Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

TPM-11: Oil Control II

Total Preventive Maintenance, volume 11, by Koichi Kimura. Oil Control II

  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

TPM-11: Oil Control II

  1. 1. ESP: Este trabajo está protegido bajo licencia Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0 Internacional. ENG: This work is licenced under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ and https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode . This work consists of 43 pages. The Factory Management Institute. Author: Koichi Kimura. Japan March-2020. Translation, Adaptation & Edition: Eduardo García. The Netherlands March-2020 TPM Volume-11 Total Preventive Maintenance Oil Control II 2020a Edition Koichi Kimura
  2. 2. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 2 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Sensei Koichi Kimura: International Consultant of the TPS (Total Productive System), TQM, TPM (Total Productive and Total Preventive Maintenance), Kaizen and Factory Management. Expert in the introduction and fixing of these ones through personal growth and assistance to the management for the change organization. Sensei Koichi Kimura worked in Production Gemba for more than 45 years during which he developedthe JIT production systemas supplier for Toyota, Honda,etc. in SUMITOMO Corp. from the positionas young engineer, to General Manager passing throughout internal & external consulting. At time of publication and over the age of 75, he continues working on the dissemination of original Japanese methods and more knowledge even the one learned from the pioneers and, continues working as international consultantforthe last 23 yearsin more than 11 countries, training clients, as a lecturer and writer. Even now, experimentingand researching innovative methods and growing in the field of Production Management and Corporate structuration.
  3. 3. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 3 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Título de la VersiónEspañola: Factory Management- TPM MantenimientoPreventivoTotal.Volumen 11 -2020a El control de la lubricación II Title of English Version: Factory Management- TPM Total Preventive Maintenance. Volume11 -2020a Oil Control II Autor/Author: Sensei Koichi Kimura–JAPÓN/JAPAN © 2020 https://jp.linkedin.com/in/kouichi-kimura-2ba37152/en Traducción,EdiciónyAdaptación de la versiónespañola: Edition and Adaptation of theEnglish version: Sensei EduardoL.García – The Netherlands© 2020 https://es.linkedin.com/in/edulgg El Documentohasidoeditadoparasu impresiónenDoble Carasobre DIN-A4+ Encuadernación This Documenthasbeen edited to Double-SidePrinting overDIN-A4+ Bookbinding “Factory ManagementInstitute” esuna organizaciónenperíodode constituciónalafechade la publicaciónde este trabajo: 23 de Juliode 2020. www.factorymanagementinstitute.com “FactoryManagementInstitute” is an Organization in the Period of Incorporation atthedate of publication of this work: July 23nd , 2020. www.factorymanagementinstitute.com NotaLegal:Las marcas registradasmencionadaseneste textosonpropiedadde susrespectivos dueños. Legal Notice:Trademarksmentioned in this text are theproperty of their respective owners. Haga clicen la imagen para ver todas las lecturas del Factory Management InstitutedeKoichi Kimura, cargada permanentemente y para siempreen Internet-Archive.org Click on Imageor ScanQR-codeto seeall Factory Management InstituteLectures by KoichiKimura, permanently & forever uploaded into Internet-Archive.org
  4. 4. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 4 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Content I. Introduction......................................................................................................................7 5Ss and maintenance room.....................................................................................................7 II. COVID-19...........................................................................................................................9 A. Acceleration of Telework.................................................................................................. 10 Production-Gemba and Office-Gemba................................................................................... 10 B. Troubles & problems........................................................................................................ 11 C. World chaos..................................................................................................................... 11 Ego of large countries........................................................................................................... 11 US- China conflict................................................................................................................. 12 D. An eerie era..................................................................................................................... 12 Fear correctly....................................................................................................................... 13 III. Control of lubricating oil. ................................................................................................. 15 A. Machine & Equipment Management................................................................................. 15 B. What is the purpose of TPM?............................................................................................ 15 C. Maintenance tribology ..................................................................................................... 16 Tribology............................................................................................................................. 16 D. Damage to machine.......................................................................................................... 17 Firstly, the damage place...................................................................................................... 17 Control of lubricant oil.......................................................................................................... 18 IV. Whole life of machine & equipment................................................................................. 23 V. Teaching the company..................................................................................................... 25 A. Something strange. .......................................................................................................... 25 1) His targetwas to recoverthe profitandsalesexpansionbasedonthe cost competitiveness. 26 2) Not possible to feel the enthusiasm in Gemba................................................................ 26 3) Many Mudas in process.(Suchre-inspectionbyinspectors,excessorobsolete materials& finished goods.) ................................................................................................................... 27 4) I hadn't seen the face of this president. ......................................................................... 27 5) Middle & Long-Term plans............................................................................................ 27 6) Strange annual profit plan….......................................................................................... 29 B. Cost reduction for this company........................................................................................ 29 7) Outsourcing policy........................................................................................................ 30
  5. 5. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 5 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. C. Break-even point (BEP) investigation................................................................................. 39 1) Regrettable thing and Education of BEP......................................................................... 39 2) Imperial conference...................................................................................................... 42 3) Small project for re-setup of production lines................................................................. 42 VI. Next Lecture.................................................................................................................... 43 Icons: Notes:Goingand Comebacktothe maintheme. Thirdlevel of the Issue,inordertoprovide more clearnesstothe structure of the text. Lowerlevelsof the Issue,commonly 6th or 7th And,pointingoutnecessaryexplanationsabout picturesor graphs. UPDATING TABLE: Date, Version-Previous & V-Next Chapter (I..XX...) Chapter Point.- sub-point : (Updating)
