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Research Hypothesis - Meaning, Definition, Characteristics, Source, Types, Formulation, Criteria

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  1. 1. Prof . X Emerensia HOD in Child Health Nursing RVS College of Nursing, Sulur, Coimbatore
  2. 2. Hypothesis is a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables
  3. 3. Use of Hypothesis in Quantitative studies tends to induce critical thinking and to facilitate understanding and interpretation of the data
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHEIS Conceptual clarity Empirical Referents Objectivity Specificity Relevant Testability Consistency Simplicity Availability of Techniques Purposiveness Verifiability Economical Profundity of effect
  5. 5. TYPES OF HYPOTHEIS Simple and Complex Hypothesis Associative and Causal Hypothesis Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis Null and Research Hypothesis
  6. 6. Simple and Complex Hypothesis SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS : The Statement that reflects the relationship between two variables Example:  Smoking Leads to Cancer  The higher ratio of unemployment leads to crimes
  7. 7. Simple and Complex Hypothesis COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS : The Statement that reflects the relationship between more two variables Example:  Satisfaction is higher among patients who are older and dwelling in rural area than those who are younger and dwelling in urban area
  8. 8. DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS : It specifies not only the existence, but also the expected direction of the relationship between variables. The terms such as less, more, increase, decrease, greater, smaller indicates the direction of relationship Example : • Children with increased frequency of Playing violent video games show a significant increase in the aggression Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis
  9. 9. NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS : It reflects the relationship between two or more variables, but it does not specify the anticipated and nature of relationship Example : • There is a difference in the income generated by the transgenders living in Urban and rural area Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis
  10. 10. ASSOCIATIVE HYPOTHESIS : It reflects the relationship between variables that occurs or exists in natural settings without manipulation (Mainly used in Correlational studies) Example : Lower the cost of care, the higher the satisfaction among patients Associative and Causal Hypothesis
  11. 11. CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS : It predicts the cause and effect relationship between two or more dependent and independent variable, which is manipulated by researcher to examine the effect on the dependent variable Example :Prevalence of pin site infection is lower in patients who receive pin site care with hydrogen peroxide as compared to patients who receive the pin site care with povidone-iodine solution. Associative and Causal Hypothesis
  12. 12. NULL HYPOTHESIS (STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS): It states the existence of no relationship between the independent and dependent variables Example : There is no association between the dietary intake and weight of the children Null and Research Hypothesis
  13. 13. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (ALTERNATIVE/SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS) : It states the existence of relationship between two or more variables Example : There is an association between the dietary intake and weight of the children Null and Research Hypothesis
  14. 14. IDENTIFY TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS 1. Increased dose in antibiotics will not reduce body temperature 2. Relaxation therapy is not effective in reducing the stress of patients admitted in acute care ward 3. Structured Teaching Program is effective in increasing the knowledge of mother of under five children on balanced diet 4. There is a difference in the self esteem in children from violent and non- violent family 5. There is no difference between the male and female children’s exposure to violent video game and level of aggression and stress 6. Bed rest will not relives severe asthmatic dyspnea
  15. 15. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS – SOLUTION 1. Increased dose in antibiotics will not reduce body temperature – Associative Null hypothesis 2. Relaxation therapy is not effective in reducing the stress of patients admitted in acute care ward – Causal Null Hypothesis 3. Structured Teaching Program is effective in increasing the knowledge of mother of under five children on balanced diet - Directional Research Hypothesis 4. There is a difference in the self esteem in children from violent and non- violent family –Non Directional Research Hypothesis 5. There is no difference between the male and female children’s exposure to violent video game and level of aggression and stress - Complex null Hypothesis 6. Bed rest will not relives severe asthmatic dyspnea -Simple null Hypothesis
  16. 16. Written before starting the study Testable and Measureable Clear and Understandable Based on Objective of the study Used as a guide in Experimental Design Contain an independent and dependent variable Stated using declarative sentence & present tense Required inductive and deductive thinking One Hypothesis contains only single prediction FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
  17. 17. Subjects in Population being Studied Dependent and Independent Variables The Level of Significance for accepting/rejecting the hypothesis Nature of relationship between Dependent and Independent variables Eg: Patients underwent angiography receiving transparent film dressing have fewer bleeding complications compared to patients who receive pressure dressing COMPONENTS OF HYPOTHESIS DV – Bleeding Complication IV – Types of Dressing (Transparent film & Pressure Dressing) Predicting fewer bleeding complications among patients receiving Transparent film dressing compared with Pressure dressing Patients underwent angiography
  18. 18. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 1. Is each Hypothesis clearly and precisely worded? 2. Is the hypothesis written as a declarative sentence? 3. Is the Hypothesis written in present tense? 4. Is the Hypothesis derived from and linked to research problem, study variables, operational definitions and relevant theories? 5. Does hypothesis present dependent and independent variables?
  19. 19. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 6. Is Hypothesis present the population under study? 7. Is each hypothesis stated as directional research hypothesis? 8. Is each Hypothesis empirically tested? 9. Does each hypothesis contain only single predication about relationships of study variables? 10. Is each hypothesis stated with level of significance for testing the hypothesis?
  20. 20. Research Question: Is Anemia in pregnancy associated with low birth weight in newborn? Null Hypothesis : There is no significant difference in the incidence of LBWs in mothers who are anemic and those who are not anemic Research Hypothesis : The incidence of LBWs in mothers who are anemic is higher than those who are not anemic General Concern : Hb of mother and Birth Weight of Baby
  21. 21. HYPOTHESIS - QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Formal, a priori hypothesis are not stated • Focus is on generating new hypothesis as a result of the study (ie, Inductive Hypothesis) •Testing of Hypothesis becomes difficult and meaningless

