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Naming the Epoch:
Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Ecocene
Dr. Joanna Boehnert
P/T Research Fellow in Design - @ecocene
Center ...
Anthropocene
Capitalocene
Ecocene
Content
A: Anthropocene
•	What is occurring?
B: Capitalocene
•	Why is this occurring?
C: Ecocene
•	What would we like to o...
Anthropocene
Anthropocene
The evidence amassed by the scholars working in the Anthropocene
and cognate perspectives is indispensible. S...
Anthropocene
Photograph by Susannah Sayler of The Canary Project
Anthropocene
The Anthropos:
Humanity as an undifferentiated whole
It is important to be specific about
exactly what ‘anthropos’ are doing to
destabilise climate systems and other
planetary...
Anthropocene
Burtynsky’s Oil Fields #19ab, Belridge, California, USA, 2003.
III. Against the Anthropocene
By T.J. DEMOS | ...
Anthropocene
“In this framework, humans constitute a set of vectors – propelling
the ‘Great Acceleration’ – which threaten...
Anthropocene
“To portray certain social relations as the natural properties of the
species is nothing new. Dehistoricizing...
The Anthropocene must be
“as short/thin as possible”
											Haraway 2015, 60
This poster explores the social impact of the
current model of development. Humans and the
natural world provide essential...
P O L I C Y R E S E A R C H
C E N T E R FOR
SCIENCE&TECHNOLOGY
C
M
Y
CM
MY
CY
CMY
K
MAPPING Climate Communication - Networ...
www.eco-labs.org
Capitalocene
‘Design Activism’ in Creative Review. 8 October 2008 + an image from my paper ‘Hopenhagen: D...
Capitalocene
‘The Green Economy: Reconceptualizing the Natural Commons as Natural Capital’.
Environmental Communication. R...
Capitalocene
Econopoly by EcoLabs 2011
Capitalocene
The capitalocene concept is vigorously contested.
Capitalocene
Capitalocene
“there is no advantage to us to bring the
Anthropocene into the future…
..the mythos of the Anthropocene does not
help us…...
Ecocene
Options
•	 Chthulucene (Donna Haraway) “it does outline the
necessary ethics of what Haraway terms ‘response-
abil...
Ecocene
Ecocene
•	well versed with the critical perspective of the capitalocene
•	like chthulucene but easier to say
•	lik...
Ecocene
THE STEADY STATE ECONOMY
A Totem of Real Happiness
www.eco-labs.org
The Steady State Economy
EcoLabs 2009. Graphic...
Ecocene
“We are not fighting for nature we are nature
defending itself” The Climate Games. Cop21 Paris
References
Armstrong, Rachel (2015) ‘Keynote Presentation’, Urban Ecologies
2015: A conference examining the future design...
Dr. Joanna Boehnert https://ecolabsblog.wordpress.com | www.eco-labs.org | @EcoLabs + @ecocene | j.boehnert@westminster.ac...
Naming the Epoch: Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Ecocene
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Naming the Epoch: Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Ecocene

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The Anthropocene is the proposed name for the geological epoch where humanity is dramatically affecting geological processes. The name draws attention to severe environmental problems – but it also does other things. Jason Moore asks: “Does the Anthropocene argument obscure more than it illuminates?” (2014, 4). Donna Haraway argues that the Anthropocene must be “as short/thin as possible” (2015, 160). Moore, Haraway, Solon and Latour claim the concept uncritically imports Western rationality, imperialism and anthropocentrism – and thereby narrows options for the development of sustainable alternatives.

It is important to be specific about exactly what ‘anthropos’ are doing to destabilise climate systems and other planetary boundaries. There is a particular model of development driving dramatic Earth System change. There are other options. In response to this problem, the Capitalocene is a concept that asserts: “the logic of capital drives disruption of Earth System. Not humans in general” (Salon, 2014).

Bruno Latour says the Capitalocene is “a swift way to ascribe this responsibility to whom and to where it belongs” (2014, 139). It is more specific. Consequently it opens space for other opinions. Yet while the Capitalocene is critical, is not creative. Beyond the assumptions of Anthropocene and the critical perspective of the Capitalocene, new ways of understanding social and ecological relations are emergent.

Design theorist Rachel Armstrong states “there is no advantage to us to bring the Anthropocene into the future… The mythos of the Anthropocene does not help us… we must re-imagine our world and enable the Ecocene” (2015). New ecologically informed ways of thinking and living must be generated. The Ecocene has yet to be designed. Its emergence depends on a new understanding of ecological-human relations and new types of development that emerge from this perspective. The transformative Ecocene describes a curative catalyst for cultural change necessary to survive the Anthropocene.

