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Physical Education
Grade 7
SESSION 1:
Compare the two
pictures.How can
you describe
them?
A
B
These are the
pictures of physically
fit and physically unfit
person.
Physically fit means to
be in a state of health
and well-being and
physically unfit is the
reverse of it.
DEFINING
PHYSICAL FITNESS
Physical fitness –
is a set of abilities
needed to perform
physical activity.
Physical Activity- any
bodily movement
produced by the
contraction of
muscles.
COMPONENTS OF
PHYSICAL
FITNESS
1.Health Related
components: Those
factors that are related to
how well the systems of
your body work. It refer to
the bod...
a.Cardiovascular Fitness/
Endurance: The ability of the
circulatory system (heart and
blood vessels) to supply
oxygen to w...
b.Body Composition: The
relative percentage of
body fat compared to lean
body mass
(muscle, bone, water,etc)
c.Flexibility: ability
of the joints in the
body to move to
their full range of
motion.
d.Muscular strength:
The amount of force
that can be produced
by a single contraction
of a muscle
e.Muscular endurance:
The ability of a muscle
group to continue
muscle movement over
a length of time
2.Skill Related Components:
Those aspects of fitness
which form the basis for
successful sport or activity
participation. ...
a.Speed: The
ability to cover a
distance in a short
period of time.
b.Agility: The ability
of the body to
change position and
direction quickly
c.Balance: The
ability to maintain an
upright posture or
equilibrium while still
or moving
d.Coordination:
ability to use the
senses together.
e.Reaction Time:
Amount of time it
takes to get moving.
f.Power: The
product of
strength and
speed
3.Physiological fitness
includes non-performance
components of physical
fitness that relate to biological
systems that are...
a.METABOLIC FITNESS -
The state of metabolic
systems and variables
predictive of the risk for
diabetes and cardiovascular
...
b.MORPHOLOGICAL FITNESS
A non-performance component
of physical fitness related to body
composition factors such as body
c...
c.BONE INTEGRITY (Bone
Strength)
A non-performance
component of fitness related
to bone mineral density. Bone
integrity is...
How can we
achieve Physical
Fitness?
To find the answer
give a specific
word which relates
to the pictures.
Correct or
proper nutrition
Physical fitness is
generally achieved
through correct
nutrition, exercise,
hygiene and rest.
Exercise- Type of
physical activity
carried out to sustain
or improve health and
fitness.
What are the
importance/
benefits of
exercise?
Increased Energy
By working out on a regular
basis, your body becomes
more efficient at burning
calories. This gives you m...
Increased Metabolism
Increased physical activity through
working out leads to more muscle
mass, which in itself leads to a...
Improved Muscle Tone
Physical activity, especially
weight training allows you to
change the shape of your body.
Since musc...
Better Health
Increased exercising leads to a
strengthening of the immune system;
which means that one is less likely to
g...
Stress Reduction
Stress levels are reduced
extensively by regular work outs.
They allow the individual to take
their mind ...
Improved Self-Esteem
When following an exercise
regimen for a regular basis,
you bring about greater self
esteem through t...
Normal Pulse Rate
Pulse indicates the rate at
which your heart is beating;
so normal pulse rate implies
that your heart is...
Heart rate is a very
important measurement
in many fitness tests and
in exercise science
research.
Heart rate- refers to the speed
of the heartbeat, specifically
the number of heartbeats per
unit of time. The heart rate i...
The normal heart
rate ranges from
60–100 bpm.
Bradycardia refers to
a slow heart rate,
defined as below 60
bpm.
Tachycardia refers to
a fast heart
rate, defined as
above 100 bpm.
When the heart rate
is not regular in a
regular pattern, this is
referred to as an
arrhythmia.
These abnormalities
of heart rate
sometimes, but not
always, indicate
disease.
FINDING
MY PULSE
Heart rate is
measured by
finding the pulse of
the heart.
This pulse rate can be
found at any point on the
body where the artery's
pulsation is transmitted to
the surface.
Pulse rate can
be determine by
pressuring the
location of
artery’s
pulsation with
the index and
middle fingers
The thumb should
not be used for
measuring another
person's heart
rate, as its strong
pulse may interfere
with the correct...