  6. 6. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 6 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. This page is intentionally black
  7. 7. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 7 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. I. Introduction In thisdescription,Iexplainedthe bustubcurve. And,before thisperiodwhichis"WearFailure Period"comes,we mustmake effortstoextendthe "Accidental FailurePeriod"inwhichoperationisstablebyexchangingthe expendable partsand maintenance. In somewhereIhave writtenthata machine doesn'ttake age eventhoughtobe usedverylong years.Thisis one part of dialogue withmyoldToyotafriend.Whya machine doesn'ttake age? Because itis possible toexchangethe partwhere tobe damagedor worn.Andin the combinationof maintenance andKaizen,itispossible touse the machine inverylong"AccidentalFailurePeriod". I alsoexplainedthe conceptof tribology. I wrote before thatitis saidthat 60% occurrence of failuresinmovingpartsof machine are causedof the problemsof lubricants,includinglubricantsupply. Andwhenlookingthe machine failure inoverall machine,more than25% numberoccurred,more than 27% of machine stopandmore than30% of lossamountare causedof lubricanttroubles. Yes,lubricantcontrol isveryimportantandessential factorforTPM. However,itistrue that the systematicoilingisdisregarded. Whenvisitingandlookingatthe maintenance of machines,Ialwayscanfindthe lackof lubricant control conditionwhichare 5Ss of Oil storage,lackof oilingstandard(notcorrectand/orhackneyed), no keepingthe standard(eventhoughthe standardismade). 5Ss and maintenance room. In thisdescription,Ididn'twrite aboutthistheme.BecauseinsomewhereImighthave writtenit. But once again I askyou to implement5Ssina maintenance roomwhichisthe strongholdof maintenance activity. I introduce one episode. WhenI made a conference inacompany,Iwas requiredtomake a suggestionaboutKaizen.Their problemistopromote KaizeninGemba.Andone of questionwashow to systemizeKaizenactivity. ThenI taught 2 thingsand one isdata gatheringsystemandanotherone issuggestionscheme. One yearlateronce againI had an opportunitytovisitthiscompany.AndIcouldlookat the situation of Kaizenimplementation. However,itwasa miserable state.Ifoundthata suggestionbox became the nestof cockroach andthere were the discolouredpapersinit. Accordingto the managers,Kaizensuggestionsdon'tcome outasexpectedandthe voice of Gemba was thattheycannot come up withKaizenidea.Bythe waythiscompanywas inthe middle of TPM campaign.(Itherefore wasinvitedbythiscompany.) Thenwhenmakingfactory tour,we stoppedat the maintenance room.Itwasa chaoticarea. It wasanywaychaotic.Nude posters,toolsscattered, unreadable oil cansandoil servers,abottle of Coca-Cola…Andparticularlyitwasdirty.Is maintenance roomadirtyplace in the first place?Theirexcuse wasthe use of oil andscatteringchips
  8. 8. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 8 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. and I lostword.Of course,I deniedtheirexcuse.Dirtymaintenance roomcannotmake reasonable maintenance inproductionGembaandalsoveryunreliable. Unreadable oil cansand oil servers,how cantheysupplycorrectoil incorrect position?And,thenI suggestedthe managerstocreate 10 thousandKaizensuggestionsinthismaintenance roominto implement5Ss. 10 thousandKaizenideas!?…The managerswere surprised.Andtheysaidthatitis impossible in unison.ButI toldthemas next: ― InKaizen(Kaizenideas) there are 3ranks.  Excellent(effecttothe Gemba);Bettereffecttobe expected;  Good (effecttoGemba);Also,bettereffecttobe expected; And,  The effecttobe betterthannothing. ― Whenyouimagine Kaizen,youalwaysexpectorimagine "ExcellentorGood".But it iswrong. Ratherthan the expectationof these,youshouldencourage the ideasof "Betterthannothing". ― 10 thousandideasinmaintenance room, itiseasy. ― Remove "Nude poster"withthe title of "Betterworkingenvironment".Then,itisone Kaizen suggestion. ― Decidingthe locationandcorrectputtingmethodforone tool.Thisisone Kaizensuggestion. Decidingthe locationof ash tray and regulationof ashKatazuke.Thisisone of Kaizenidea.Putting Kanbanboard of ash tray regulationalsoadditional Kaizenidea. ― Inthismaintenance room,there are manytools,oils,lubricants,machines,…Andif yousuggest ideasforone by one,itis easyto create 10thousandsideas. Anyway, itisgoodchance to implement5SsandKaizensuggestionsasa maintenance teaminTPM Campaign. Koichi Kimura International Consultant Factory ManagementInstitute
  9. 9. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 9 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. II. COVID-19 Before goingtothe theme,Iwould write aboutsome miscellaneousthoughts.Butdroppinginthe way.Therefore,nonecessarytoread,if youdon’twant. In previousdescription,Ihave writtenthe JapaneseEraName. Thus,now the era name is "REWA". As I wrote before,since the Meijiera,the systemwaschangedtoone regionof Emperorand one era name.But before Meiji,eraname waschangedmore thanonce in same Emperorwhenoccurring disastersandepidemicsforplayingpeople'swell-beingandpeace. Unfortunately,fromthe beginningof thisnew eraname,Japanwas attackedanddamagedby big disastersandcurrentlyisbeenattackingthe epidemicof COVID. Thisepidemicisveryseriousandmore seriousthanrecentothersinclude the economical epidemic of Financial Crisisof Lehman. At the Lehman's,the worldfinancial systemwasdamagedandexpandedthe influencetoGemba. But thisCOVIDdirectlyattacked Gemba.Andall of Gembas,manufacturingsector,service sector, tourismsector,andall of office Gembaswere attacked.Andthisdisasterinfluence wouldbe continuinglongterm(more than3 yearsin a passage). Afterthisdisaster(no,duringthisdisaster),somethingof social systemwouldbe changedinthe worlddramatically. Whenlookingatthe world history,suchdisasterbecame the triggerof social change. For instance,andaccordingto a historybook,there wasa miserable disasterat14th century,in Europa.Yes, itis plague (BlackDeath). Andthisepidemicof plague killedmore than25millionpeople inEuropa. And,afterthisdisaster,the Reformationwashappened.Also,The Renaissancewhich ignitedpeople's"innerconsciousness"withculture andartraised. Thisis relatedtothe fact that the nation,religion,andculture atthe time could not cope withmass deaths,andprovesthat the unprecedenteddisastercausedsocial change.Inthisbookthere wasa wordwhichis "mementomori1 ”. At that time (14th centuryinEuropa),people feltadeathclosely,because citiesoverflowedwith corpses. And, this“mementomori”became atriggerof social change. Nowagainthisword wasclose by the personswhoare oldpersonsand/orthe personswhohave underlyingmedical problemseventhoughpeopledon’tknow thisword. It mightneverreachthe deathtoll to be same level asthe plague of 14 centuryinEuropa. But we feel deathcloselybecause of dailynewswithinternet. We sawthe scenesof Wuhan hospital,Italy,UK.Also,we saw the scene of refrigeratortrucksof corpsesinNewYork,vast burial groundinBrazil. Andbecause of the improvementof Internet,we are incircumstancesof lookingandfeelingdeathinevitably.Thisimpactmightbe same tothe epidemicof BlackDeath. 1 Memento mori. Memento Mori is a Latin phrasethat means "don't forget to die(someday)" or "don't forget death". Widely used as a motif in art works. Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memento_mori https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memento_mori
