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The role of design thinking

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Design thinking is a deeply human process that taps into abilities we all have but get overlooked by more conventional problem-solving practices. It relies on our ability to be intuitive, to recognize patterns, to construct ideas that are emotionally meaningful as well as functional, and to express ourselves through means beyond words or symbols. Nobody wants to run an organization on feeling, intuition, and inspiration, but an over-reliance on the rational and the analytical can be just as risky. Design thinking provides an integrated third way.

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The role of design thinking

  2. 2. What actually is design thinking? And what it’s not. 1
  3. 3. Design thinking is often confused with visual design.
  4. 4. We are talking about design in its broadest meaning.
  5. 5. Design thinking is a way or thinking that is very suitable for solving wicked problems.
  6. 6. Design thinking is a user-centered approach to problem solving.

  7. 7. ISSUE Solution First vs Problem No real understanding
  8. 8. Too close to the problem No view of context
  9. 9. Opening without closing No Focus, No Goal
  10. 10. Closing too soon Bias, Prejudice
  11. 11. Fear of jumping No real change
  12. 12. People resistance to change Expect and manage
  13. 13. Failing without learning Learn and build up
  14. 14. Design thinking = Strategic thinking Problem finding Doing the right thing Problem solving Doing the right thing Lean Startups Design Thinking Agile Execute: Classic Lean Value migration and the shift to a value creation economy.
  15. 15. Adapted from Hasso & Laaksi (2011) and Johansson-Sköldberg, Woodilla and Çetinkaya (2014) 1960’s 1970’s 1980’s 1969 Herbert Simon Science of the Artificial 1983 Donald Schön The reflective Practitioner 1987 Peter G. Rowe Design Thinking 1992 Richard Buchanan Wicked Problems in Design Thinking 2008 Tim Brown (IDEO) Design Thinking 2001 Nigel Cross Designerly Ways of Knowing 1 9 9 0 ’ s 2001 Tom Kelley (IDEO) The art of Innovation 2006 David Dunne & Roger Martin Design Thinking & How it will change management education Scholarlydiscourse investigatinghow designersthink&work Practicebased discoursed 1980 Brian Lawson How Designers Think Design Thinking Origins
 1990’s 2000’s 1 9 9 0 ’ s
  16. 16. Design thinking integrates...
 business (viability) technology (feasibility) people (desirability)
  17. 17. Key elements 1. People-centered 2. Highly creative 3. Hands-on 4. Iterative !
  18. 18. Focus on people You start from what people, users, customers, consumers, (…) need or want to do. Their motivations and the problems they are trying to solve. Empathy is key. It’s not about you. You need the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. 1
  19. 19. We create options Design thinking stimulates you to look at situations differently and come up with new solutions, that go beyond and improve existing alternatives. Integrative thinking is key. You need the ability to look at all the different aspects of a problem. 2
  20. 20. Do/Think Think/Do
 Stop discussing, start working. Make ideas tangible. Prototyping is thinking with your hands. Test your hypnotises. Failure is a (necessary) part of the process in order to succeed. Experiments with trial and error are key. 3
  21. 21. Iterative The road to success does not follow a straight line. The more you are able to loop through “understand > create > learn” cycle, the higher chance you have for good results. 4 REFINE PROTOTYP E FEEDBAC K
  22. 22. Google Ventures ‘Design Sprint’
  23. 23. The design thinking process Key pillars, model & steps 2
  24. 24. Steps Different names, but same overall idea