Two Most Common
Location of Pulse
Carotid pulse-the pulse of
the carotid artery, palpated
by gently pressing a finger in
the area between the larynx
and the...
Radial pulse-
the pulse of the
radial artery palpated
at the wrist
When the heart beats, arteries
pulse at the same time. Some
of these arteries like the radial
and carotid arteries can be ...
ACTIVITY 1: RAISING MY HEART RATE
Perform several task and record your heart
rate. Answer the ff.
Resting heart Rate (1 mi...
SESSION 2:
Determining The
Right Exercise
Intensity
Resting Heart Rate
(RHR) - refers to the
number of times your
heart beats in one
minute while at rest.
The average RHR is 70-80
beats per minute
(BPM), though athletes
may have resting heart
rates as low as 40-50 BPM.
RHR is often a measure of
fitness -- as you become more
fit, your RHR will decrease as
your heart becomes more
efficient. ...
To take your resting
heart rate, take your
pulse for one minute
first thing in the
morning. You can also
take your pulse a...
How to Measure
Resting Heart
Rate?
Early morning is the
best time to
measure your
resting heart rate.
• After you wake up give
sometime to your body to rest
for a while.
• Do not suddenly start
measuring the RHR after
waking...
Age
RHR for
Athletes
Excellent Good
Above
Average
Average
Below
Average
Poor
18-25 54-60 61-65 66-69 70-73 74-78 79-84 85+...
Age
RHR for
Athletes
Excellent Good
Above
Average
Average
Below
Average
Poor
18-25 49-55 56-61 ,62-65 66-69 70-73 74-81 82...
Maximum Heart
Rate - (MaxHR) is
the fastest your
heart can beat in a
minute.
To determine your actual
MaxHR you need to take
an electrocardiogram
test, monitored by a
qualified technician or a
doctor
To estimate your maximal heart
rate, simply subtract your age
from the number 208.
MaxHR= 208-age
=208-12
=194
Target Heart Rate
(THR) - Your Target
Heart Rate is a
percentage of your
MaxHR.
Typically, you determine
a range of heart rates
("Target Zone") that
represents your desired
workout intensity..
By keeping your heart
rate in this zone, you
can monitor your
workout intensity
level.
Heart rate reserve
(HRR) - is the difference
between a person's
measured or predicted
maximum heart rate and
resting heart...
Recovery Heart Rate
- is the change in your
heart rate after you stop
working out.
This is often used
to gauge exercise
intensity
You compare your workout heart rate with
your heart rate after you have recovered for
1 - 2 minutes. If you do not have mu...
What should be the
heart rate when
engaging in a
moderately intense
exercise?
Given:
Age = 12
Resting Heart Rate
(RHR)= 70
STEP 1: Find the MaxHR
MaxHR = 208 -.7(Age)
208 - .7(12)
208 – 8.4
=199.6 (MaxHR)
STEP 2: Compute the HRR
HRR=MaxHR –RHR
199.6 - 70
=129.6 (HRR)
STEP 3: Compute Minimum HR
for Moderate Exercise
HRR x 40% + RHR
129.6 x .40 + 70
51.84+ 70
=121.84
STEP 4: Compute Maximum HR
for Moderate Exercise
HRR x 55% + RHR
129.6 x .55 + 70
71.28 + 70
=141.28
STEP 5: Compute Minimum HR
for Vigorous Exercise
HRR x 50% + RHR
129.6 x .50 + 70
64.80+ 70
=134.80
STEP 6: Compute Maximum
HR for Vigorous Exercise
HRR x 85% + RHR
129.6 x .85+ 70
110.16+ 70
=134.80
ACTIVITY 2: Compute the following:
a. Resting Heart Rate _______bpm
b. Maximum Heart Rate ______bpm
c. Heart Rate Reserve ...
ACTIVITY 3: Based on the tasks performed in
activity 1, classify the following tasks as
MODERATE or VIGOROUS in intensity ...
SESSION 3
Calculating the
Physical Activity
Index (PAI)
FREQUENCY
How often do I exercise? Score
Less than 1 time per week 0
1 time per week 1
2 times per week 2
3 times per week...