A presentation at Climate Change: Spatial, Environmental and Cultural Politics University of Brighton, Thursday 28-Friday 29 April 2016.

Publié dans : Environnement
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Naming the Epoch: Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Ecocene

  1. 1. Naming the Epoch: Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Ecocene Dr. Joanna Boehnert P/T Research Fellow in Design - @ecocene Center for Research and Education in Arts and Media (CREAM) University of Westminster Founder of EcoLabs - @ecolabs http://ecolabsblog.wordpress.com + www.eco-labs.org
  2. 2. Anthropocene Capitalocene Ecocene
  3. 3. Content A: Anthropocene • What is occurring? B: Capitalocene • Why is this occurring? C: Ecocene • What would we like to occur?
  4. 4. Anthropocene
  5. 5. Anthropocene The evidence amassed by the scholars working in the Anthropocene and cognate perspectives is indispensible. Such evidence helps us outline the problems, and descriptively answer the first key question, “What is occurring?” Moore 2015, 25
  6. 6. Anthropocene Photograph by Susannah Sayler of The Canary Project
  7. 7. Anthropocene The Anthropos: Humanity as an undifferentiated whole
  8. 8. It is important to be specific about exactly what ‘anthropos’ are doing to destabilise climate systems and other planetary boundaries. Anthropocene
  9. 9. Anthropocene Burtynsky’s Oil Fields #19ab, Belridge, California, USA, 2003. III. Against the Anthropocene By T.J. DEMOS | Published: 25. MAY 2015 “typical of Burtynsky’s tendency to make monumental, awe-inspiring photographs from scenes of environmental violence—violence defined not only locally in terms of the damage to regional landscapes, but also globally in relation to the contribution of industrial fossil fuel production to destructive climate change... The problem is that such images tend to naturalize petrocapitalism, with a photography mesmerized by the compositional and chromatic elements of the very infrastructure responsible for our environmental destruction. Which reminds me of Walter Benjamin’s oft-quoted insight about fascist aesthetics: “Its self-alienation has reached the point where it can experience its own annihilation as a supreme aesthetic pleasure.” Yet another function of Burtynsky’s imagery is to generalize responsibility for that destruction to species-being—a key ideological trope of the Anthropocene.
  10. 10. Anthropocene “In this framework, humans constitute a set of vectors – propelling the ‘Great Acceleration’ – which threatens planetary crisis. Humans are placed in one category, Nature in another, and the feedbacks between them identified. And this dualist fame constrains our vision of the possible contours and deepening contradictions of the century ahead. For key to understanding the unfolding systemic crisis of the twenty-first centry is a historical method – which implies a new radical praxis – in which humans and extra-human natures co-produce historical change.” Moore 2015, 25
  11. 11. Anthropocene “To portray certain social relations as the natural properties of the species is nothing new. Dehistoricizing, universalizing, eternalizing, and naturalizing a mode of production specific to a certain time and place — these are the classic strategies of ideological legitimation... Without antagonism, there can never be any change in human societies. Species-thinking on climate change only induces paralysis. If everyone is to blame, then no one is.” Malm 2015
  12. 12. The Anthropocene must be “as short/thin as possible” Haraway 2015, 60
  13. 13. This poster explores the social impact of the current model of development. Humans and the natural world provide essential ‘resources’ for the purpose of creating products, profits and economic growth. Yet economic growth does not necessarily equal greater well-being. Research has demonstrated that only 1% of growth contributes to rising standards of living. Prosperity is increasingly concentrated and over the past 30 years inequality has risen in over 75% of the countries Global North (OECD countries). Although there is more than enough food to meet everyone’s needs, 13% of the global population face hunger. Meanwhile, 30-50% of the food supply is simply wasted. It appears that the current model of development fails to provide prosperity for the majority. 