  25. 25. discover define develop deliver
  26. 26. discover define develop deliver diverge converge
  27. 27. discover define develop deliver general problem specific problem or opportunity solution
  28. 28. How it feels Unknown | Patterns | Insights Clarity | Focus Research DesignPrototype “The Process of Design Squiggle” by Damien Newman, Central Office of Design
  29. 29. Not for every challenge! Design thinking (creative, intuitive, emotional) is not the answer to every single problem. For some question you will need rational thinking, spreadsheets, powerpoint and wo/men in suits to come to a valid answer (e.g. acquiring a local competitor).
  30. 30. ‘Wicked’ problems? Problems that are ill-defined: both problem and solution are unknown at the beginning. A large part of the problem solving is actually defining the problem. And/or tricky: it involves quite a bit of risk, as you are leaving the comfort zone of the organisation.
  31. 31. Pick a challenge
  32. 32. Create a team
  33. 33. Insights Ideation Implementation Inspiration
  34. 34. Another way of visualizing Understand Observe Define Ideate Prototype Iterate timebreadth
  35. 35. Understand Understand the experience, situation and emotion of the person who you are working for. Goal: Gain basic knowledge so you know the right questions to ask.
 Methods " Web research (but go beyond Google) " Brief interviews for background " Reach out to friends who may be connected/have information on domain At the end of this step " More questions than answers " Know what’s come before in this space, and what the main open questions are
  36. 36. Observe Gain empathy with your target users by talking and observing them.
 Goal: Gain basic knowledge so you know the right questions to ask.
 Methods: " Observe and listen in context. Watch what they do, not what they say. As people don’t always say what they do, or why. " Engage with people in conversations and interviews. " Ask why. Watch and listen. Ask someone to complete a task and tell you what they are doing.
 “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses.” (Henry Ford...maybe)
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  37. 37. How to do it Problems can be solved, or even better new futures created. Recognize existing knowledge - identify people to speak with. Choose Research Methods (choose 3 as a team) " Observation " Analogous Inspiration " Individual Interview " In-Context Immersion " Self-Documentation " Expert Interviews

  38. 38. Identify the people you want to speak to AffectedInvolved Experts
  39. 39. Tip Use Persona Empathy Mapping to Understand Behavior
  40. 40. Hears Sees Pains Goals Thinks
  41. 41. Tip Look towards extremes

  42. 42. Tip Explore analogous experiences Experiencing what it’s like to ride in a self-driving car by riding a tandem bike.

  43. 43. Define Process and synthesise the findings in order to form a user point of view that you will address. Goal: Come up with a point of view statement that will inform your prototyping. " Identify key themes to get a sense of priority and hierarchy from findings. " Combine and select a limited set of needs that you think are important to fulfil, that sets the problem in a new light. " Express insights you developed and define principles, by using frameworks. 3 Patterns Insight Focus Observations and findings Insights and Opportunities
  44. 44. How to do it You can't design for everyone, and you can't fix every need you identified. Instead, tightly focus on one. " Tell stories. Some things to get the ball rolling
 … who was the person?
 … what surprised you?
 … what did you learn?
 … what did you find inspiring? " Capture what was said on post-its " Analyse and interpret meaning " Look for patterns and create buckets / themes

  45. 45. Ideate Focus on idea generation. You translate problems into solutions. Explore a wide variety and large quantity of ideas to go beyond the obvious solutions to a problem. Goal: Based on your point of view, generate as many ideas as possible.
 Methods " Set yourself a time limit, and try to generate a minimum number of ideas (100 ideas in 60 minutes). “If you want to have good ideas you must have many ideas” - Linus Pauling Nobel Prize winning Chemist " Come together as a team after activity & brainstorm together
  46. 46. How to do it Assign a moderator who can keep time, collect ideas and maintain the brainstorm rules. " Visualise your ideas on post-its, Go for quantity! " Collect all idea post-its on flip-charts. " Spend 5-10 minutes brainstorming per question. " If you get stuck, move on to another. " At the end, vote on your top 3 ideas that the team feels like developing further.

  47. 47. Tip Choose some opportunity area and formulate the challenge in positive way.
 How might we….?
  48. 48. Tip There are no bad ideas at this point. There’s plenty of time to judge later.

  49. 49. Tip Go for quantity (not quality). Set an outrageous goal and surpass it.

  50. 50. Tip It’s the wild ideas that often provide the breakthroughs. It is always easy to bring ideas down to earth later.

  51. 51. Tip Build on the ideas of others.

  52. 52. Tip One conversation at a time. That way all ideas can be heard and built upon.

  53. 53. Tip Stay focussed on the topic. You get better output if everyone is disciplined.

  54. 54. Tip Be visual. Make your idea easier to understand.
  55. 55. Prototype Build to think. A simple, cheap and fast way to shape ideas so you can experience and interact with them. A prototype is anything that helps you communicate or test an experience with other people to get feedback
Goal: Make your ideas real & learn from people’s reactions to your prototype.
 Methods " Create an artefact in low resolution. This can be a physical object or a digital clickable sketch. Do it quick and dirty. " Create a scenario you can role play in a physical environment and let people experience your solution
  56. 56. David Kelley IDEO Founder “Prototyping allows us to fail early
 so we can succeed sooner.”