INTENSITY
How hard do I exercise? Score
No change in my pulse from resting
level
0
Little change in my pulse 1
Slight chan...
TIME or DURATION
How long do I exercise? Score
Less than 5 minutes 0
5-14 minutes 1
15-29 minutes 2
30-44 minutes 3
45-49 ...
ASSESSMENT:
Frequency_____ x Intensity ______
x Time ________ = __________
Physical Activity
Index
Less than 15 Sedentary
15- 24 Low Active
25-40 Moderate Active
41-60 Active
More than 60 High Acti...
HYPOKINETIC
DISEASE
Hypokinetic diseases
are conditions that
occur from a
sedentary lifestyle.
Sedentary Lifestyle - is a
type of lifestyle with no
or irregular physical
activity.
Hypokinetic disease or
condition is one
associated with lack of
physical activity or too
little regular exercise.
Hypo means under or too
little, and kinetic means
movement or activity.
Thus, hypokinetic means
"too little activity."
Examples of
Hypokinetic
Diseases
Hyperlipidemia
- means high
lipid levels.
It usually means
that you have high
cholesterol and high
triglyceride levels.
A 4mL sample of
hyperlipidemic
blood with lipids
separated into
the top fraction.
Lipid is the
scientific term for
fats in the blood.
High lipid levels can
speed up a process
called
atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol is a lipid (fat) which is
produced by the liver. Cholesterol
is vital for normal body function.
Every cell in ...
Low-density lipoprotein, or LDL,
is known as "bad" cholesterol.
High-density lipoprotein, or HDL,
is known as "good" chole...
LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol,
because elevated levels of LDL cholesterol
are associated with an increased r...
HDL cholesterol is called the “good
cholesterol” because HDL cholesterol
particles prevent Atherosclerosis by
extracting c...
Atherosclerosis-
hardening of the
arteries due plaque
forms in the walls of
your arteries.
Narrowing
of artery
due to
plaque
forms in
the wall.
Plaque is made of lipids and other
materials circulating in your blood.
As more plaque builds up, your
arteries can narrow...
Atherosclerosis
increases your risk of
heart disease, stroke,
and other vascular
diseases.
Cardiovascular disease
(also called heart disease) is
a class of diseases that
involve the heart, the blood
vessels (arter...
Hypertension (HTN) or high
blood pressure, sometimes
called arterial hypertension - is a
chronic medical condition in
whic...
Blood Pressure - is the
force which the blood
exerts on the walls of
the blood vessels.
Diastolic Systolic
It is the pressure
that is exerted on
the walls of the
various arteries
around the body in
between hear...
"Diastolic" comes
from the Greek
diastole meaning "a
drawing apart."
"Systolic" comes from
the Greek systole
meaning "a drawing
together or a
contraction."
Stroke- occurst
when the brain cells
die due to lack of
blood and oxygen.
Ischemic stroke (the
most common type)
happens when a blood
vessel that feeds the
brain gets blocked.
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs
when a blood vessel within
the brain bursts. The most
likely cause is uncontrolled
hypertension.
Coronary heart disease
(CHD) is a narrowing of the
small blood vessels that
supply blood and oxygen to
the heart. CHD is a...
Arteries (from Greek
artēria, meaning "windpipe,
artery") are blood vessels
that carry blood away from
the heart.
Coronary heart
disease -leads to heart
attack
Heart Attack (Myocardial
infarction (MI) or acute
myocardial infarction(AMI)-
results from the partial
interruption of blo...
Obesity means having
too much body fat. It is
different from being
overweight, which means
weighing too much.
Obesity occurs
over time when you
eat more calories
than you use.
Diabetes mellitus, or simply
diabetes - is a group of metabolic
diseases in which a person has high
blood sugar, either be...
Type 1 DM results from the body's
failure to produce insulin, and
currently requires the person to
inject insulin or wear ...
Type 2 DM results from insulin
resistance, a condition in which cells
fail to use insulin properly, sometimes
combined wit...
The third main form, gestational
diabetes occurs when pregnant
women without a previous
diagnosis of diabetes develop a
hi...
