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“The beginning of
wisdom, is the
definition of terms”
    - Socrates
What is a cognitive bias?
Cognitive biases are psychological tendencies
that cause the human brain to draw incorrect
concl...
History
                                                                         Amos Tversky               Daniel Kahnema...
conte
                         nts

    social biases              memory biases




decision-making biases    probability...
social biases
19* social biases                                                                                  19* social biases
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memory biases
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decision-making
     biases
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probability
/ belief biases
Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases
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19* social biases 19* social Cognitive biases - a visual study guide

19* social biases 19* social biases
Forer effect / Barnum effect Dunning-Kruger / Superiority Bias
Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases




The tendency to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their Overestimating one's desirable qualities, and underestimating undesirable
personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are qualities, relative to other people. Also known as Superiority bias
in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. (also known as "Lake Wobegon effect", "better-than-average effect",
For example, horoscopes. "superiority bias", or Dunning-Kruger effect).


Ingroup bias System justification effect /
The tendency for people to give preferential
treatment to others they perceive to be
members of their own groups.
Status Quo Bias
The tendency to defend and bolster the status quo. Existing social,
economic, and political arrangements tend to be preferred, and
Self-fulfilling prophecy alternatives disparaged sometimes even at the expense of individual
and collective self-interest. (See also status quo bias.)
The tendency to engage in behaviors that elicit results which
will (consciously or not) confirm existing attitudes.
Illusion of asymmetric insight
Halo effect People perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers'
knowledge of them.
The tendency for a person's positive or negative traits to "spill
over" from one area of their personality to another in others'
perceptions of them (see also physical attractiveness stereotype).
Illusion of transparency
Ultimate attribution error People overestimate others' ability to know them, and they also
overestimate their ability to know others.
Similar to the fundamental attribution error, in this error a
person is likely to make an internal attribution to an entire
group instead of the individuals within the group.

Herd instinct
False consensus effect Common tendency to adopt the opinions and follow the
behaviors of the majority to feel safer and to avoid conflict.
The tendency for people to overestimate the degree to
which others agree with them.

Fundamental attribution error /
Self-serving bias /
Actor-observer bias
Behavioral confirmation effect The tendency for people to over-emphasize personality-based
The tendency to claim more responsibility for successes than explanations for behaviors observed in others while under-
failures. It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to emphasizing the role and power of situational influences on the same
evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial behavior (see also actor-observer bias, group attribution error,
to their interests (see also group-serving bias). positivity effect, and negativity effect).


Notational bias = Projection bias
A form of cultural bias in which the notational conventions of The tendency to unconsciously assume that others share the
recording data biases the appearance of that data toward (or away same or similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or positions.
from) the system upon which the notational schema is based.


Egocentric bias Outgroup homogeneity bias
Occurs when people claim more responsibility for themselves
ME us them Individuals see members of their own group as being relatively
more varied than members of other groups.
for the results of a joint action than an outside observer would.


Just-world phenomenon Trait ascription bias
The tendency for people to believe that the world is just and I You The tendency for people to view themselves as relatively variable in terms of
therefore people "get what they deserve." personality, behavior and mood while viewing others as much more predictable.


*number listed here is not an academic fact, it is simply listed to aid the memorization process.

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