  10. 10. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 10 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Many times,Iwrote that ina decade workingcircumstanceswouldchange dramatically.However,it mightbe true that thisCOVIDhasthe powerof acceleratingthe changingsociety. A.Acceleration of Telework Unfortunately,the trendof telework orremote workof Office-Gembamightaccelerate. There are goodpointsandbad points. For instance,howaboutOnline learning?…Onlinelearningalsowillhave the citizenshipinthe world. However, thismethodalsohasbothsides. I thinkOnline learningisnotasuitable educationforchildren,eventhoughitisnecessaryasan emergencycountermeasure.Because the teachingwiththroughinternetisbiasedtoteachjust knowledge (Leftware2 inbrain). Butthisisbecause the awarenessandlearningthatarisesfromthe existence of aplace calledschool shouldalsobe important.Learningaboutplantsandinsectsonthe screenof a computerdoesnotgive childrenanideaof nature.Justas itis necessarytoputchildren ina natural place to knownature,the place of school cannot be replacedonline.Anditisnot possible tobringupthe rich sensitivityandemotion(Rightware). Production-Gembaand Office-Gemba. We notice thatsome jobsare suitable forteleworkandsome are not.Of course,teleworkingcannot be appliedtomanufacturingsites,face-to-face service industries,andtransportation-relatedwork. The same goesforpublicservicessuchaspolice office,firedepartmentsandessentialworking Gembasuch hospitals,nursing,childcare etc. On the otherhand,evenwithinthe company,teleworkislikelytobe establishedinajob system whichemployeescantake onthe task as a contract business.Fromnow on,the style of workthat shouldbe calleda“craftsman” that surelyrealizeshis/hercontractedworkmaybe increase rapidly. Again,businessform&type will change veryrapidly,because of the improvementof ICTandthe acceleratedwithsuchpandemic. Teleworkmaybe a goodtrend.But I like the formof small grouptelework(satelliteofficework) rather thansingle home telework. 2 Leftware & Rightware: Concepts associated to Left and Right brain hemisphererespectively, explained in Factory Management I lecture: https://archive.org/details/FactoryManagement1TheCorporateConstitutionAndManagementFramework https://archive.org/details/GestinDeFFbrica1 Videos: eeOS How to build the enterprise excellence Operating System: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFoQoBkBjV4. Cómo construir el Sistema Operativo de la empresa excelente: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GtxIrtjsQ9s Books: The System of Excellence: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B077SGKSB1. El Sistema de la Excelencia:https://www.amazon.es/dp/B0744PTWF4
  11. 11. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 11 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. How can we cope within suchhecticcircumstances? …Insuch an era,we have no choice but to jointlycreate andaccumulate whatwe can trust andbelieve,andwhatwe reallywanttoprotect. Insteadof protectingthe traditional corporate form, we willcreate aformof laborthat can be serious.One of importantformisto coexistwithnature,societyandpeople.We have tointeract withpeople tocreate a newcommonworld.Of course,how to maintaincontactwithpeople mustbe carefullyconsidered.Butourspiritcan't be shutup.Rather thanshuttingdown inan attemptto protectthe existingsociety,we stepforwardtointroduce anew society. What isneedednowis the above kindof spirit. B. Troubles & problems How we can promote Kaizen?…Newideaof Kaizenis the implementationof awarenesswhichisable to be perceivedin Rightware.Anditisnot possible tobringupthe sensitivityinnovisiting Gemba. Andit isthe meaningof deteriorationof Kaizenmind.Meetinginteleworkandisolatedwork become popular.But(forinstance) ameetingrequirestocreate a variousopinion.Thentelework meetingisrequiredthe methodstocomplementthisdeficiency.The opportunityof makingidle talk will decrease.Of course,PChasthe functionof Chat.But itis requiredtomake face-to-facechat.Idle talkis one of vitaminforjob. I have writteninFactoryManagement-1aboutthe importance of using Rightware forthe job. Nowteleworkisone of bigtrend.Anditpromotesthe jobstyle whichcanbe done anywhere with minimumcondition(circumstancesof ICT).Anditcan give the opportunityof bringingup Rightware, if it ispossible tochoose the suitable place (suchbeautiful countryside).Onthe otherhand, unfortunatelyhomeworkingandisolatedworkingstylewill increase.Andinthese cases,telework may be the cause of disturbingGembaKaizen. A Psychiatristsoundsthe alarmonhome teleworkaboutthe mentalityequilibriumsense C. World chaos ThisCOVDpandemichasthe powerof causingthe chaotic worldof century. Andthisdisclosed(or nowstill isdisclosing)the social contradictionswhichare social disparity,incomeinequality,gap betweenrichandpoor,racism,egoof the large countries,reactionof globalism&populism, domesticfirstprincipal,exclusionism.Thesewere coveredwhenthe economywaswell byit.But whenthe economywasdestroyedinthe world,potential inconvenienttruthswere revealed. We are in an era where we donotknow what will happenandhow we will develop.New virusesmay occur repeatedly.Andthe secondwave of COVIDmightbe strongeranddangerthanfirst. Ego of large countries At present(unfortunately)the situationisnoworldleader.Forinstance,G7or G20 fell intoa dysfunction.While the noworldleaderwill progressinthe future,there isnodoubtthat international cooperationwillbe weakenedandgeopolitical conflictswill increase.
  12. 12. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 12 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Andthe firstproblemfacingthe internationalcommunityisthe gapwidening(gapbetweenrichand poor,social gap, racism).Many workersandmiddle classeswill explodetheirangertothe governmentsandleaders.The economyisshifting fromphysical store salesandthe real economyto virtual anddigital,andmanyunresponsiveworkerswill lose theirjobs. US- China conflict In the geopolitical conflict,the mostconcernedisthe conflictbetweenthe USand China. Unfortunately,USfailedthe initial responsetoCOVIDandsearchingthe excuse toChina.Andthe divisionof supplychainwill be accelerated.Enclosure of the supplychainof alliesunitwillbe progressed.Inotherwords,eachcountry'sstrategicprioritiesandglobal supplychainswill become more locallyrooted,changingthe flow of globalization.Animmediate concernisthe developmentof Vaccine andsupply.Atpresentmore than140 of vaccine developmentplansare beingprogressedby countrieswithnocorporation.Moreover,WHOmightbe fell intodysfunction.Andthe problem called"vaccine nationalism"mightbe occurred. D.An eerie era Why doesthispandemiccause the worldwide panic,tensionandeconomical andsocial chaos?…Itis fear. Nowfromwhere a feardoescome?…A fearcomesfrom 3 elementsandthese synergisticeffects. One isthe actual harm (death):As I wrote before Ifeltmyfeelingof MementoMori.A popular actors and actressdiedwiththe Cytokine storm(Immunerunaway). And,we saw manycasesof medical collapse.And,noone will be afraidif there isnosuchperson. Other one is the unpredictability:The new coronavirushasa greatcharacteristicthat itcan be transmittedby asymptomaticinfectedpeople.Andmostof the people don'tknow if theyare transmitted.Theydon'tknowif itwill be transmittedtootherpersons.We can'tpredict.Some people are asymptomatic,andevenif theyfinishwithoutsymptoms,thereisafearof Cytokine storm that some people becomesoseriousthattheydie within10days. Intowhere are we? …Are Tokyoor Beijingin2ndwave? …What isnext? …May the secondwave be changedand stronger? …The victimsare increasinginSouthAmericaandAfrica. And last one isthe control inability:Whencan we gain effective vaccines? …Currently,researchon therapeuticdrugsinexistingmedicinesisunderway. However,there isnospecificcuratives,andalso it issaidthat it will take atleasta yearto developavaccine. What thismeansisthat there isno way tocontrol the symptoms.Inotherwords,itfulfilsthe fear- causingconditionof "uncontrollability". EvenUS& Europa cannotcontrol it. A fearispossible toexpressasnext: 𝐹𝑒𝑎𝑟 = 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑚 𝑥 𝑈𝑛𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑥 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦
  13. 13. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 13 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. The characteristicof COVIDshowsthatit iscausingfearto people because itisanunknownvirusthat isveryunpredictable anduncontrollable. A Presidenthastoldtohispeople thatthis(COVID-19) isjustaninfluenzaandnonecessarytofear so much. And whenconsideringcalmly,everyyear250~600 thousand people diedwithinfluenza. At firstglance,hisassertioniscorrect.Of course,itis wrong,eventhoughthere isa pastdata (whichare the resultsof 250~600 thousandvictims.). He believedthatthisCOVIDalsosame aspast influenzas. We learnfromthe past. Andwe call such attitude asscientific.A science isbasedonlearningfrom the past. A scientististhe expertof past,butnot future andunpredictedthingandascience isweak againstinexperienceddisaster. Therefore,we needtotake the attitude of "fearcorrectly". Fear correctly Havingscientificandhumble eyesandmakingefforttoinvestigateunknowndisease. Butexpertsare not "expertsof future". A time tobe difficulttoanticipate damage. Settingaside the assumptionsfromthe past.Therefore,maximumactionquickly. Consequently, don’tbe afraidto the overaction.