Description

Research Hypothesis - Meaning, Definition, Characteristics, Source, Types, Formulation, Criteria

Transcription

  1. 1. Prof . X Emerensia HOD in Child Health Nursing RVS College of Nursing, Sulur, Coimbatore
  2. 2. Hypothesis is a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables
  3. 3. Use of Hypothesis in Quantitative studies tends to induce critical thinking and to facilitate understanding and interpretation of the data
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHEIS Conceptual clarity Empirical Referents Objectivity Specificity Relevant Testability Consistency Simplicity Availability of Techniques Purposiveness Verifiability Economical Profundity of effect
  5. 5. TYPES OF HYPOTHEIS Simple and Complex Hypothesis Associative and Causal Hypothesis Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis Null and Research Hypothesis
  6. 6. Simple and Complex Hypothesis SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS : The Statement that reflects the relationship between two variables Example:  Smoking Leads to Cancer  The higher ratio of unemployment leads to crimes
  7. 7. Simple and Complex Hypothesis COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS : The Statement that reflects the relationship between more two variables Example:  Satisfaction is higher among patients who are older and dwelling in rural area than those who are younger and dwelling in urban area
  8. 8. DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS : It specifies not only the existence, but also the expected direction of the relationship between variables. The terms such as less, more, increase, decrease, greater, smaller indicates the direction of relationship Example : • Children with increased frequency of Playing violent video games show a significant increase in the aggression Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis
  9. 9. NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS : It reflects the relationship between two or more variables, but it does not specify the anticipated and nature of relationship Example : • There is a difference in the income generated by the transgenders living in Urban and rural area Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis
  10. 10. ASSOCIATIVE HYPOTHESIS : It reflects the relationship between variables that occurs or exists in natural settings without manipulation (Mainly used in Correlational studies) Example : Lower the cost of care, the higher the satisfaction among patients Associative and Causal Hypothesis
  11. 11. CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS : It predicts the cause and effect relationship between two or more dependent and independent variable, which is manipulated by researcher to examine the effect on the dependent variable Example :Prevalence of pin site infection is lower in patients who receive pin site care with hydrogen peroxide as compared to patients who receive the pin site care with povidone-iodine solution. Associative and Causal Hypothesis
  12. 12. NULL HYPOTHESIS (STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS): It states the existence of no relationship between the independent and dependent variables Example : There is no association between the dietary intake and weight of the children Null and Research Hypothesis
  13. 13. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (ALTERNATIVE/SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS) : It states the existence of relationship between two or more variables Example : There is an association between the dietary intake and weight of the children Null and Research Hypothesis
  14. 14. IDENTIFY TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS 1. Increased dose in antibiotics will not reduce body temperature 2. Relaxation therapy is not effective in reducing the stress of patients admitted in acute care ward 3. Structured Teaching Program is effective in increasing the knowledge of mother of under five children on balanced diet 4. There is a difference in the self esteem in children from violent and non- violent family 5. There is no difference between the male and female children’s exposure to violent video game and level of aggression and stress 6. Bed rest will not relives severe asthmatic dyspnea
  15. 15. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS – SOLUTION 1. Increased dose in antibiotics will not reduce body temperature – Associative Null hypothesis 2. Relaxation therapy is not effective in reducing the stress of patients admitted in acute care ward – Causal Null Hypothesis 3. Structured Teaching Program is effective in increasing the knowledge of mother of under five children on balanced diet - Directional Research Hypothesis 4. There is a difference in the self esteem in children from violent and non- violent family –Non Directional Research Hypothesis 5. There is no difference between the male and female children’s exposure to violent video game and level of aggression and stress - Complex null Hypothesis 6. Bed rest will not relives severe asthmatic dyspnea -Simple null Hypothesis
  16. 16. Written before starting the study Testable and Measureable Clear and Understandable Based on Objective of the study Used as a guide in Experimental Design Contain an independent and dependent variable Stated using declarative sentence & present tense Required inductive and deductive thinking One Hypothesis contains only single prediction FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
  17. 17. Subjects in Population being Studied Dependent and Independent Variables The Level of Significance for accepting/rejecting the hypothesis Nature of relationship between Dependent and Independent variables Eg: Patients underwent angiography receiving transparent film dressing have fewer bleeding complications compared to patients who receive pressure dressing COMPONENTS OF HYPOTHESIS DV – Bleeding Complication IV – Types of Dressing (Transparent film & Pressure Dressing) Predicting fewer bleeding complications among patients receiving Transparent film dressing compared with Pressure dressing Patients underwent angiography
  18. 18. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 1. Is each Hypothesis clearly and precisely worded? 2. Is the hypothesis written as a declarative sentence? 3. Is the Hypothesis written in present tense? 4. Is the Hypothesis derived from and linked to research problem, study variables, operational definitions and relevant theories? 5. Does hypothesis present dependent and independent variables?
  19. 19. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 6. Is Hypothesis present the population under study? 7. Is each hypothesis stated as directional research hypothesis? 8. Is each Hypothesis empirically tested? 9. Does each hypothesis contain only single predication about relationships of study variables? 10. Is each hypothesis stated with level of significance for testing the hypothesis?
  20. 20. Research Question: Is Anemia in pregnancy associated with low birth weight in newborn? Null Hypothesis : There is no significant difference in the incidence of LBWs in mothers who are anemic and those who are not anemic Research Hypothesis : The incidence of LBWs in mothers who are anemic is higher than those who are not anemic General Concern : Hb of mother and Birth Weight of Baby
  21. 21. HYPOTHESIS - QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Formal, a priori hypothesis are not stated • Focus is on generating new hypothesis as a result of the study (ie, Inductive Hypothesis) •Testing of Hypothesis becomes difficult and meaningless

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