Insulin- is a hormone that is
important for metabolism
and utilization of energy
from the ingested nutrients -
especially ...
Insulin stops the use of fat as an
energy source by inhibiting the release
of glucagon. With the exception of the
metaboli...
Muscular System is an organ
system consisting of skeletal,
smooth and cardiac muscles.
It permits movement of the
body, ma...
Three Types of
Muscles
Skeletal muscle
The tissue most commonly thought of as
muscle is skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscles
cover your skeleton, gi...
Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs like
your intestines and stomach. They work automatical...
Cardiac Muscle
Your heart is made of cardiac muscle. This
type of muscle only exists in your heart.
Unlike other types of ...
What are the
characteristics of
muscle?
Excitability
the ability to receive
and respond to a
stimulus
Contractility
the ability to
shorten
Extensibility
the ability to be
stretched
Elasticity
the ability to resume its
normal length after
contraction or after
being stretched.
TWO TYPES OF
MUSCULAR
CONTRACTIONS
Dynamic or Isotonic
contraction - refers to a
contraction where movement
is involved. An example is
lifting of a dumbbell ...
Concentric contraction -he
force generated is
sufficient to overcome the
resistance, and the muscle
shortens as it contrac...
Eccentric contraction - the
force generated is insufficient to
overcome the external load on the
muscle and the muscle fib...
Static or Isometric
contraction - refers to a
contraction where no
movement is involved.
Isometric contraction of a muscle
generates force without changing
length. An example can be found
when the muscles of the...
ACTIVITY 4
Perform the following exercises and identify whether
muscle contraction is STATIC or DYNAMIC.
1. Push-ups _____...
ASSESSMENT
Answer the following:
1.Which of the exercises were easy to
perform?
2. Did I persevere in performing those
exe...
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1
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Physical fitness components Grade 7 Physical Education Quarter 1

  1. 1. Physical Education Grade 7
  2. 2. SESSION 1:
  3. 3. Compare the two pictures.How can you describe them?
  4. 4. A B
  5. 5. These are the pictures of physically fit and physically unfit person.
  6. 6. Physically fit means to be in a state of health and well-being and physically unfit is the reverse of it.
  7. 7. DEFINING PHYSICAL FITNESS
  8. 8. Physical fitness – is a set of abilities needed to perform physical activity.
  9. 9. Physical Activity- any bodily movement produced by the contraction of muscles.
  10. 10. COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS
  11. 11. 1.Health Related components: Those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work. It refer to the body condition
  12. 12. a.Cardiovascular Fitness/ Endurance: The ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise.
  13. 13. b.Body Composition: The relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc)
  14. 14. c.Flexibility: ability of the joints in the body to move to their full range of motion.
  15. 15. d.Muscular strength: The amount of force that can be produced by a single contraction of a muscle
  16. 16. e.Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length of time
  17. 17. 2.Skill Related Components: Those aspects of fitness which form the basis for successful sport or activity participation. It refer to body performance.
  18. 18. a.Speed: The ability to cover a distance in a short period of time.
  19. 19. b.Agility: The ability of the body to change position and direction quickly
  20. 20. c.Balance: The ability to maintain an upright posture or equilibrium while still or moving
  21. 21. d.Coordination: ability to use the senses together.
  22. 22. e.Reaction Time: Amount of time it takes to get moving.
  23. 23. f.Power: The product of strength and speed
  24. 24. 3.Physiological fitness includes non-performance components of physical fitness that relate to biological systems that are influenced by one's level of habitual physical activity.
  25. 25. a.METABOLIC FITNESS - The state of metabolic systems and variables predictive of the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  26. 26. b.MORPHOLOGICAL FITNESS A non-performance component of physical fitness related to body composition factors such as body circumferences, body fat content and regional body fat distribution.
  27. 27. c.BONE INTEGRITY (Bone Strength) A non-performance component of fitness related to bone mineral density. Bone integrity is related to habitual physical activity.
  28. 28. How can we achieve Physical Fitness?
  29. 29. To find the answer give a specific word which relates to the pictures.