  14. 14. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 14 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. This page is intentionally black
  15. 15. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 15 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. III. Control of lubricating oil. A.Machine & Equipment Management Again,TPMis one part of Machine & EquipmentManagement. The regionof Machine & EquipmentManagementisalittle wide andincludesProductionplanning, Safety,Workability(includingthe surroundingcircumstances),Law,IoT,Total Production flow, Energy,Quality&reliability,Contaminationprevention(includinghazardswaste),Environmental hygiene,Disasterprevention,Skill control,StandardizationandMachine constitution(including Peripheral devise&equipment),itsconstruction(includingspare parts) andTPM. B. What is the purpose of TPM? Long daysago, and at leastbefore the collapse of Japanese Bubble- Economy(1986~ 1991) a word was a mainstreaminJapan. The word is"Scrap and Build (Japanglish;JapaneseEnglish)" “The original meaning of Scrap and Build is ‘Achievehigh efficiency of production facilities by replacing old production facilities with new facilities by abolishing old and inefficientfactory facilities’ .” Wikipedia Thenthe trendof productionGemba wasto dispose (alittle) oldtype machine andreplace tonew. Andproductionengineersoughtnewmachinesincollectedcataloguesandcompetedtobuy.And productionengineermisunderstoodhisjobandbecame a(socalled) catalogue engineer. In that trend,a companytook(andis taking) adifferentwaywhichgivingimportance tousingold type machineswithwell maintenance andKaizen.The companyisToyota. As I wrote inMakingStream of Production3 ,Toyotaalmostmakeshismachinesbyhimself and continuingtogive Kaizenandwell maintenance. Nowthat the bubble economyhascollapsedandthe economyhastransitionedtoalow-growth economy,we have changedfromthe eraof disposable equipmenttothe eraof how well we maintainexistingequipmentandcontinue production. Machine & EquipmentManagementis"managementtoefficientlyutilize the functionsand performance of the facilityfromthe planningof the facilityinstallationtooperation,maintenance, and disposal." Its regionisWhole life of machine &equipment. 3 Making the stream of production: English:https://archive.org/details/makingstreamofproduction13_202001/mode/2up Spanish:https://archive.org/details/establecerlacorrientedeproduccion13_202001
  16. 16. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 16 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. C. Maintenance tribology By the way,I wrote before thatit issaidthat 60% occurrence of failuresinmovingpartsof machine are causedof the problemsof lubricants(includinglubricantsupply). Andwhenlookingthe machine failure inoverall machine,more than25% numberoccurred,more than 27% of machine stopandmore than30% of lossamountare causedof lubricanttroubles. Thenthe lubricantoil control isveryimportantand essentialfactorof Preventive Maintenance. Nowrecentyearthe wordof maintenance tribologyisbecomingpopularforpreventive maintenance. What ismaintenance tribology? …Ithinkthatthere are manypeople whodonotreallyhear maintenance tribology,butif tribologyisreplacedby"lubricationandfriction",itmayeasyto understand. Maintenance tribologyisbasicallyacombinationof maintenance andlubrication,butmore thanjust a combination. The two mainpointsof the conceptof maintenance tribologyare asfollows:  One of themisthat itis basedonreliabilityengineering.Itisanimportantelementin maintenance tribologytodeveloplogicalmaintenance basedonreliabilityengineering, rather thanperformingmaintenance indiscriminately.  The secondway of thinkingistomake effective use of tribologyformaintenance. Tribologyisa powerful tool formaintenance,butatthe momentitishard to say that the resultsof tribologyare beingeffectivelyutilizedformaintenance. The most importantpart of maintenance tribologyisactivitiestoeffectivelyutilizethe resultsof tribologyformaintenance. As mentionedearlier,itiseasilyimaginedthatthe use of tribology(lubricationtechnologytofriction) reducesmaintenance costsdue tothe fact thatlubricationproblemsaccountfor25% or more of all problems(60%of failuresthatoccur inthe movingpartsof machine tools). Tribology Again,whenlookingabookof Machine & EquipmentMaintenance,sometimeswe cansee the word of "Tribology4 ". WhenI was young,there wasn’tthisword.Butat presentthiswordisusedverynaturally.Ithinkyou may knowit.But justto be sure: “Tribology is a field of science and technology aboutcontactsurfacesthatinteractwith each otherwhen two objectsmoverelativeto each otherso that they slide with each other,and related practical problems”. 4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribology Fifty years of tribology:http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/news/fifty-years-tribology
  17. 17. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 17 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Wikipedia The originis τριβω, whichmeans“rubbing”inGreek.ArnoldJ.Sommerfeld(Germanphysicist),the creator of fluidlubricationtheory,presentedimportant researchinits earlydays. The term was proposedina report(JostReportby PeterJost5 ) thatestimateddamage due tofriction and wear,whichwaslatercompiledinthe UK in1966, whichprompteddevelopment. People involvedintribologyare called “Tribologists”. D.Damage to machine The nextgraph isabout an investigationresultof damage tomachine &equipment. Please lookat nextgraph: Firstly, the damage place. Lookingat the proportionof mechanical elementsthatactuallysuffereddamage,asshowninabove Figure,mechanical elementscloselyrelatedtotribology,suchasrollingbearings,guide surfaces/ slidingsurfaces,gears,seals,andslidingbearings,are rankedhigh.These elementsare called triboelements (T). AndnextFig.showsthe resultsof a surveyonwhat kindof damage occurs to mechanical equipment. Also,nextgraphshowsthe Degradationmode of equipmentwithhighfrequencyof degradation. 5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Jost
  18. 18. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 18 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. As youcan see that these typesof damage are called degradationmodes.Of the deteriorationmodes that occur in mechanical equipment,wear,leakage,fatigue,oil deterioration,andothermodesthat are verycloselyrelatedtotribologyare rankedhigh,andtribologyhasaverydeeprelationshipto damage to mechanical equipment. Consideringthatmaintenance hasamaintheme of delayingthe occurrence andgrowthof damage to mechanical equipment,fromthis,itisclearthat tribologyhasa close relationshipwith maintenance,andmaintenance cannotbe discussedwithouttribology. I wouldpick-upMaintenance Tribologylaterandnow I wishtocomplete the theme of "Control of lubricantoil"whichisone of essential theme of Maintenance Tribology. Control of lubricant oil Again, whatLubricantOil Control is.AsI describedinTPM-10, there are 6 points: 1) Accordingto the application. 2) Use cleanandcorrect lubricatingoil. 253 146 104 89 86 76 57 50 48 47 47 44 38 38 34 30 25 17 15 13 11 8 7 7 6 5 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Wear Leakage Other Fatigue Corrosion Vibration Disconection Insulation Deterioration Burning Breakage Element Deterioration Clogging Defective Conductor Loosening Abnormal noise Poor accurancy Oil deterioration Large Friction Drop out Erosion Fretting Wear Yielded Stress Corrosion Cracking Creep strain Buckling Fever Peeling Degradation mode of equipment with high frequency degradation
