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“The beginning of
wisdom, is the
definition of terms”
    - Socrates
What is a cognitive bias?
Cognitive biases are psychological tendencies
that cause the human brain to draw incorrect
concl...
History
                                                                         Amos Tversky               Daniel Kahnema...
conte
                         nts

    social biases              memory biases




decision-making biases    probability...
social biases
19* social biases                                                                                  19* social biases
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memory biases
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decision-making
     biases
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probability
/ belief biases
Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases
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Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases 42* decision-making Cognitive biases - a visual study guide

Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases
42* decision-making biases 42* decision-making biases

Focusing effect Framing
Using an approach or description
Prediction bias occurring when
of the situation or issue that is
people place too much importance
too narrow. Also framing effect –
on one aspect of an event; causes
drawing different conclusions
error in accurately predicting the
based on how data is presented.
utility of a future outcome.


Experimenter's
Illusion of control or Expectation bias
The tendency for human beings The tendency for experimenters to
to believe they can control or at believe, certify, and publish data that
least influence outcomes that agree with their expectations for the
they clearly cannot. outcome of an experiment, and to
disbelieve, discard, or downgrade
the corresponding weightings for
data that appear to conflict with
those expectations.
Outcome bias
The tendency to judge a decision
by its eventual outcome instead of Information bias
based on the quality of the decision The tendency to seek information
at the time it was made. even when it cannot affect action.




Post-purchase Extraordinarity bias
The tendency to value an object
rationalization more than others in the same
The tendency to persuade oneself
category as a result of an
through rational argument that a
extraordinarity of that object that
purchase was a good value.
does not, in itself, change the value.



*number listed here is not an academic fact, it is simply listed to aid the memorization process.

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