2. In the mid and late 19th century, Europe experienced a wave of
increasing opportunies of communication, due to industrialization and
international trade and travel.
A need was felt to develop oral proficiency in foreign languages.
Language teacher had already found Grammar translation method but
it is in adequate and ineffective in developing communication ability in
3. It is a method of teaching languages directly, it is meaning through demonstration,
dramatization without using the mother tongue. In general, teaching focuses on the
development of oral skills.
NATURAL METHOD PHONETICAL METHOD
4. • Students to think in English.
• Students to grasp ( kavramak ) what they read or hear as they grasp their mother
• Students to use unerring ( yanılmaz, hata yapmaz) language.
• Students to express their thoughts fluently in English.
• Direct method aims to build a direct relation between experience and language, word
and idea, thought and expression.
• This method is based on the assumption that the learner should experience the new
language in the same way as he/she experienced his/her mother tongue.
• This method intends for students to learn how to communicate in the target language.
5. The German scholar F.Franke wrote on the psychological
principles of direct association between forms and meanings in
the target language.
To use analytical procedures that focused on explanation of
grammar rules in classroom teaching, teachers must
encourage direct and spontaneous use of the foreing language
in the classroom.
PROCODURES AND PRINCIPLES
6. 1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
3. Grammar was taught inductively ( tümevarımsal ).
4. New teaching points were introduced orally.
5. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures;
abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
6. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
7. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
7. Never translate: demonstrate
Never explain: act
Never make a speech: ask question
Never imitate mistakes: correct
Never speak with single words: use sentences
Never speak too much: make students speak much
Never use the book: use your lesson plan
Never jump around: follow your plan
Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student
Never speak too slowly: speak normally
Never speak too quickly: speak naturally
Never speak too loudly: speak naturally
Never be impatient: take it easy
8. QUESTION-AND-ANSWER : The teacher asks question of any nature and students answer.
DICTATION (yazdırma) : The teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage and reads the passage aloud.
Teacher reads the passage three times.
READING ALOUD : Students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or dialogue out loud.
MAP DRAWING : Students are given a map without labeled then the students label it by using the directions
the teacher gives.
9. PARAGRAPH WRITING : The students are asked to write a
passage in their own words.
GETTING STUDENTS TO SELF-CORRECT : Teacher facilities
opportunities for students to self correct using follow up
question, tone etc.
FILL IN THE BLANK EXERCISE : Items use target language only
and inductive explicit grammar rules.
CONVERSATION PRACTICE : Teacher asks students and students
ask students question using target language.
10. Students and teachers are like partners.
The teacher never gives grammar rules, the learners have to induce them.
The teachers use association of meaning and ideas instead of explanations.
The teacher use demonstrations by means of pantomime, pictures etc.
They find new words and expressions by the natural use of the language.
Learners use their oral and written skills.
Students do not memorize.
They learn to think in the target language.
11. Tactics and strategies used by teachers and learners
when the method is being used :
1) In order to minimize stress and anxiety, the learners will not answer until they feel secure.
2) The teacher should speak slowly and clearly.
3) Learners do not transfer terms from their mother tongue to the new language. Translation is
4) Teacher encouranges students to use the language naturally and spontaneously.
12. It follow the natural order in which a child learns L1, that is, listening, speaking, reading and writing.
It lays great emphasis on speaking, the most important skill for many learners.
It avoids the unnatural block of translation in the communication process.
Learners learn the language, not about the language.
Learners have an active role.
Lively classroom procedures motivate the learner.
This method can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class.
Through this method, fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of expression are properly
13. X Learning L2 is not like learning L1. The child learning L1 has no previous language
learning experience, but learner learning L2 does.
X Learners run the risk of inducing incorrect rules.
X The metod ignores systematic written work and reading activities and sufficient
attention is not paid to reading and writing.
X In larger classes, this method is not properly applied and teaching.
X A great deal of teacher energy is required.
X If the teacher can not motivate the student to participate the class discussion,
teaching and learning process will be passive.
X The method depended on the teacher’s skill but not all teachers were proficiency
enough in the foreign language.
16. DIRECT METHOD VS GRAMMAR
1) Vocabulary taught realia and association of ideas
2) Inductive (tümevarım) grammar
3) Attention paid to pronunciation
4) Only the target language is used
5) Passive role of the teacher
GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
1) Vocabulary in lists of issolated words
2) Deductive (tümdengelim) grammar
3) Little attention paid to pronunciation
4) Classes are taught in the mother tongue
5) Active role of the teacher
18. The direct method of teaching was developed as a
response to the Grammar-Translation method.
There is a focus on speaking and listening.
The teacher and the students are more like
partners in the teaching/learning process.
Direct method has principles, procedures and
This method refrains from using the learners’ native
language and uses only the target language.
Teaching focuses on the development of oral skills.
Teaching grammar by using an inductive approach.
This method focuses on the pronunciation.