  19. 19. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 19 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. 3) Oilingintomouthdecided. 4) at the timingdecided. 5) Justquantitydecided. 6) Ontofrictionsurface certainly. Let's lookat one by one. 1) According to the application; & 2) Use clean and correct lubricating oil; … I introducednexttable: Lubrication Oil (From the Website of Japanese Lubricating Oil Company) Type Purpose SpindleOil Spindle oil is generally used in high speed rotating parts such as light load machines, small electric motors, and spinning machines. The characteristic oil is that it has low viscosity and low load. DynamoOil Spindle oil Dynamo oil is mainly used for large motors, generators, blowers and ventilators that rotate at high speed. Turbine Oil Used for lubrication of high-speed bearing parts of various turbines. It is also used for lubrication of hydraulically operated parts of various machines such as compresors. There are two types of turbine oil: non added turbine oil and added turbine oil. Unadded turbine oil is characterized by excellent water separation. On the other hand, added turbine oil is characterized by its excellent oxidation stability, de properties, rust prevention and water separation. MachineOil Machine oils are widely used among lubricating oils and are characterized by that they contain no additives. Generally used as lubricating oil for bearing rotating friction parts of various machines. One of the features is that the varies depending on the type of crude oil. Lubricants are classified into normal grade lubricants. CylinderOil Cylinder oil is mainly used for cylinders and valves of steam engines. Cylinder oil has a high viscosity and is used as an oil for parts with high temperatures and loads. Gear Oil Gear oils are mainly used in various gears as lubricants for reducing friction and cooling of reduction gears such as general machinery and rolling mills. There is a type with an extreme pressure agent added and a type with no additive. Extreme pressure agent added type is added with abrasion resistance and seizure resistance. On the other hand, the characteristics of the extreme pressure agent free type are excellent in oxidation stability, water separation, defoaming and rust prevention. Bearing Oil As the name implies. bearing oil is used for lubricating the bearings of machines. Has |rust prevention properties that prevent rust. CompressorOil Compressor oil is used for lubrication of compressor cylinders and bearings. Types a divided into reciprocating type and screw type. It is characterized by extremely low carbon generation and excellent oxidation stability and rust prevention. The screw type is also characterized by excellent oxidation stability, rust prevention and water separation SlidingSurface Oil Sliding surface oil is commonly used to lubricate sliding guideways on machine tool the types of sliding surface oil are classified into those that are dedicated to guideway and those that are also used as hydraulic oil. It features excellent resistance t vibration phenomena generated on the sliding surface. rust prevention, and oxidation stability. Refrigerator MachineOil Refrigerator oil is mainly used for lubrication of refrigerators. When mineral oil-based lubricating oil is cooled, the minimum temperature at which it flows is low. So, it is characterized by good stability to refrigerants such as ammonia. Refrigerator oils are divided into mineral oils and synthetic oils such as alkylbenzenes. HydraulicOil The hydraulic oil is based on turbine oil and contains additives. It is used as hydraulic oil for hydraulic media and hydraulic pumps. Generally, hydraulic oils are characterized by low viscosity. It is also characterized by excellent oxidation stability, water separation, defoaming, and rust prevention. In addition, there are types that exhibit viscosity. temperature characteristics. wear resistance. fire resistance. etc., so
  20. 20. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 20 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. they can be used properly depending on the type of hydraulic pump and operating conditions. The types of hydraulic oils include general hydraulic oils of the R & O type. low pour point oils with high viscosity index. wear resistant fluids, and flame-retardant oils 3) Oilinginto mouth decided; Omit.Please,lookatthe instructionmanual. 4) At the timingdecided. It isimportantto share when"whennecessary",butforthatpurpose itisnecessarytoset the oilingcycle. Normally,itshouldbe setitbyreferringtothe instructionmanual,butif itisnot listedinthe instructionmanual,itshouldbe reasonablydecidedthe standardand thendecidedbytrial and error.In that case,I thinkitis bettertoset itwhile checkingthe conditionof the oil film of the lubricatingoil.Inthiscase,settingalittle shorterthanthe possible cycle andgradually lengtheningthiscycle willpreventthe riskof "outof oil". Of course,timelyoilingnotonlyinvolvesdecidingthe cycle andsupplyingthe lubricatingoil at that time,but"it isnecessarytoreliablyperformoilingandinspectionatthe beginningof everyday." Andit isrequiredtoimplementthe "scientificexperience". 5) Just quantity decided. Suitable amountof lubricantsupplyisrequired. Becausetoomuchor toolittle oil quantity can cause poorlubrication.  If too much: This maycause oil leakage,ordependingonthe lubricationmethod,the deteriorationof oil mayleadtoa decrease inviscosityandcause poorlubrication.  If too little:Anoil filmwill notbe formedonthe frictionsurface,causing"galling"or "burning". The appropriate amountof lubricationisdetermined accordingtothe slidingparts,rotating parts of the equipment,movementconditionsandlubricationmethod. Determined!?…Determinedinthe instructionmanual? …No,Ihaven’tseensuchconvenient descriptioninit. Unfortunately, itisnecessarytodetermine byyourself eventhoughsuchdataisin the instructionmanual. CirculationlubricationandTotal losslubrication The lubrication method variesgreatly depending on whethercirculation is to reduce friction or wearor lubrication forcooling. In thecase of "Total loss type"lubrication,it is sufficientto supply the amountof supply necessary foroptimallubrication activity,and in the case of the "Circulation type",it is sufficientto supply the amountof lubrication based on thecooling effect.