3/4 countries in the Global North face greater inequality than in 1980.1% of global food supply would eliminate hunger - yet 30-50% of global food supply is simply wasted. Economic Growth THE BALANCE SHEET FOR GROSS GLOBAL PROSPERITY JZ1122 Cheap energy made industrial development possible. One barrel of crude oil contains, in energy terms, the equivalent to the heavy manual labour of 12 people working for one year. As easily accessible fossil fuel supplies diminish, the era of cheap energy is ending. One way to understand the consequences of energy scarcity is by measuring EROI, i.e. ‘Energy Return On Investment’. In the 1900s EROI was between 100:1 – 50:1. Energy from renewables and unconventional fossil fuels have much lower EROIs; for example the Tar Sands have a EROI of as little as only 3:1. An integrated audit of development that includes energy issues indicates that the current model of development has created dangerous vulnerabilities in its reliance on fossil fuel. 159Lt One barrel of crude oil, containing 159 litres, is equivalent to the heavy manual labour of 12 people for one year. VS4 million wind turbines could replace fossil fuels usage globally - 20 million cars are produced every year so it is technically possible. Global fossil fuels subsidies amounted to $523 billion in 2011, up almost 30% on 2010 - this is six times more than subsidies to renewables, and up 30% from 2010. THE BALANCE SHEET FOR GROSS GLOBAL PROSPERITY Energy Return on Energy Investment EROI in the 1900s = 100:1 – 50:1 EROI in the tarsands = 5:1 – 3:1 EROI estimated to be necessary for ‘civilisation’ to sustain itself = 5:1 All expansionary phases of the US economy occurred during times of low energy prices. * Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) World = 1851 USA = 7069 EU = 3412 Low Income countries = 363 Percentage of total energy consumption that is based on fossil fuels   World = 80% USA = 83% EU = 75% Low income countries = 29% JZ1122 The Earth’s ability to provide an accommodating environment is undermined by our activities. The Earth is our life-supporting system. Despite this basic fact, measured in biophysical terms, the planet is shrinking due to human interventions. Over the past forty years the Living Planet Index (an indicator of the state of biodiversity) has fallen by 30% in northern countries and fallen by 60% in the tropics. During this time there has been a doubling of demands on natural systems. Assessing the capacity of the ecological system to continue to provide favorable conditions for civilization must be part of an audit of development. Ecological systems have thresholds that can lead to sudden collapse. Nine planetary boundaries are central to avoid crossing critical tipping points. Three boundaries have already been transgressed: climate change, the rate of biodiversity loss and the global nitrogen cycle. The Anthropocene is a new geological age 2/3 ecosystems are exploited beyond their capacity BIODIVERSITY LOSS NITROGEN FLOW PHOSPHORUS FLOW CLIMATE CHANGE OZONE DEPLETION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL LOAD OCEAN ACIDITY FRESHWATER CONSUMPTION CHEMICAL POLLUTION AGRICULTURAL LAND USE PLANETARY BOUNDARIES Biodiversity has been fallen by a rate of 30% in northern countries and 60% in the tropical world over the past 40 years. 97-98% of scientists agree climate change is caused by humankind THE BALANCE SHEET FOR GROSS GLOBAL PROSPERITY characterized by dynamics where our industrial patterns are a force dramatically effecting natural, biophysical and geological processes. The Earth is the foundation for substance, but an ecological audit indicates that the model of development is now so dysfunctional that human survival is at stake. JZ1122 Audit of Development. EcoLabs 2012. Content and art directed by: Dr. Joanna Boehnert. Graphic design by: Lazaros Kakoulidis and Tzortzis Ralli. Capitalocene Audit of Development. EcoLabs 2012. Content and art directed by: Dr. Joanna Boehnert Graphic design by: Lazaros Kakoulidis and Tzortzis Ralli
  14. 14. P O L I C Y R E S E A R C H C E N T E R FOR SCIENCE&TECHNOLOGY C M Y CM MY CY CMY K MAPPING Climate Communication - Network of Actors - 2015 OUTLINES T PRINT.pdf 1 22/01/2015 11:55 Capitalocene Mapping Climate Communication No.2: Network of Actors. J.Boehnert, 2014
  15. 15. www.eco-labs.org Capitalocene ‘Design Activism’ in Creative Review. 8 October 2008 + an image from my paper ‘Hopenhagen: Design Activism as an Oxymoron’ for the Design History Society
  16. 16. Capitalocene ‘The Green Economy: Reconceptualizing the Natural Commons as Natural Capital’. Environmental Communication. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
  17. 17. Capitalocene Econopoly by EcoLabs 2011
  18. 18. Capitalocene The capitalocene concept is vigorously contested.