  30. 30. Correct or proper nutrition
  31. 31. Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, hygiene and rest.
  32. 32. Exercise- Type of physical activity carried out to sustain or improve health and fitness.
  33. 33. What are the importance/ benefits of exercise?
  34. 34. Increased Energy By working out on a regular basis, your body becomes more efficient at burning calories. This gives you more energy throughout the day.
  35. 35. Increased Metabolism Increased physical activity through working out leads to more muscle mass, which in itself leads to a higher metabolism. As per some studies, every extra pound of muscle allows you to burn anywhere from 50- 100 calories when at rest.
  36. 36. Improved Muscle Tone Physical activity, especially weight training allows you to change the shape of your body. Since muscle is denser than fat, one can get bigger or smaller by gaining more muscle
  37. 37. Better Health Increased exercising leads to a strengthening of the immune system; which means that one is less likely to get sick when exercising the right amount. On the other hand, over exercising can weaken your immune system and make you sick.
  38. 38. Stress Reduction Stress levels are reduced extensively by regular work outs. They allow the individual to take their mind off the daily grind and use pent up energies for productive purposes.
  39. 39. Improved Self-Esteem When following an exercise regimen for a regular basis, you bring about greater self esteem through the results and accomplishment achieved.
  40. 40. Normal Pulse Rate Pulse indicates the rate at which your heart is beating; so normal pulse rate implies that your heart is functioning properly, which is a sign of good health.
  41. 41. Heart rate is a very important measurement in many fitness tests and in exercise science research.
  42. 42. Heart rate- refers to the speed of the heartbeat, specifically the number of heartbeats per unit of time. The heart rate is typically expressed as beats per minute (bpm).
  43. 43. The normal heart rate ranges from 60–100 bpm.
  44. 44. Bradycardia refers to a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm.
  45. 45. Tachycardia refers to a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm.
  46. 46. When the heart rate is not regular in a regular pattern, this is referred to as an arrhythmia.
  47. 47. These abnormalities of heart rate sometimes, but not always, indicate disease.
  48. 48. FINDING MY PULSE
  49. 49. Heart rate is measured by finding the pulse of the heart.
  50. 50. This pulse rate can be found at any point on the body where the artery's pulsation is transmitted to the surface.
  51. 51. Pulse rate can be determine by pressuring the location of artery’s pulsation with the index and middle fingers
  52. 52. The thumb should not be used for measuring another person's heart rate, as its strong pulse may interfere with the correct perception of the target pulse.
  53. 53. Two Most Common Location of Pulse
  54. 54. Carotid pulse-the pulse of the carotid artery, palpated by gently pressing a finger in the area between the larynx and the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck.
  55. 55. Radial pulse- the pulse of the radial artery palpated at the wrist
  56. 56. When the heart beats, arteries pulse at the same time. Some of these arteries like the radial and carotid arteries can be felt easily, while others are too deep in the body to be accessed.
  57. 57. ACTIVITY 1: RAISING MY HEART RATE Perform several task and record your heart rate. Answer the ff. Resting heart Rate (1 min) ______bpm Jogging in place (20 sec) ______bpm Jum[ping Jacks (20 times) ______bpm Step-ups (20 sec) ______bpm Partner Tag (1 min ) ______bpm Crab Walk ( 5 meters) ______bpm
  58. 58. SESSION 2:
  59. 59. Determining The Right Exercise Intensity
  60. 60. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) - refers to the number of times your heart beats in one minute while at rest.
  61. 61. The average RHR is 70-80 beats per minute (BPM), though athletes may have resting heart rates as low as 40-50 BPM.
  62. 62. RHR is often a measure of fitness -- as you become more fit, your RHR will decrease as your heart becomes more efficient. If your resting heart rate is 100 or more BPM, that may a sign of a problem and you should see your doctor.
  63. 63. To take your resting heart rate, take your pulse for one minute first thing in the morning. You can also take your pulse after resting for 20-30 minutes if you're not able to do it in the morning.
  64. 64. How to Measure Resting Heart Rate?
  65. 65. Early morning is the best time to measure your resting heart rate.
