Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×
Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 47 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)


Similaire à in and chng (20)


Plus récents (20)

in and chng

  1. 1. Managing and Implementing Change and Innovation
  2. 2. Some thoughts.. In a progressive country change is constant; ...change... is inevitable ~ Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. ~ Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
  3. 3. Objectives… • Understand the reasons organisations need to change. • Introduction to some theoretical change models. • Understand how to conduct an environmental and organisational analysis • Ideas about managing the people during change • How to identify an opportunity to change • How to assess the benefits and risks of change • How to create a change implementation plan.
  4. 4. Driving change is often about influencing other stakeholders and others by negotiation…
  5. 5. What is change? Change can be regarded as the process of “analysing the past to elicit the present actions required for the future”. It involves moving from a present state, through a transition state, to a future desired state. Rosabeth Moss Kanter
  6. 6. Change Management is …… ‘ the application of a structured process and set of tools for leading the people side of change to achieve a desired outcome ‘ Prosci Change Management Model
  7. 7. Change can be…. • Small or big • Planned or unplanned • Fast or slow • How it is perceived by stakeholders is really important
  8. 8. Managing change involves…. • Changing the business • Changing hearts and minds…. • Embedding the change • Moving on to the next ….change ….and the next one!!
  9. 9. Exercise - Why do organisations need to or choose to change and innovate ? • Consider the internal environment and the external environment ? • What sort of change would that involve ? - organisational - people - products - services - stakeholder impact
  10. 10. Why do organisations change and innovate ? • Crisis: e.g. 9/11 Buncefield • Performance Gaps- goals and objectives are not being met • New Technology - more efficient and economical methods to perform work. • Identification of Opportunities - to increase competitiveness. • Reaction to Internal & External Pressure: customers, environment, legislation, shareholders, employees, competitors, stakeholders • Mergers & Acquisitions: Mergers and acquisitions can mean duel functions being redundant • Change for the sake of change: new CEO to demonstrate effectiveness • ‘Sounds Good/ Us too’ other organisations are doing the same . • Planned Abandonment - declining products, markets, or subsidiaries and allocating resources
  11. 11. Why analyse stake holder power and interest … ?? • The opinions of the most powerful can influence what you achieve • Involvement at all times makes it likely they will support you • Likely to improve the quality of your work or change. • Can help you with resources e.g change or projects • Communicating well and frequently develops relationships • Helps you prioritise and helps with time management challenges • Keeps you focussed on what's really important about what you do.
  12. 12. Power v Interest ?
  13. 13. Exercise – review who your stakeholders are…. • Who are affected by your work ? • Who has influence or power over it ? • Who has an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion.? • … and who are the people in these groups who are really key contacts and how do you want to communicate with them?
  14. 14. Other considerations… • What financial or emotional interest do they have in the your work or the change? Positive or negative? • What motivates them ? • What information do they want from you? • What is their current opinion of your work? • How do they want to receive information from you? What is the best way of communicating your message to them? • Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their opinion of you? • Are these influencers stakeholders too ? • If you can’t meet their needs or expectations how will you influence or negotiate with them? • Have you talked to them ??
  15. 15. Communication is crucial
  16. 16. Avoid …. please • Assuming you know what the stakeholders are thinking • Trading the interests of one group off against another • Ignoring the concerns of stakeholder groups that are critical to the organisation e.g customers • Neglecting the interests of important stakeholders
  17. 17. Why are managers cautious about change ?...... Because we know people can react badly and understand the disruption it can cause
  18. 18. Types of change • Developmental – what already exists is continually improved but no radical progress is achieved or aimed at • Transitional - A shift in the way a process is completed, designed to increase efficiency. • Transformational - A move in an organisation of culture of business in strategy and processes
  19. 19. Change Management Models • Kurt Lewin 3 stage change model • William Bridges Change vs Transition • Kubher Ross • John Kotter 8 Step Change Model
  20. 20. Kurt Lewin change model
  21. 21. Force Field Analysis
  22. 22. Bridges-Transitional model (1991) • Differentiates between change and transition • Change is situational and happens without people transitioning • Transition is psychological and is a three phase process • People gradually accept the details of the new situation and the changes that come with it.
  23. 23. Bridge’s Transition Model Benefits 1. You can use the model to understand how people feel as you guide them through change. It clarifies the psychological effect of change. Limitations 1. While the model is useful for implementing change, it's not a substitute for other change management approaches. It cant be used as an independent change management model. ENDING NEUTRAL ZONE NEW BEGINNING More at : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/bridges-transition-model.htm
  24. 24. Bridges … Stage One - Endings • End what ‘used to be’ • Identify who is losing what • Openly acknowledge the loss • Mark the endings • Continuously repeat information about what is changing • …….and why.
  25. 25. Bridges – Stage two- Neutral zone • Individuals within the organisation feel disoriented • Falling motivation • Increasing anxiety and anger • Ensure that people recognize the neutral zone • Treat it as part of the organization's change process.
  26. 26. Bridges- Stage three - New beginnings • Gain acceptance of the purpose • Communicate a picture of how the new organisation will look and feel • Communicate and gain a step-by-step understanding of how the organisation will change
  27. 27. Kotter - 8 Stage Model of Change 1. Sense of urgency SWOT analysis 2. Form a powerful coalition of ‘change agents’ and team build 3. Develop a clear vision that the change agents can describe 4. Communicate the vision – vary methods 5. Empower people to remove obstacles 6. Get some short term wins 7. Consolidate and build on change e.g. longer term goals 8. Anchor the change in the culture
  28. 28. Change Management / analysis Tools • PESTEL Analysis • Force field Analysis • Risk Assessment • Impact Assessment
  29. 29. Organisational analysis…
  30. 30. Environmental analysis
  31. 31. Group Exercise….. PESTLE? • Where is the company now • What are the challenges • What are the threats or opportunities • What would be the benefits of change
  32. 32. The transition curve - the emotional response People have four main areas of need: • They must understand the changes • They must be given the opportunity to learn new skills • They need to be supported and encouraged to deal with problems • They need empathy and understanding
  33. 33. The Transition Curve
  34. 34. Four responses to change….. • Entrenched – “if I sit tight this may never happen” • Overwhelmed – anxious and feel powerless • Posers – confident but may not be self aware or able. • Learners – prepared to give it a go, still feel stretched, resilient
  35. 35. Why people resist change • Loss of control • Personal uncertainty • Concern about competence • More work / less work • Past resentments • Real threats
  36. 36. Communication – the 4P’s • Purpose - Describe why you are making the change • Picture - Describe what the future will look like • Plan - Describe the steps you need to take to get there • Part -Describe the part you need the specific employee to play; specify your requests and their objectives
  37. 37. Dealing with the resistance to change • Education and communication • Participation and involvement • Facilitation and support • Negotiation and agreement • Manipulation and co-option • Explicit and implicit coercion
  38. 38. Dealing with the resistance to change • Education and communication • Participation and involvement • Facilitation and support • Negotiation and agreement • Manipulation and co-operation • Explicit and implicit coercion
  39. 39. Change management plan… what it should cover- remember SMART ! • The concept of change management in the project • Forecasting and planning changes proposed • Arranging and controlling changes/ variations in the project as they occur • Analysing and adjusting changes as required • Monitoring & evaluating