  19. 19. Capitalocene
  20. 20. Capitalocene
  21. 21. “there is no advantage to us to bring the Anthropocene into the future… ..the mythos of the Anthropocene does not help us… ...we must re-imagine our world and enable the Ecocene” Rachel Armstrong 2015
  22. 22. Ecocene Options • Chthulucene (Donna Haraway) “it does outline the necessary ethics of what Haraway terms ‘response- ability,’ the skilled capacities for survival on a damaged planet that include the practice of justice and sustainable belonging.” T.J. Demos 2016 • Gynocene: (Beth Stephens and Annie Sprinkle) “gender-equalized, even feminist-led, interventionist environmentalism, which locates anthropogenic geological violence as coextensive with patriarchal domination, linking ecocide and gynocide.” T.J. Demos 2016
  23. 23. Ecocene Ecocene • well versed with the critical perspective of the capitalocene • like chthulucene but easier to say • like chthulucene but easier to remember • like chthulucene but less frightening • like gynocene but with a focus on all types of oppressions • an ontology, epistemology and ethic emerging from ecological thought, i.e. ecological literacy
  24. 24. Ecocene THE STEADY STATE ECONOMY A Totem of Real Happiness www.eco-labs.org The Steady State Economy EcoLabs 2009. Graphic design by Angela Morelli Based on a paper by Herman Daly, illustrating an article in EcoMag No.1 (2009), London: EcoLabs.
  25. 25. Ecocene “We are not fighting for nature we are nature defending itself” The Climate Games. Cop21 Paris
  26. 26. References Armstrong, Rachel (2015) ‘Keynote Presentation’, Urban Ecologies 2015: A conference examining the future design of our cities, 18-19 June 2015, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: OCAD, Ontario College of Art. Demos, T.J. (2015) ‘III Against the Anthropocene’, Foto_Museum. 25 May 2015. Accessed 22 May 2016: http://blog.fotomuseum. ch/2015/05/iii-against-the-anthropocene Demos, T.J. (2015) ‘V. Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Gynocene: The Many Names of Resistance’, Foto_Museum. 12 June 2015. Accessed 22 May 2016: http://blog.fotomuseum.ch/2015/06/ v-anthropocene- capitalocene-gynocene-the-many-names-of-resistance Haraway, Donna (2015) Anthropocne, capitalocene, plantationocene, chthulucene: Making Kin. Environmental Humanities, 6, pp.159-165. Malm, Andreas (2015) ‘The Anthropocene Myth: Blaming all of human- ity for climate change lets capitalism off the hook’, Jacobin. 3 March 2015. Accessed 22 May 2016: https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/03/ anthropocene-capitalism-climate-change/ Moore, Jason (2015) Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital. London: Verso.
  27. 27. Dr. Joanna Boehnert https://ecolabsblog.wordpress.com | www.eco-labs.org | @EcoLabs + @ecocene | j.boehnert@westminster.ac.uk 2014201320122011201020092008200720062005 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 1st Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) report published yearly since 2010. 2st NIPCC report 3rd NIPCC report 4th NIPCC report 5th NIPCC report Rising Tide North America + Europe founded (2006) 1st of many Climate Camps in the UK and then globally (2006) US House Passes the "American Clean Energy and Security Act" (2009) - later defeated in Senate 350.org Global Day of Action 2009 100,000 people march in the streets of Copenhagen and hold their own People’s Climate Assembly, joined by 100s of U.N. delegates. Tar Sands Action: 1,253 protestors arrested at the White House - 2011 Occupy movement - 2011 Idle No More Indigenous movement 2012 CREDO Pledge of Resistance over 75,000 vow to commit civil disobedience if the Keystone XL pipeline is approved - 2013 The Global Warming Petition contrarian petition also known as the Oregon Petition organized in 1989 and again in 2007 EU Emissions trading launches The first carbon emissions trading scheme (EU) implemented. 2005 President Obama releases the Climate Action Plan including increased use of renewable energy and carbon pollution restrictions for power plants. June 25, 2013 !!! !!! !!! !!! protests at G8 Gleneagles Scotland 2005 !!! Transition Towns founded, UK 2006 5th,2013/14(AR5)4th,2007(AR4) Hopenhagen UN global marketing campaign at Copenhagen, aligns climate objectives with corporate advertising. Hopenhagend becomes a symbol of the corporate capture of the climate debate. COP15 Copenhagen 2009 RIO+20 Earth Summit 2012 COP13 Bali 2007 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Al Gore and the IPCC 2007 The Inconvenient Truth Academy Award winning documentary film re-energizes the climate movement - 2006 Newsweek: "The Truth About Denial" cover story, leads to less contrarian media outside Fox News churnalism OP10 nos Aires 2004 COP11 Montreal 2005 COP12 Nairobi 2006 COP14 Poznan 2008 COP16 Cancun 2010 COP17 Durban 2011 COP18 Doha 2012 COP19 Warsaw 2013 COP20 Lima 2014 loss of 2/3 US newspapers with science sections in 2 decades Stern Review The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change claims that climate change is "the greatest market failure the world has ever