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Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization

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Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization

  1. 1. Patterns of Organization English 83R Mrs. E. Buchanan
  3. 3. • Authors use two common methods to show connections, or relationships, between ideas. • These two methods are transitions and patterns of organization. Transitions
  4. 4. • We all use transition words all the time – everyday - when you have a conversation with someone. You might be talking at the dinner table with your family. You start out talking about your day at school, perhaps your midterm grades and other school related topics. The next thing you realize is that you are now talking about your upcoming spring break vacation. How did you jump topics during your conversation? By using transition words to get there. Transitions
  5. 5. • The conversation might go like this: • Mom: How was your day at school, Johnny? • Johnny: First of all, I went to my English 72 class, took my vocab quiz, and got an A. After class, I went to the library to start working on my essay Next, I went to lunch with Joey, and finally I went to the travel agency to pick up tickets for our trip to Cancun. Transitions
  6. 6. • During reading, it is important to pay special attention to transition words. • These special words show the relationships between ideas within sentences and within paragraphs Transitions
  7. 7. • Look at the sentences below. Which one is easier to read and understand? • Naomi was happy to find out that she is having another baby boy. She needs to take out the clothes that her older son wore when he was first born. She will have new carpet installed. She will buy a new crib. • Naomi was happy to find out that she is having a baby boy. First of all , she needs to take out the clothes that her older son wore when he was first born. Next she will have new carpet installed. Finally, she will buy a new crib. Transitions
  8. 8. • Sentence number one did not make sense • The addition of the transition words First, next, and finally in the second paragraph makes the situation clear. • Although Naomi is happy to be having a another boy, she now needs to find clothes, install new carpet, and buy a crib. Transitions
  9. 9. • Transitions are words or phrases (like first of all) that show relationships between ideas. They are like signs on the road that guide travelers. • Writers often signal a change in topic with a transition word or phrase that serves as a link or bridge from one thought to the next one. • Now let’s discuss patterns or organization – through this you will see how transition words are used. Transitions
  11. 11. • Writers organize their supporting sentences and ideas in ways called Thought Patterns (or Pattern of Organization). • Just as transitions show relationships between ideas in sentences, thought patterns show the relationships between supporting details in paragraphs, essays, and chapters. • Patterns of organization are structures our minds use all the time. • All of our thinking and communicating depend on patterns of organization. Thought Patterns/ Patterns of Organization
  12. 12. • List of Items • Cause and Effect • Comparison and Contrast • Examples and Illustrations • Chronological Order Patterns of Organization
  13. 13. • A list of items is a series of reasons, examples, or other details that support an idea. • The items have no time order, but are listed in whatever order the author prefers. • Changing the order of the details does not change their meaning. • Transitions of addition, such as and, also, and furthermore are generally used to indicate a listing pattern. Listing Pattern
  14. 14. Listing Sometimes authors use numbers (1,2,3), letters (a, b, c) or asterisks (*) to show the individual items on the list.
  15. 15. • At the summit stands a statue of Jesus. • It’s 60 feet tall • Dressed in white •With a pink tunic • It stretches out both arms List describing statue
  16. 16. One First (of all) Secondly Thirdly To begin with For one thing Other Another Also In addition Next Moreover Further Furthermore Last (of all) List of Items Transition (addition) Words
  17. 17. • • Choose one of the sentences below (depending on whether you are an only child, or have siblings), and write a paragraph that supports the main idea. • 1. There are several advantages (or disadvantages) to be an only child. • 2. There are several advantages (or disadvantages) to having siblings List Practice
  18. 18. • A comparison shows the similarities between two or more ideas, people, or things. • A contrast shows the differences. • Comparison and contrast may be seen as separate patterns of thought; however, they often work together. • Transition words: as, like, similarly, in a similar manner, likewise, in comparison, in a like manner, both Comparison/Contrast
  19. 19. In the cartoon above, the word resemble helps show a comparison is being made. Comparison words: but, yet, however, although, nevertheless Comparison Words
  20. 20. Contrast words show that things differ in one or more ways. In the cartoon, the speaker is contrasting two ways to die. Contrast words: but, yet, however; although, nevertheless, instead, in contrast, on the other hand, while, unlike, despite Compare & Contrast Activity: Lincoln vs. Kennedy Contrast words
  21. 21. • The definition explains the meaning of new, difficult, or special terms. Definitions include words like is, are, and means: • “Emblems are body gestures that directly translate into words or phrases…” Definition & Example
  22. 22. • The examples follow a definition to show how the word is used or applied in the content. Examples are signaled by words like for example, and such as: “for example, the OK sign, the thumbs-up for ‘good job,’ and the V for victory.” • The author may also provide dictionary meanings or personal meanings. • They can also be developed by means of examples or by comparing and contrasting the key word to other words.
