1. AIR POLLUTION: REASONS, IMPACT &
DEPT. OF ECONOMICS
GOVERNMENT ARTS COLLEGE
3. There are many types of primary
pollutants, including carbon oxides,
nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,
particulates, lead, and volatile organic
Secondary pollutants form from
chemical reactions that occur when
pollution is exposed to sunlight.
Ozone is a secondary pollutant that is
also a greenhouse gas.
4. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
Others include headaches, nausea, and
allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution
can aggravate the medical conditions of
individuals with asthma and emphysema.
Long-term health effects can include
chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer,
heart disease, and even damage to the
brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys.
5. What is bad about air pollution?
Increased levels of fine particles in the air are
linked to health hazards such as heart disease,
altered lung function and lung cancer.
Particulates are related to respiratory infections
and can be particularly harmful to those already
suffering from conditions like asthma.
6. instruments used to measure the air
• At PCE Instruments, you will find air quality
monitoring devices that meet various industry
standards relating to personal safety and that
are used to detect, measure and monitor
relative humidity, ambient temperature and /
or levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde
8. • The 20 countries with the most polluted urban areas
• Pakistan - average PM 2.5 concentration: 115.7 (PM – Particle Pollution)
• Qatar - 92.4
• Afghanistan - 86
• Bangladesh - 83.3
• Egypt - 73
• UAE - 64
• Mongolia - 61.8
• India - 60.6
• Bahrain - 56.1
• Nepal - 50
• Ghana - 49
• Jordan - 48
• China - 41.4
• Senegal - 40
• Turkey - 39.1
• Bulgaria - 38.6
• Mauritius - 38.1
• Peru - 38
• Serbia - 35.8
• Iran - 34.2
9. • The world's cleanest cities
• #1: CALGARY. Calgary in Canada is the world's
cleanest city, and with a population of more
than a million, that's quite something. ...
• #2: ZURICH. Zurich in Switzerland attracts
thousands of tourists every year, especially
those who enjoy the winter snow. ...
• #3: LUXEMBOURG. ...
• #4: ADELAIDE. ...
• #5: SINGAPORE.
14. Top Most Polluting Countries in the World as of
• Pakistan. Pakistan has an average
concentration of PM 2.5 of 101ug/m3. ...
• Qatar. Qatar has an average concentration of
PM 2.5 of 92ug/mg3. ...
• Afghanistan. Advertisement. ...
• Bangladesh. ...
• Iran. ...
• Egypt. ...
• Mongolia. ...
• United Arab Emirates (U.A.E)
15. Cleanest Countries in the World 2018
• Finland. Finland sits at the top of the list with a
90.68 EPI score.
• Iceland. Like Finland, Iceland has great air quality.
• Sweden. Sweden, another Nordic country, checks
in at third place.
• Denmark. Next up we have Denmark, yet another
The air quality in Finland is good, because
Finland is situated far from big sources of
emissions and because Finland's own emissions
have been successfully curtailed. According to
WHO, Finland has the cleanest air of the EU
countries and the third cleanest air in the world
after Canada and Iceland.
17. Reasons why Finland has the cleanest air in the
NO INDUSTRIAL WASTES
THICK FOREST COVERS
18. Which is the most dirtiest country in the world?
Dirtiest Cities in The World
• Rawalpindi, Pakistan. ...
• Khorramabad, Iran. ...
• Antananarivo, Madagascar. ...
• Mumbai, India. ...
• Ahmadabad, India. ...
• Lucknow, India. ...
• Dhaka, Bangladesh. Home to more than 15
million people, Dhaka is extremely crowded. ...
• Baku, Azerbaijan. With a Health And Sanitation
score of just 27.6, Azerbaijan's capital city Baku is
Mercer's dirtiest city.
19. How does Canada protect the environment?
Legally binding measures to protect the
environment are essential to ensure the health,
safety and economic well-being of Canadians.
Strengthening federal environmental laws that
protect fish, water and the integrity of Canada's
20. • The 2016 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranked
India 141 out of 180 countries surveyed.
Study Of Air Quality In India
the quality of air in India based on indicators like
Household Air Quality and Outdoor Air Quality
affected by PM10, PM2.5, Ozone (O3), Nitrogen
oxides (NOX), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Carbon
monoxide (CO). It has been found that, around the
world, more deaths occur due to poor air quality
than water. The World Health Organization (WHO)
gives a guideline to measure air pollution in a
region according to which it had fixed the limit of
particulate matters in the air.
21. The World Health Organization considers air unsafe when
average exposure to any of these matters exceeds the limit.