  21. 21. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 21 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Nowinhere I describe the case of "Total losslubrication". How to decide the suitablequantity? …The formulaforthe amountof lubricationisshown belowforreference.The calculationformuladiffersdependingonthe type of lubrication point,souse the appropriate calculationformula.However,Itisimpossible toaccurately obtainthe requiredamountof lubricationwithusingthe calculationformula. Thisis because of dependingonvariousconditionssuchasbearingmaterial,surface roughness,rotationspeed,load,operatingconditions,ambienttemperature,andtype of lubricatingoil,seal condition,new machine,ormachine used. Thenfinallyyouneedtodecide itbasedonscientificexperience (tryandinvestigationand record) The "ManagementGuideforLubrication"publishedbythe JapanManagementAssociationis definedasfollows. "If you give the necessary oil film between the two sliding surfacesfirst,then you can replenish the amountof leakagefromtheshaftend to obtain good lubrication performance." It recommendsto"determinetherequired amountof lubrication in advanceusing a calculation formula and determinethe amountof lubrication with referenceto the amount and experiencevaluesafter machinetrial operation". Nowcalculation formula.Itisforyour reference: Supplypoint Formula Anti friction bearing Q = 0,1 25,4 x bearing diameter x number of rows x K⁄ Plainbearing 𝑄 = 0,15 25.42 x rotating shaft diameter x bearing length x K⁄ Plane lubrication 𝑄 = 0,01 25.42 x length x width x K⁄ Cylindrical lubrication surface 𝑄 = 0,15 25.42 x diameter x length x K⁄ Chain 𝑄 = 0,01 25.42 x length x width x K⁄ Ball bearing way 𝑄 = 0,03 25.4 x length x row x K⁄ Gear 𝑄 = 0,3 25.42 x pitch diameter x tooth surface width x K⁄ Cam 𝑄 = 0,08 25.42 x contact circumference x width x K⁄
  22. 22. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 22 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. 𝑨𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒇𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒃𝒆𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑠 = 𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑙, 𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑟 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑷𝒍𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒖𝒃𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 = 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑢𝑑𝑒𝑠 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑸 = 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑚3 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑲 = 𝐿𝑢𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 (𝑠𝑒𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ) 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑊𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝒎𝒎 The constant isdoubledforevery10 timesspeedincreaserate6 . Again, the importantthingsare to gainthe scientificexperience anddecide the suitable standardfor bothTimingand Supplyamount". 6) Onto frictionsurface certainly. Omit… 6 Graph, tables and formulas from the "Guide for Lubrication Management" published by Japan Management Association":https://www.jma.or.jp/en/
  23. 23. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 23 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. IV. Whole life of machine & equipment By the way,I wrote the word of "Whole life of machine &equipment"inbefore page andsaidthat the regionof Machine & EquipmentManagementisfromthe planningof the facilityinstallationto operation,maintenance,anddisposal. Andwhenlookingatthe whole life fromTPM,the famousBustub Curve wouldbe helpful. Please lookatnextpicture. There are THREE failure periodswhichare Initial Failure Period,Accidental Failure PeriodandWear Failure Period.And asyouunderstand,the failure rate tendstoincrease in"WearFailure Period" Obviously,if the machinerunsfora longtime,internal partswill starttowearand fatigue.The period whenfailuresincrease due tothe life of the machine iscalled"WearFailurePeriod". Andbefore thisperiodcomes,we mustmake effortstoextendthe "AccidentalFailurePeriod"in whichoperationisstable byexchangingthe expendable partsandmaintaining. Whetherthe time forfailure due todeteriorationorwearof parts comesearlierorlaterdependson howthe machine isused. How to delaythisfailure periodisashowcase forthe technicianswhoperformmaintenance,so periodicinspectionsare essential tasks.
  24. 24. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 24 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. And,mostimportantfactor islubricatingoil control. I wouldwrite thistheme includingTribologyalittlemore innextdescription.
  25. 25. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 25 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. V. Teaching the company I'm writingone case of a middle-classindustrial company.Andwiththroughthiscase,Iwrite my methodof newsystemintroduction&stability. Thiscompanywishedtoimprove (reduce)productioncostforrecoveringprofitandROE.But this company(he) tookstrange direction. His wisheswere torecoverthe profit. Andhe knew the necessityof salesexpansion,andwishedit. Thenhe wishedthe costreductionof productionGemba. He believedthe importance of QCD(Quality, CostandDelivery). Quality?…Yes,itisessential,butisverybasicconditionforabusiness.And,the qualityissuewas coveredwithheavyqualityassurance tactics.Howeverof course itwasneversufficienttothe survival of thiscompany. Delivery?…He coveredthisissuewithhavingheavyinventory,whichcausedthe excessand obsolescencematerial andproductsanddispose losses. Anotherone of concernwas hismarketposition. Hismarketposition(share) of relevantproducts were fourthor lower. Qualityisof course important.However,itisverynatural thingtomake businessnowadaysandeven thoughit wasimproved,itmightnotbe affectedtothe future growth. To keepthe customersorder,hismeasureswasthe quickresponse of delivery,basedonthe heavy inventory. A.Something strange. WhenI joinedtothis company, I feltsomethingstrange: 1) His targetwas to recoverthe profit.Buthe desiredthe introductionof JIPM'sTPM 2) Notpossible tofeel the enthusiasminGemba. 3) Many Mudas in process.(Suchre-inspectionbyinspectors,excessorobsolete materials& finishedgoods.) 4) I hadn't seenthe face of the presidentinthisplant.(There were somephotos.) 5) There isno middle andlong-termplan. 6) Strange annual profitplan. 7) Outsourcingpolicy. I explainone byone.