  23. 23. In the cartoon below, the husband gives examples of what, to him, are deep emotions. Example Transition Words: (for) example, including, one, once, (for) instance, specifically, such as, Specifically, to illustrate, once, To be specific, (as an illustration) Definition & Example
  24. 24. • “Money” (by Richard Armour) • Workers earn it • Bankers lend it • Women spend it • Forgers fake it • Taxes take it • Dying leave it • Heirs receive it Examples of “Money”
  25. 25. • Write a paragraph that uses examples to support one of the following three main ideas: • A person I know always seems to act in a wise/ foolish/selfless/ self-serving ways. • The place where I live is in need of some repairs. • Some people use their cell phones in inappropriate places. • Be sure to use example transition words. Practice Definition & Example
  26. 26. • See if you can arrange the following sentences in a logical order, so that they form a short paragraph. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? Last? Use the time words as a guide. • A. Next, the two people declare themselves a couple, telling friends and relatives about the new person in their lives. • B. The two people then make a commitment to have an exclusive relationship with each other. • C. A relationship begins when two people show interest in each other and choose to spend time together. • D. Last, the two people formalize the relationship by cohabitation or marriage. Chronological Order
  27. 27. • A relationship begins when two people show interest in each other and choose to spend time together. The two people then make a commitment to have an exclusive relationship with each other. Next, the two people declare themselves a couple, telling friends and relatives about the new person in their lives. Last, the two people formalize the relationship by cohabitation or marriage. • Authors usually present events in the order in which they happen, resulting in the time order pattern of organization. • In the above paragraph, the time transitions then, Next, and Last introduce the points being listed and indicate their order. Chronological Order
  28. 28. • Two kinds of time order are a series of events or stages and steps in a process. • As a student, you’ll see time order used frequently. For example, textbooks in all fields describe events and processes, such as … • the events leading to the Boston Tea Party • the important incidents in Abraham Lincoln’s life • the steps involved for a bill to travel through Congress • the process involved in writing a paper • the stages in the development of a cell
  29. 29. Main idea: Children master language in predictable stages. 1. At about six months, babies begin to repeat sounds 2. Three or four months later, babies can repeat sounds and carry on little “conversations.” 3. Toddlers understand many words but cannot talk. 4. Finally, the child talks in single words and two-word sentences. Time Order
  30. 30. • Nerve-racking • Humbling • Terrifying • Humorous • Depressing • Gratifying • Anger-inducing • Instructive Write a paragraph about a specific experience you’ve had. Use time order transition words.
  31. 31. • One thing or event causes another thing to happen. • Cause and effect reasoning gives logical reasons that answer why or how. • A cause is a reason for something happening; an effect is the result or outcome. • Transition words: because, thus, therefore, as a result, for this reason, to explain, consequently, hence, so, affect, accordingly, due to, results in Cause and Effect
  32. 32. • Narrator: It happened in the days before mail service and telephones. A wealthy farmer took a long trip. When he arrived home, he asked the first field hand he saw what had happened while he was away. This is how their conversation went: • Field hand: Well, the dog died. • Farmer: The dog died! How? Cause and Effect
  33. 33. • Field Hand: The horses ran over him when they became frightened and ran out of the barn. • Farmer: What scared the horses? Why did they run? • Field hand: They were running from the flames when the barn caught on fire. Cause and Effect
  34. 34. • Farmer: Good grief! How did the barn catch on fire? • Field hand: Well, sir, flames jumped from the house and caught the barn on fire. • Farmer: From the house! Did the house burn down too? • Field Hand: Yep, the house is gone too. Cause and Effect
  35. 35. • Farmer: How on earth did the house burn down? • Field Hand: You see, one of the candles around your wife’s casket fell over and caught the house on fire. Cause and Effect
  36. 36. • Because the candles on the wife’s casket fell over the … • House burned down • Because flames jumped from the house the… • Barn caught on fire • Because the horses were scared they… • Ran over the dog Cause and Effect
  37. 37. • Pick one of the main idea sentences below and write a cause & effect paragraph. Your writing does not have to be true – you can make up a story. • Losing a job can have painful consequences in a person’s life. • My parents’ divorce (or the death of a loved one) had a real impact on my life. • There are several reasons why I am a good/poor student. Cause & Effect Practice