  66. 66. • After you wake up give sometime to your body to rest for a while. • Do not suddenly start measuring the RHR after waking up. • Lie down at least for 15 minutes before measuring the RHR.
  67. 67. Age RHR for Athletes Excellent Good Above Average Average Below Average Poor 18-25 54-60 61-65 66-69 70-73 74-78 79-84 85+ 26-35 54-59 60-64 65-68 69-72 73-76 77-82 83+ 36-45 54-59 60-64 65-69 70-73 74-78 79-84 85+ 46-55 54-60 61-65 66-69 70-73 74-77 78-83 84+ 56-65 54-59 60-64 65-68 69-73 74-77 78-83 84+ 65+ 54-59 60-64 65-68 69-72 73-76 77-84 84+ Resting Heart Rate Chart For Women
  68. 68. Age RHR for Athletes Excellent Good Above Average Average Below Average Poor 18-25 49-55 56-61 ,62-65 66-69 70-73 74-81 82+ 26-35 49-54 55-61 62-65 66-70 71-74 75-81 82+ 36-45 50-56 57-62 63-66 67-70 71-75 76-82 83+ 46-55 50-57 58-63 64-67 68-71 72-76 77-83 84+ 56-65 51-56 57-61 62-67 68-71 72-75 76-81 82+ 65+ 50-55 56-61 62-65 66-69 70-73 74-79 80+ Resting Heart Rate Chart For Men
  69. 69. Maximum Heart Rate - (MaxHR) is the fastest your heart can beat in a minute.
  70. 70. To determine your actual MaxHR you need to take an electrocardiogram test, monitored by a qualified technician or a doctor
  71. 71. To estimate your maximal heart rate, simply subtract your age from the number 208. MaxHR= 208-age =208-12 =194
  72. 72. Target Heart Rate (THR) - Your Target Heart Rate is a percentage of your MaxHR.
  73. 73. Typically, you determine a range of heart rates ("Target Zone") that represents your desired workout intensity..
  74. 74. By keeping your heart rate in this zone, you can monitor your workout intensity level.
  75. 75. Heart rate reserve (HRR) - is the difference between a person's measured or predicted maximum heart rate and resting heart rate.
  76. 76. Recovery Heart Rate - is the change in your heart rate after you stop working out.
  77. 77. This is often used to gauge exercise intensity
  78. 78. You compare your workout heart rate with your heart rate after you have recovered for 1 - 2 minutes. If you do not have much change in your heart rates, you are not very fit (your heart still has to beat rapidly, even though you have stopped working out. ) Acommon recovery heart rate is 20-30 beats per minute. A person who is fit will have a higher Recovery Heart Rate than an unfit person.
  79. 79. What should be the heart rate when engaging in a moderately intense exercise?
  80. 80. Given: Age = 12 Resting Heart Rate (RHR)= 70
  81. 81. STEP 1: Find the MaxHR MaxHR = 208 -.7(Age) 208 - .7(12) 208 – 8.4 =199.6 (MaxHR)
  82. 82. STEP 2: Compute the HRR HRR=MaxHR –RHR 199.6 - 70 =129.6 (HRR)
  83. 83. STEP 3: Compute Minimum HR for Moderate Exercise HRR x 40% + RHR 129.6 x .40 + 70 51.84+ 70 =121.84
  84. 84. STEP 4: Compute Maximum HR for Moderate Exercise HRR x 55% + RHR 129.6 x .55 + 70 71.28 + 70 =141.28
  85. 85. STEP 5: Compute Minimum HR for Vigorous Exercise HRR x 50% + RHR 129.6 x .50 + 70 64.80+ 70 =134.80
  86. 86. STEP 6: Compute Maximum HR for Vigorous Exercise HRR x 85% + RHR 129.6 x .85+ 70 110.16+ 70 =134.80
  87. 87. ACTIVITY 2: Compute the following: a. Resting Heart Rate _______bpm b. Maximum Heart Rate ______bpm c. Heart Rate Reserve _______bpm Moderate Exercise a. Minimum Heart Rate______bpm b. Maximum HeartRate ______bpm Vigorous Exercise a. Minimum Heart Rate ______bpm b. Maximum Heart Rate _____bpm
  88. 88. ACTIVITY 3: Based on the tasks performed in activity 1, classify the following tasks as MODERATE or VIGOROUS in intensity based on your heart rate. TASK HEART RATE INTENSITY Resting heart Rate (1 min) ____bpm _______ Jogging in place (20 sec) ____bpm _______ Jum[ping Jacks (20 times) ____bpm _______ Step-ups (20 sec) ____bpm _______ Partner Tag (1 min ) ____bpm _______ Crab Walk ( 5 meters) ____bpm _______
  89. 89. SESSION 3
  90. 90. Calculating the Physical Activity Index (PAI)