  26. 26. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 26 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. 1) His target was to recover the profit andsales expansion based on the cost competitiveness. But he desiredthe introductionof JIPM'sTPM.Why TPM? …He had knownthe corporate problems whichwere notonlythe productioncost,butalso the salesgrowth. Buthe wishedtointroduce JIPM's TPM. Therefore, whenImade asessionwiththe directors,theirrequirementwasjustthe TPM introduction.TheybelievedthatwithintroducingJIPM'sTPM,itis possible toreduce cost.And initiallyIimaginedthatmanylosseswhichwerelossesof material,labourandLT (leadtime) caused machine troubles.But… Whenlookingaroundthe factories,Icouldunderstandthe causesof highcostwhichwere mainlynot causedmachine troubles.And, IsuggestedthatTPMintroduction andstabilityare goodthing. However, the introductionof TPMisnot affecttocost reduction.But theyinsistedtothe introductionstubbornly. It was indeedstrange thingforme.And, Iwrote thatif desiringtrue costreduction,itwasnecessary to resolve followingthings:  Reductionof material loss(inQualitycost.)  Reformof productionplan(JITconceptand eliminate excess&obsolescence) Then…  The projectteam suggestedthe TPMintroductionconceptas"JITmachine condition". But withjustabove items,itwasn'tpossible toresolvethe illnessof this companywhichwascycle of HighPrice and No SalesGrowth(orSalesDecrease) causedof HighCostConstitution,Excess Inventory(forkeepingcompetitiveness) alsopoorTQMthengain HighCost (because of Material loss and qualitycostincrease). Unfortunately, Ipromisedtohelpthiscompany,althoughitwas underthe effectof the drink. Japanese sayingthat:"A samurai'sword is as good ashis bond".Then,Isuggestedthe introductionof TQM afterthe introductionof TPMand suitable timing. Now,withjustabove problemsandsolving,isitpossibletoreduce cost? …No.It isnot sufficient. 2) Not possible tofeel the enthusiasminGemba. There were some causes…Of course, one of cause wasthe initial stage andfailedtomove toactual practice afterthe stage of planning. Butthe reason was notjustthis. By the way,are employeesjustthe tool of gettingprofit? …Itiscorrectif we were inthe age of the is “Modern Times7 “ by SirCharlesChaplin.Thiswasacceptedasthe voice of managementside.And,a companyisimportanttool for justearningcostof living. Butitisalsocorrect, eventoday. Thisis acceptedasthe voice of employeeside.But Inthe generationof Millennial andAI,the employee'smindforworkischanging. 7 Modern Times: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_Times_(film)
  27. 27. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 27 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Thenit isnot possible toconsidercorporate managementwithout"employeeengagement". 3) Many Mudas in process. (Suchre-inspectionby inspectors, excessor obsolete materials &finishedgoods.) I listedupthis"Many Mudas inprocess". Andalthoughthere isa difference of degree,itis, unfortunately,quite natural thinginthe world. Unfortunately, thiscompanymistookthe directiontoresolve the highcostconstitution.And…This mistake wasjusthiscompany'sresponsibility? …Yes. Itwasthe responsibilityof topmanagement, particularlythe president.A companydirectedbyincompetentpresidentruins. But a salvationforthiscompanywasthe managementteamwhonegotiatedthe directiontothis president.Theyhadnormal mind. 4) I hadn't seenthe face of this president. Accordingto the directorshe doesn'treside andcome tothisplantnormally.Andhe doesn'tattend the makingof middle &long-termplanandannual profitplan, andjustgivingprofittargetand authorization. Middle & long-termplanare notmade annually.Butitisrequiredtoreview andthe correction.But he doesn'tattendto thisimportantevent. A directortoldme:“Our companydoesn'tgive the importance to suchmiddle &long-termplan”. Because,nowadaysitisthe age of speedandthe businessenvironmentischangingsorapidly. Therefore, itisnomeaningstobotherto make suchplan. I was surprisedbythe director'scomment.Thiscompanyismiddle classscale companywithnumber of employeesandsalesamount.Buteventhoughitisa middle-classscale company,thiscompany hadn't understoodthe meaningandimportance of Middle & Long-termplans. 5) Middle & Long-Termplans. Long term strategy. In Factory Management-2,Ihaveintroduced thecaseof my previouscompany,SUMITOMO Wiring Systems.Thelong-termstrategy (plan) was Strategy of Vision "12". And the contentswere:"We madethe strategy of vision "12" at the year2008 that is to realize the goal until 2012 and the goalis: (1) Consolidated sales:6,000 million (usdollar.) per year. (2) Global marketshare:25%. Afterthis SUMITOMOmadenext long-termstrategy "Vision- IIto improveQCDDM (Quality, Cost,Delivery, Developmentand Management). And now,He madelong term plan (strategy) "22V-Reduction25".(Iomitthe detail contents).
  28. 28. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 28 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Therefore…Iwasstunnedbyhiswords. Annual management plan (Profit plan) The importantjobrole of presidentistomake a corporate managementplanswhichare middle& long-termplanandannual profit(management) plan. Andhe mustexplainhiswill toall employees(andforinstance bank) withpapersandwords.Itis quite importanteventtoappeal hisstrongwill andrequiringthe all employee’s cooperation. He escapesfromhismostimportantjobrole whichisto take hisspearheadingtomake suchplanning and appeal. Making or reviewing&correctingMiddle & Long-termplanisimportantfornot onlya bigand mediumscale companies,butalsoforsmall scale companies.Itisquite true thatthe business environment&conditionischangingrapidly.Itisneverexaggeratedtosaythatit isnot possible to predictone yearlater, muchmore notpossible topredict3 years,5 yearslater.For instance, inthe past there wasworldwide trouble whichisLehmanBrosBankruptcyat 2008. Latelythere were Brexit,deserterof climate change andUS-Chinatrade friction.Andnow COVID-19isattacking worldwide economy.We knowverywell that"Noone knowswhatthe future holds".Butstill making long& middle termplanisimportantfora company. These are the compassof company'sfuture growth.Andannual corporate managementplanwhich ismade withcurrentmarketsituation,reviewedmiddle& long-termplanisconcrete strategy.And, aftermakingthisannual managementplan,the presidentneedstoexplaintoall employees(and sometimesrelevantbank) withhisownwordsdirectly. The timingof directspeechbypresidentisthe beginningof workof the New Yearalsoin the companynewsletter.Mypreviouscompanyhasmanyblanchesandplantsinthe world. Therefore, the directspeechismade withvideomessage. Anyway, the jobrole of president isimportant. In thiscompany,the presidentneglectssuchimportantplanning andalsothe event. Thus,in suchsituation,itisunderstandablethatsolow motivationof employees. Moreover, this companyfailedthe initialTPMintroductionactivityandlosthalf year.Butnotonlythisthing,but alsothe lack of president'sjobrole affectedtothe employee’s moral. Then, I lecturedtothe directors. Please make long & middle term plan. It isquite true that the changingbusinessenvironmentisrapid. And,of course,ithappensthe difference andsometimesbigdifferences. However,the occurrence of difference isimportant. The plan isthe scenarioof gainingprofitandexpandingbusiness. Is the importantthingtoreviewwhythe difference occurred? …Thenitispossibletoimprove the skill of makingplanwithforecast.