seen". UK - 2006 Climategate Gleneagles G8 Peak coverage in 2009 5 times larger than 2000 The rise of ‘responsibilitization’ discourse wherein responsibility for climate change is considered at an individual level rather than at the level where decisions are made regarding regulation for polluting industry, i.e. government policy. Katrina 2nd peak 4th peak CO2 is Green campaign Leipzig Declaration (revised) SEPP project opposing the global warming 2005 revised 300% increase in climate change lobbyist in the USA (2005 - 2009) - with $90m expenditure dustry workforce since 2001 ‘bias’ as ‘balance’, i.e. the false balance of science vs. opinion / ideology, conforming to the journalistic norm of ‘balance’ and conflict. Boykoff 2011 Representative Joe Barton attacks climate scientist Michael Mann Post Rio+20: The United Nations Environment Programe (UNEP) promotes a version of the "green economy" where economic valuation processes are to be used to prove the value of ecosystem services, including climate services, to industry and politicians. The Copenhagen Accord Obama Climate Plan UK government dismantles the Sustainable Development Commission 2011 Canadian government cuts over 2000 scientific jobs and silences scientists UK government makes dramatic cuts in the Environment Agency (1,700 jobs lost) 1st International Conference on Climate Change hosted by Heartland Institute in NYC H1 H2 H3 H5 H7 H4 H6 H8 H9 Sandy 3rd peak 5th peak Climate Justice Now! founded in Bali (2007) 4th peak eclaration on the on of Climate Change ched at COP10 (2004) Nicholas Stern claims his report underestimated the gravity of climate change Fourth IPCC report warns that serious effects of warming have become evident and that the cost of reducing emissions would be far less than the damage they will cause if not reduced. Climate Summit in New York in preperation for COP 21 in Paris, 2015. September 2014 The Climate Change Act UK government becomes the first to set binding targets to reduce emission 2008 UK Feed-in tarriffs for solar installations approved - 2008 Clean Development Mechanism opens A key mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol 2006 2008 - CNN cuts entire science and technology budget in 2008 Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin campaigns for US presidency with the slogan “ Drill, baby, drill’ 2008 2010 highest ever yearly increase in global emissions - 5.9% Canadian government withdraws from Kyoto This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein 2014 l Warming’ April 2014 is the first month in human history with average carbon dioxide level in Earth’s atmosphere at 400 ppm of Fear richton. A novel at global warming ated by environmentalists ary control is popular with s in Washington and widely ss climate change. Climate Change: A Summary of the Science The Royal Society (UK) USA Today proclaim: “The debate is over: the globe is warming” Heartland Institute billboard campaign (2012) excerpts from e-mails stolen from climate scientists fuel public skepticism Copenhagen conference fails to negotiate binding agreements. US National Academy warns of political assaults on scientists 2010 US Republican majority eliminates the House Committee on Global Warming 2011 International Energy Agency report warns of 6º warming 2011 s‘ paper in e scientific climate change US house of Representatives votes 184-240 against accepting the following resolution: “the scientific finding of the Environmental Protection Agency that climate change is occuring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks to public heath and welfare” April 2011 !!! Vanity Fair: The Green Issue The Great Global Warming Swindle Channel 4 (UK) documentary formally criticized by Ofcom, UK broadcasting regulatory agency. 2007 No Climate Tax campaign Climate Change: Trick or Treat? (CNN) mass mobilization of the climate justice movement Manhattan Declaration on Climate Change by the International Climate Science Coalition World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth 30,000 gather in Cochabamba, Bolivia - 2010 China overtakes USA as world's largest CO2 emitter 2007 Syndey Washington Chicago Munich Las Vegas Washington NewYork Chicago International Treaty to Protect the Sacred. Indigenous action on tar sands extraction - 2013 'Largest-ever' climate-change march in NYC attended by an estimated 300k to 400k people - and marchs in cities around the world mobilization of the climate movement !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! Kyoto treaty goes into effect, signed by all major industrial nations except US and Australia - 2005 “Carbon dioxide. They call it pollution. We call it life.” disinformation campaign created by The Competitive Enterprise Institute The Merchants of Doubt by Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway documents the climate contrarian movement 2010 Bolivia’s chief climate negotiator Angelica Navarro delivers speech on climate debt at the UN To Really Save the Planet, Stop Going Green by Mike Tidwell rejecting green consumerism

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