How do you know that support your answer using
Source A is reliable or
not? - Source content (if
you think that the
Did you get this author has a
information from… purpose, then write
I know this because the it down!)
1) Provenance provenance from Source A tells AND
- who is the author? me who the author is. The - Cross-reference
- Can the author be author is ___________. This
biased? means that (you explanation
2) Source content I know this because the source
- Facts versus content tells me so. (Continue
Opinions with explanation and quotes
- How many from the source).
there in the source
- Is this source
3) Cross-referencing I know this because Source B/C/
- What do the D supports/does not support
OTHER sources say Source A. Source A says
about this issue? ______________ about this
- Which source is issue. (However,) Source B/C/D
more believable? says __________________.