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2008 IERA Minegem fixed

Presentation of IERA Award for MineGem - Underground Navigation System.

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2008 IERA Minegem fixed

  1. 1. Autonomous Underground Loader Elliot Duff June 2008 MINEGEM
  2. 2. Underground Haulage • Underground metal mines. • Haulage of broken ore • Unstable roof - Hazard Environment • Line of sight remote control • Demand for safety decreases productivity • Existing Technologies: • Buried wires, lights on the tunnel roof • Reflective beacons • Expense, maintenance, speed • Vehicle weight: > 30 tons • Speed: upto 20 km/h • Payload: ~ 10 tons • Cycle time: 1-5 minutes • Operates 24x7 • Human controlled
  3. 3. Research Addressing an Industry Need • Existing Technology • Manual • Line-of-Sight Remote • Tele-Remote • Automation • Automation • Without significant infrastructure • Use natural features to navigate 1996 Sensor Trials - Lasers Consortium formed in 1998 to build research prototype in 12 Months for $AU1.6M that only requires existing mine infrastructure and can be retrofitted to any commercial underground haulage vehicle.
  4. 4. A Solution for Limited Infrastructure in a Partially Unknown Environment Local Feature-Based Opportunistic Localization Constrained Active Contours Predictive steering and speed control Custom Built Computer Hardware Distributed Realtime Middleware Speed & Heading Throttle, Gear, Brake, Steering Operational Control System (Articulated Hydraulic) Laser Hints Tactical Reactive Guidance (Robust Wall Following) Mission GUI Map Strategic Topological Navigation (Nodal Map) TeleRemote CoPilot AutoPilot
  5. 5. Topological Navigation with Opportunistic Localization Forward 1st gear Turn left @ 20m Forward 2nd gear Turn right @ 30m Forward 2nd gear Turn left@ 25m Forward 3rd gear Turn Left @ 10m Centre @ 50m Stop @ 60m Route MapMine Map Nodal Map
  6. 6. Robust Feature Detection for Localization • Navigation relies upon distance along route • Odometry is used as primary sensor • Odometry drifts / vehicle slip - must be corrected • Long tunnels have few unique features for localization • Skeletonization of tunnel provides intersection topology • Centre of intersection is “invariant” to incoming pose We only need to know where we are when we are at an intersection, which provides us the information that tells us where we are! Opportunistic localization.
  7. 7. Robust Wall Following with Constrained Active Contours Active contour to generate the recommended vehicle path Active contour contains nodes that are free to move in 2D Minimize repulsion/attraction and curvature energy
  8. 8. Robust Wall Following with Constrained Active Contours Add potential energy to nodes Unstable due to complex interaction between Ad-Hoc forces
  9. 9. Robust Wall Following with Constrained Active Contours Constrain motion of nodes to horizontal rails (1D) Problem - it can’t go around corners
  10. 10. Robust Wall Following with Constrained Active Contours ` Constrain motion of node to radial rails Advantage - laser data is in radial coordinates
  11. 11. Robust Wall Following with Constrained Active Contours ` Re-seed top node into right hand band
  12. 12. Local Testing - A Research Necessity 300m shade cloth tunnel with rough ground conditions
  13. 13. Field Test at Operating Mine Transport 1000kms and commission in 2 days
  14. 14. Automated Haulage at Full Speed
  15. 15. From Research to Product • Hazard and Operational Analysis • Independent Safety Systems - Isolation • Product Development • Integrate into mine communications infrastructure • Make improvements to user interface • Commercial Release, April 2003 Minegem User Interface 2003Embedded computer on LHD
  16. 16. The Successful Product in Operation Freeport Indonesia 2007
  17. 17. A Much Needed Technology for the Mining Industry • Safety • Fatality rate is plateauing • Mines are going deeper • Production • Limited manpower availabilty • Productivity blocked by OH&S • Automation • Safety without loss in productivity • Improved vehicle health • 24/7 mixed operations • “Unlimited” growth potential
  18. 18. A Project with Impact on the Industry • Prediction made for the next 8 years (CIE 2004) • 80 loaders to be automated (currently 15) • Saving $1 per tonne of ore moved • Each machine moves 0.5M tonnes per year • 100% decline in morbidity & 80% decline in injury rates • Competitive Advantage • Retrofit to existing fleet, and other OEM fleet. • Can operate at different levels of autonomy. • Uses relative rather than absolute navigation (unknown mine) • Weakness - don’t solve all problems, change the problem. • Future Impact • Caterpillar holds 24% of the world’s market • They sell 800 to 1000 LHD’s per year worldwide • Expect more than 50% to be automated in the medium term • Increasing demand for underground mining. CIE - The Centre for International Economics
  19. 19. Thankyou The original team (CSIRO, CAT, WMC)

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Presentation of IERA Award for MineGem - Underground Navigation System.

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