  91. 91. FREQUENCY How often do I exercise? Score Less than 1 time per week 0 1 time per week 1 2 times per week 2 3 times per week 3 4 times per week 4 5 times per week 5
  92. 92. INTENSITY How hard do I exercise? Score No change in my pulse from resting level 0 Little change in my pulse 1 Slight change in my pulse 2 Moderate increase in my pulse 3 Vigorous increase but not sustained 4 Vigorous increased but sustained 5
  93. 93. TIME or DURATION How long do I exercise? Score Less than 5 minutes 0 5-14 minutes 1 15-29 minutes 2 30-44 minutes 3 45-49 minutes 4 60 minutes or more 5
  94. 94. ASSESSMENT: Frequency_____ x Intensity ______ x Time ________ = __________
  95. 95. Physical Activity Index Less than 15 Sedentary 15- 24 Low Active 25-40 Moderate Active 41-60 Active More than 60 High Active
  96. 96. HYPOKINETIC DISEASE
  97. 97. Hypokinetic diseases are conditions that occur from a sedentary lifestyle.
  98. 98. Sedentary Lifestyle - is a type of lifestyle with no or irregular physical activity.
  99. 99. Hypokinetic disease or condition is one associated with lack of physical activity or too little regular exercise.
  100. 100. Hypo means under or too little, and kinetic means movement or activity. Thus, hypokinetic means "too little activity."
  101. 101. Examples of Hypokinetic Diseases
  102. 102. Hyperlipidemia - means high lipid levels.
  103. 103. It usually means that you have high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels.
  104. 104. A 4mL sample of hyperlipidemic blood with lipids separated into the top fraction.
  105. 105. Lipid is the scientific term for fats in the blood.
  106. 106. High lipid levels can speed up a process called atherosclerosis.
  107. 107. Cholesterol is a lipid (fat) which is produced by the liver. Cholesterol is vital for normal body function. Every cell in our body has cholesterol in its outer layer. Cholesterol is a waxy material that is produced naturally by the liver. It protects the nerves, produces hormones and makes cell tissues,
  108. 108. Low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, is known as "bad" cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, is known as "good" cholesterol. These two types of lipids,
  109. 109. LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol, because elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. LDL lipoprotein deposits cholesterol on the artery walls, causing the formation of a hard, thick substance called cholesterol plaque. Over time, cholesterol plaque causes thickening of the artery walls and narrowing of the arteries, a process called Atherosclerosis.
  110. 110. HDL cholesterol is called the “good cholesterol” because HDL cholesterol particles prevent Atherosclerosis by extracting cholesterol from the artery walls and disposing of them through the liver. Thus, high levels of LDL cholesterol and low levels of HDL cholesterol (high LDL/HDL ratios) are risk factors for Atherosclerosis, while low levels of LDL cholesterol and high level of HDL cholesterol (low LDL/HDL ratios) are desirable.
  111. 111. Atherosclerosis- hardening of the arteries due plaque forms in the walls of your arteries.
  112. 112. Narrowing of artery due to plaque forms in the wall.
  113. 113. Plaque is made of lipids and other materials circulating in your blood. As more plaque builds up, your arteries can narrow and stiffen. Eventually, enough plaque may build up to reduce blood flow through your arteries.
  114. 114. Atherosclerosis increases your risk of heart disease, stroke, and other vascular diseases.
  115. 115. Cardiovascular disease (also called heart disease) is a class of diseases that involve the heart, the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) or both.
  116. 116. Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension - is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated.