According to the 2016 EPI, more than 3.5 billion people – half
of the world’s population – are exposed to unsafe air quality
which also includes 75% of India’s population.
22. • However, Indian air quality standard limits the
safe exposure to PM2.5 up to 40 μg/m3 and a
recent study reveals that 50% population
living in 45% districts of India is exposed at
PM2.5 concentration beyond 40 μg/m3.The
World Health Organization considers air
unsafe when average exposure to any of these
matters exceeds the limit. According to the
2016 EPI, more than 3.5 billion people – half
of the world’s population – are exposed to
unsafe air quality which also includes 75% of
23. • Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture consisting
of varying combinations of dry solid fragments, solid
cores with liquid coatings and small droplets of liquid.
These tiny particles vary greatly in shape, size and
chemical composition, and can be made up of many
different materials such as metals, soot, soil, and dust.
• PM10 is roughly one-seventh the diameter of a normal
human hair. PM10 is a major component of indoor air
pollution and forest fires. It consists of sulphate,
nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, and black carbon;
it may also include concentrations of natural
windblown dust. PM10 is harmful to health because it
can block and inflame nasal and bronchial passages,
causing a variety of respiratory-related conditions that
lead to illness or death.
24. • PM2.5 is often produced by biomass and fossil fuel combustion as well as natural
sources such as windblown dust and volcanic activity. It is often considered even
more dangerous to human health because of its ultrafine size and ability to cause
several diseases related to lung and heart. With every increase of 10 μg/m3 in
PM2.5 concentration, 36% increase in lung cancer was also observed.
• Ozone (O3), an important ingredient of smog, is a highly reactive and unstable
gas capable of damaging the linings of the respiratory tract that can cause lung
inflammation, shortness of breath, chest pain, wheezing, coughing and
exacerbation of respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and asthma. Long-term
exposure has been linked with chronic respiratory illnesses. Approximately
142,000 people died as a result of exposure to ozone in 2010 – an increase of
about 6% since 1990.
25. • Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are one of the principal pollutants that result from
fossil fuel combustion. It helps in the formation of ozone and also causes
several chronic diseases.
• Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a colourless gas with a very sharp odour formed
with the combustion of sulphur-based coal and oil. Sulfur dioxide can form
Sulphuric acidic upon combination with water and can cause acid rain.
SO2 can also cause respiratory and cardiac diseases which lead to
increased mortality rate.
• Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas, produced mostly by
vehicles, fuel combustion boilers and incinerators. It can cause headaches,
visual impairment, reduced cognitive functioning and ability, and reduced
ability to perform complex tasks. Very high levels can also result in
unconsciousness and eventually death.
27. • Carbon emission: India has seen an increase of 137% in
the carbon emission from 2001 to 2013 while China
has observed an increase of 191%. Again from 2014-
2016, carbon emission increased in India by 2%.
Between 1971 and 2014, total CO2 emission in India
has increased by more than 1100% with 181 million
tons in 1971 to 2190 million tons in 2014. In 2014,
carbon emission from India accounted for 6.78% of
total global emission.
• Nitrogen Oxides: From 1997 to 2011, NO2 emission in
India increased by 28% while Nitrogen Use Efficiency
decreased by almost 32%.
• Sulphur Dioxide (SO2): According to recent studies it
was found that SO2 emission in India from 2005-2012
increased by 71% while the SO2 burden on the
environment increased by 63%.
28. Solutions for Air Pollution
• Three basic strategies to reduce pollutant concentrations in
indoor air are source control, ventilation, and air cleaning.
• Under source control, we can reduce emissions through the
use of cleaner fuels, such as liquid petroleum gas and
• If possible we can insist the people to use cycles.
• Encouraging using Electrical motor vehicles.
• Under ventilation, air is exchanged between the inside and
outside of a building through the introduction of outdoor air.
• Air cleaning can be done with the help of mechanical air
• Planting trees as much as possible might help in tackling air
pollution in general.
• Here’s an example of how one can tackle air pollution on a
29. • Some policies and measures suggested by OECD are
making pollution more costly than greener
alternatives, removing environmentally harmful
subsidies, devising effective regulations and standards,
encouraging green innovation and integrating
environmental objectives in economic and sectoral
• Using public instead of private transport will also help
mitigate pollution. Local and metro trains based on
electricity can reduce the carbon load as is evident by
the case of the Delhi metro.
• One study shows that each extension of the metro rail
resulted in a decline in nitrogen dioxide and carbon
monoxide in Delhi. The estimates for nitrogen dioxide
reductions ranged from 3% to 47%, while those for
carbon monoxide ranged from 31% to 100%.