  57. 57. Storyboard the new experience Top tip: Start in the middle of your story with your ‘magic’ service moment, what are you trying to achieve? What is the story of your new product / service? Like a story, it should have a beginning, middle & an end before aftermagic moment Don’t forget context: who? what? why? where? when?
  58. 58. Inspire Build to think Build to experiment Evolve Expect changes Define sensibilities
  59. 59. Quick and
 Focused What does it feel like to hold this object use this app? What should the flow of screens be in an interactive prototype?

  60. 60. Iterate Ask for feedback on your prototypes. Learn about your user, reframe your view and refine your prototype. Goal: Take insights gained from prototyping and revisit your assumptions; sometimes you might go all the way back to the Understand phase.
 Methods " Show them your prototype. Give it in their hands and let them use it. Listen to what they say. " Create experiences and let people talk about how they experience it and how they feel. 5
  61. 61. 10 mins to prepare 3 minute pitch Stick to it. Tell us your vision!
  62. 62. WORD LIMITS 7.890 MORE INFORMATION DEMO TEXT “Good things, when short, are twice as good.”
 – Baltasar Gracian
  63. 63. What is the name of your idea?
 What is the solution?
 Who is it for? 
 Why people need it?
 What evidence do you have?
 What are your next steps?
 7.890 MORE INFORMATION DEMO TEXT Compelling Concise Conceptual Clear Concrete Consistent Credible Conversational Customized Compelling Concise Conceptual Concrete Consistent Credible Conversational Customized
  64. 64. Make it engaging but informative.

  65. 65. Gather Feedback Try to find proxy users if our ideal audience isn’t available.
  66. 66. Introduce your prototype and any background on the current design problem. Gather Feedback
  67. 67. Come up with 2-3 tasks that you’d like them to perform with your prototype. 2 things they liked about the prototype 1 thing they wish it did differently
 Gather Feedback
  68. 68. Stephanie Gioia (2011) XPLANE Discover Concept DoDesign CHESKIN Envision Explore InspireCreate Express CONIFER Research Catalog Synthesis Insights COOPER Research Modeling, Scenarios DesignFramework Communicate IDEO Inspiration Ideation Implementation FROG Discover Design Deliver FITCH Discover Define DoDesign N MELVILLE Explore Discover Implement & AssessConcept & Design Design thinking models
  69. 69. What should you remember? Key take outs !
  70. 70. Design thinking helps you…..
  71. 71. innovate…

  72. 72. differentiate from competitors
  73. 73. increase customer satisfaction
  74. 74. But it has it’s limits…/ 1. It’s good to skip endless research, meetings and strategy sessions, but under-thinking is as bad as over-thinking. 1. Great ideas that benefit consumers require a viable business strategy built into an idea. 1. Every problem is different. There is not one process or tool set to standardise design thinking.
  75. 75. ground rules Have fun Encourage wild ideas Bring ideas to life Work fast Work together, no spectators Done, not perfect
  76. 76. Empathy is key.Remember
  77. 77. 4 principles conversation
 collaboration visualising storytelling
  78. 78. Is a step-by-step process.Remember
  79. 79. Is repeated over multiple iterations. Remember
  80. 80. There is No ‘one size fits all’ approach.
  81. 81. The human touch remains important.
  82. 82. Is about DOING.Remember
  83. 83. DOING.START
  84. 84. Additional resources/ Case Studies This is design thinking - Case study archive Design thinking in IT - Intuit’s CEO on building a Design-Driven Company Design thinking in healthcare: Kaiser Permanente's innovation on the Front Lines Mayo Clinic Design Thinking in Health Care Customer centric workshop at Coca Cola (video) Design Thinking in Fast Food industry: Case video on Chick-fil-A Design Thinking at Deutsche Bank, working with Student Teams (video) Design thinking at Citrix Organizations & Institutions: Stanford d.school, Palo Alto (CA,USA) / Video on design thinking IDEO a design and innovation consultancy firm Designkit.org webpage with tools and case studies Design Works at Rotman School of Management, Toronto (Canada)