  117. 117. Blood Pressure - is the force which the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels.
  118. 118. Diastolic Systolic It is the pressure that is exerted on the walls of the various arteries around the body in between heart beats when the heart is relaxed. It measures the amount of pressure that blood exerts on arteries and vessels while the heart is beating.
  119. 119. "Diastolic" comes from the Greek diastole meaning "a drawing apart."
  120. 120. "Systolic" comes from the Greek systole meaning "a drawing together or a contraction."
  121. 121. Stroke- occurst when the brain cells die due to lack of blood and oxygen.
  122. 122. Ischemic stroke (the most common type) happens when a blood vessel that feeds the brain gets blocked.
  123. 123. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel within the brain bursts. The most likely cause is uncontrolled hypertension.
  124. 124. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease or Ischemic Heart Disease.
  125. 125. Arteries (from Greek artēria, meaning "windpipe, artery") are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
  126. 126. Coronary heart disease -leads to heart attack
  127. 127. Heart Attack (Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction(AMI)- results from the partial interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart muscle, causing the heart cells to be damaged or die.
  128. 128. Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much.
  129. 129. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use.
  130. 130. Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes - is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
  131. 131. Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".
  132. 132. Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset
  133. 133. The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
  134. 134. Insulin- is a hormone that is important for metabolism and utilization of energy from the ingested nutrients - especially glucose.
  135. 135. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood,
  136. 136. Muscular System is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.
  137. 137. Three Types of Muscles
  138. 138. Skeletal muscle The tissue most commonly thought of as muscle is skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscles cover your skeleton, giving your body its shape. They are attached to your skeleton by strong, springy tendons or are directly connected to rough patches of bone. Skeletal muscles are under voluntary control, which means you consciously control what they do.
  139. 139. Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs like your intestines and stomach. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. The muscular walls of your intestines contract to push food through your body. Muscles in your bladder wall contract to expel urine from your body. Smooth muscles in a woman's uterus (or womb) help to push babies out of the body during childbirth. The pupillary sphincter muscle in your eye is a smooth muscle that shrinks the size of your pupil.
  140. 140. Cardiac Muscle Your heart is made of cardiac muscle. This type of muscle only exists in your heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never gets tired. It works automatically and constantly without ever pausing to rest. Cardiac muscle contracts to squeeze blood out of your heart, and relaxes to fill your heart with blood.
  141. 141. What are the characteristics of muscle?
  142. 142. Excitability the ability to receive and respond to a stimulus
  143. 143. Contractility the ability to shorten
  144. 144. Extensibility the ability to be stretched
  145. 145. Elasticity the ability to resume its normal length after contraction or after being stretched.
  146. 146. TWO TYPES OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTIONS
  147. 147. Dynamic or Isotonic contraction - refers to a contraction where movement is involved. An example is lifting of a dumbbell from either side to the shoulder.
  148. 148. Concentric contraction -he force generated is sufficient to overcome the resistance, and the muscle shortens as it contracts.
  149. 149. Eccentric contraction - the force generated is insufficient to overcome the external load on the muscle and the muscle fibers lengthen as they contract. An eccentric contraction is used as a means of decelerating a body part or object, or lowering a load gently rather than letting it drop.
  150. 150. Static or Isometric contraction - refers to a contraction where no movement is involved.
  151. 151. Isometric contraction of a muscle generates force without changing length. An example can be found when the muscles of the hand and forearm grip an object; the joints of the hand do not move, but muscles generate sufficient force to prevent the object from being dropped.
  152. 152. ACTIVITY 4 Perform the following exercises and identify whether muscle contraction is STATIC or DYNAMIC. 1. Push-ups _______ 2. Curl-ups _______ 3. Front Flank _______ 4. Side-Flank _______ 5. Squats _______ 6. Bird dog- Arm Up _______ 7. Bird dog – Leg Up _______ 8. Lunges _______ 9. Bird dog –Knee to elbow ______
  153. 153. ASSESSMENT Answer the following: 1.Which of the exercises were easy to perform? 2. Did I persevere in performing those exercises which I found to be difficult? 3. Am I confident in doing these exercises on my own? Why or Why not?

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