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Kaplan presentation2011

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2011 ESLA Annual meeting - Kaplan presentation

Publié dans : Voyages, Technologie
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Kaplan presentation2011

  1. 1. Sharing the commons: a natural history of loons in Michigan Joe Kaplan COMMON COAST RESEARCH & CONSERVATION
  2. 2. North American breeding range © Gregory M Nelson
  3. 3. A century of decline “ There is hardly a pond on which loons are not seen each season.” - Barrows, 1912
  4. 4. Michigan ’s 1st Congressional District Rep. Dan Benishek Common Loon distribution in Michigan – Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II
  5. 5. Life History B South Female Banded as adult in 1994
  6. 6. Ice off - Seney NWR B South/C South male Banded as a juvenile in 2002
  7. 7. Emerson Island pair Male banded as juvenile in 1994 Returned as adult in 2003
  8. 10. T-2 West male Banded as adult in 1992 Resting after losing territory 5 th time
  9. 12. © Gregory M Nelson
  10. 13. Human disturbance
  11. 15. Ottawa National Forest ~900,000 acres hundreds of lakes including two wilderness areas Habitat loss
  12. 17. Seney E-central chicks 2008
  13. 18. A diet of fish One loon family can consume >1000 lb of fish in a single breeding season
  14. 19. <ul><li>Mercury… </li></ul><ul><li>Is deposited atmospherically in aquatic systems </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnifies in the food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulates over time </li></ul><ul><li>loons are susceptible to elevated mercury levels in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced egg laying and territory fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced nesting success </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced fledging success </li></ul>Mercury exposure
  15. 20. Great Lakes Average Blood Hg Feather Hg Adult males 1.78 ppm 13.0 ppm Adult female 1.41 ppm 9.6 ppm Chain of Lakes Bellaire females (n=2) 0.90 ppm 6.4 ppm Bellaire males (n=2) 1.50 ppm 11.2 ppm Intermediate females (n=3) 1.00 ppm 1.8 ppm Intermediate males (n=3) 1.80 ppm 15.3 ppm Clam male 1.56 ppm 7.1 ppm Adult loon blood and feather Hg George Desort
  16. 21. Mercury levels in juveniles loons from the UP
  17. 22. Mercury exposure in loons is associated with lake acidity Lake pH Log feather Hg (ppm)
  18. 23. Fishing tackle (including lead) Courtesy of Brooke Bent & Northwoods Wildlife Center
  19. 24. Migration <ul><li>Migrates through the Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Winters on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles migrate separately and spend at least 2-3 year on ocean. </li></ul>
  20. 25. ABJ F/E east male Banded as juvenile in 1987 on G Pool
  21. 26. © Gregory M Nelson Demographics <ul><li>96% annual adult survivorship </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 15% > 35years </li></ul><ul><li>ABJ ’s return at 3+ years with average age of first breeding 8 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent sex-biased dispersal </li></ul>Return to territory 80 % Max mortality 4% Switch Territory 12% Lose territory (float) 4% Breeding Population
  22. 27. an example of territory fidelity Seney National Wildlife Refuge Pools 1mile Female 1: 1989-1990 1993 1995 - 2007 1994 Male 1: 1991 1992 1993 Female 2: 1991-2007 Male 2: 1993-2005 2006 - 2007
  23. 28. C3/G male Banded as an adult in 1993 Died from botulism Nov. 2007 © GEORGE DESORT
  24. 29. Avian botulism pathway
  25. 32. Are Michigan loon populations viable? 1 4 3 2 0.70 0.34 0.27 0.14 Maximum productivity – 2 chicks/pair
  26. 33. Conservation efforts <ul><li>Habitat conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Population monitoring & research </li></ul>  1990 1990 2010 2010 LAKE Pairs Chicks Pairs Chicks BELLIARE 1 1 3 2 CLAM 1 1 1 2 ELK 1 2 2 0 INTERMEDIATE 1 1 3 5 THAYER 0 0 0 0 SKEGEMOG 1 1 1 1 TORCH RIVER BAYOU 1 0 1 1 WILSON 0 0 1 0   6 6 12 11 LAKE HABITAT PROTECTED (Frontage Feet) ELK LAKE 7,760 SKEGEMOG 38,960 CLAM LAKE 5,369 LAKE BELLAIRE 18,155 INTERMEDIATE 2,060   72,304
  27. 34. NLP –Attributes <ul><li>Well established loon monitoring conservation and monitoring network </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term productivity data set including banding 1991-93 </li></ul><ul><li>Broad public support base and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to emerging issues including range periphery, Great Lakes botulism, and contaminant levels </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to established long-term monitoring and research sites </li></ul>
  28. 35. Peg Comfort, Linda Gallager, Tiffany Gilligan, Jeff Lange, Linda & Kevin O ’Meara, Fred Sittel, Bill Truscott, Cody Truscott, and Chris Williams Elk River Chain of Lakes Watershed Loon Network (Michigan Audubon) Intermediate Lake Association (Scott Zimmerman) Three Lakes Association (Dean Branson) Bellaire Lake Association (Linda & Kevin O ’Meara) The Blue Pelican Inn (Chris Corbett) Dole Family Foundation Lakeside Condominiums (Round Lake) National Park Service Elyssa Kellerman
  29. 36. for more information visit: www.commoncoast.org <ul><li>Photos generously provided by: </li></ul><ul><li>Rod Planck (www.rodplank.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory M. Nelson </li></ul><ul><li>George Desort </li></ul><ul><li>Elyssa Kellerman </li></ul><ul><li>John and Ann Mahan </li></ul>Seney - B South/C South male
  30. 37. UP population monitoring Ottawa NF Munising Moraine Isle Royale NP Seney NWR

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