  29. 29. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 29 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. 6) Strange annual profit plan… B. Cost reduction for this company. I describedthe highcostconstitutionof thiscompanyandalsothe bad cycle.Andit(TPM introduction) wasnotsufficient forhisdesire. Again,hisdesire was 1) Cost reductioninproductionprocess. 2) Improvementof corporate constitution8 . 3) TPM introduction(butasthe meansof above propositions) Why he wishedsuchthings.Asyourememberthe presidentwishedtorecoverthe profitandROE. Andhe discussedwithhisfriendconsultant.Thenhe decidedtointroduce JIPM'sTPM.He believed that itis possible toreduce costwithJIPM'sTPM. Now we needto have doubtsabout2 things. Firstly, please lookatnextfamiliarfigure.Itisgoodand I like thisJIPM'sfigure whichshowsthe 16 kindsof lossesinproductionGembaanduse itquite often. 8 El Sistema de la Excelencia (Español):https://www.amazon.com/dp/1521901864 The System of Excellence (English):https://www.amazon.com/dp/1973409771 Factory Management I: Español:https://archive.org/details/GestinDeFFbrica1 English: https://archive.org/details/FactoryManagement1TheCorporateConstitutionAndManagementFramework Factory Management II: Español: https://archive.org/details/GestinDeFFbrica2ElDespliegueYElControlDeLaPoloticaCorporativa1.5 English:https://archive.org/details/FactoryManagement2PolicyDeploymentControl Factory Management: III:Español: https://archive.org/details/GestinDeFFbrica3LaDeclaracicnDeLaPolPticaYLaVision/mode/2up English:https://archive.org/details/FactoryManagement3PolicyStatementAndVision
  30. 30. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 30 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Thisfigure showsthe Mudas in3 parts.These are Mudas of Machine,Mudas of labourand Mudas of Energyand Material. A. One isthat is itpossible toreduce productioncostwitheliminationof Mudainmachine process? B. Anotherone isthat isit possible toimprove profitwithabove costreduction? 7) Outsourcing policy. That day the directorvisitedmyhotel withthe salesdepartmentdirector andinvite me todrinkin the hotel bar. ThenI guessedhistacticthat there mustbe somethingconsultation andIwhisperedinmymindthat I'm not goingto fall forhistrick andinvitedthemtotake coffee inalounge andtoldthem:―I'm sorry I cannotdrinktonightbecause of myhealthregulation ―anditistrue thatI stop drinkingevery 3 days.Andthisday wasthe dayof regulation. In thisway,we sat downina sofaof lounge andorderedcoffees. Then,the directorbeganthe talking.Itwas indeedtheywereinsevertroubleabout:Project continuation,Salesexpansion,Prospectof profitrecovery… ― Sensei,howcanwe do? ―the directoraskme. ― Howcan youdo? ― thenI answered― Idon'tknow andit isnot my matter.The contract of my consultingjob isjustTPMintroductionanditsstability ―Iresponded justalittle maliciously. ― Please listenandpleaseaccepttochange the contract ―begthe director―.Asyousaidour contract is justTPMintroduction.Butunfortunately,asyoutoldusjustintroductionof JIPM'sTPM is not enoughtorecoverthe profitmoreoverexpansionof salesamount. ― You suggestedustointroduce TQMto resolve the qualityissue andthe stabilityof TPM. ―continuedthe director―.Butstill itis notsufficientforouraim. We are in trouble.Itisvery serious. ― If there isno increase of sales,asyousaid, no increase of labourefficiencyandmachine cost reduction. Andif dismissexcessivelabours,the projectmightbe collapsedandwe cannot expectan establishmentof anyproject ―he ended. ― You couldrecognize thatjustTPM, eventhoughJIPM's, introductiondoesn'taffectsufficientlyto your aim―Isaid―.To recoverprofit, itisimportantandessential toeliminateMudainprocess. ― However,youneedtounderstandthatthere are 2 casesthat Muda reductionrelatestocost reductionanddoesn'trelatestoit ―andI detailedboth of ones―.The case of material scrap reductionanddefectreductionaffectcostreduction. ― But eventhoughlabourandmachine efficiencyare increased,there are notrelatedtocost reduction. And ―Icontinued―,if Iwishtocontribute tocost reductionwiththese,itisrequiredto reduce labourandmachine capacitywhichmeansthe dismissal anddeal of some machines. ― By the way,how was the meetingwithyourpresident? ―Iasked.
  31. 31. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 31 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. The conclusionof thismeetingwasasnext:(Fromthe descriptionof TPM-109 )  Conclusion by chairperson (Director): - Continuation of thisproject. - No dismissal of Gemba employees.(No leakthis discussion contentsregarding the partof remarkof dismissalto any personsincluding projectmembers.) - "JIT Machinecondition"conceptis supported.But… - No excess machinesaresold. - Sales (including price and quality) strategy isdiscussed urgently.  The presidentmentioned a compromisewhich the dismissalimplementation is given the grace period of 6 months. - During the 6 months,salesincreaseshould beresulted. - The scale of sales increase should bemore than theincome amountby dismissal. - The sales amountincreaseactivity should beimplemented as companywideactivity. Anyway,the dismissalwasgiventhe grace period. Thistop decisionwasn'topenedtomanagerclassandemployeesincludingprojectteamand committee. ― It isimpossibletoexpandsalesamountwithin6months.Itis indeed an"impossible mission" ―saidthe director―.Thus,there isnowaywithoutdismissalof excessivelabourcapacity ―andhe continued… ― But if we do,it isthe meaningof failure of the projectagain.And our one of aim whichisto introduce TPMalsowill notsucceed.―andthenthe directorbegged―Sensei we needyourhelp. Are there methodstoresolve these difficultmissions whichare Profitrecovery,Nodismissal for continuationof projectandSalesgrowth? ― Before mysuggestion,pleaseletme know something ―andIdetailed―. Whenlookingaround your warehouse Isawmanyexcessfinishedgoodsandgoodsof work-in-progresswhichhave the name tags of othercompany. What are these? ― AndI askedanotherquestionwithoutwaitingfor the answer― Anotherquestioniswhyyouhave somanysurplusmachinesincludingforklifts? ― We have surplusmachinesasyoupointedout ―the directordetailed―. The cause of these surplusisthe outsourcingpolicy.About3yearsago, we tookthe strategyof outsourcingbecause of the cost reductionstrategyandalsothe countermeasure of internal overload. ― Initially ―the directorexplained―,we producedourall productsinour internal productionline. But inthe policyof costreductionwithusingsubcontract,some processeswere transferredtothe subcontract.In fact ―the directorrecognized―,the use of subcontractissuccessful andwe could reduce the cost. Also,we could resolvethe problemsof internal overload. Thenone of the subdirectorspointedout: ― Andwe had begunthe outsourcingof finishedgoods also.The inventoriesof finishedgoodsare fromthe outsourcing. I showna surprise expressiononmyface listeningthat,andIquestioned: ―Atpresentthe overload issue isresolvedbecauseof salesreduction,evenif producingall internally,isn’tit? …And,one more 9 TPM-10 - Employee engagement and oil control: https://archive.org/details/tpm10employeeengagementoilcontrol TPM-10 - Compromiso del trabajador y control de la lubricación: https://archive.org/details/tpm10elcompromisodeltrabajadoryelcontroldelalubricacion
  32. 32. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 32 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. thing.Isthe labourcost fixedcostorvariable expenses(cost) foryourcompany? Of course, fixed cost, am I right?―Iasked. ― Of course, fixedcostwithoutthe expenseof overtimework ―answeredthe director. ― It isindeedyourcompanyisverystrange ―Ishown myfrustration―.Youdesire toreduce cost, but as the resultcreate bigMuda causedof the cost reductionactivity. Isaiditisstrange.But I need to paraphrase to "stupid". ― Your outsourcingpolicymade bigmistake whichdoesn'trealize costreduction,butcausesbig Muda. Your cost reductionwayiswrong! The subdirectorshownasurprise expressionandthenhe asked: ― ButSensei.We couldrealize the certaincost reduction.Andif stoppingthe outsourcingpolicy,we cannotrealize the price competitiveness. We buyandsell some productswithusingthe subcontracts ―the subdirector recognized. ― OK.I explainone by one.Andthe meaningof one byone isthe case of outsourcingof production processesandoutsourcingof finishedgoods(like astradingcompany) ―Idetailed. ― Firstly,pleaseimplementimmediateactiontostopoutsourcingof productionprocesses. These productionprocessescanbe producedinternally,aren'tthese? ― andthe I askedagain― Youhave workersandmachines,haven'tyou? …Of course, productionsupportdepartmentssuchHR, Accounting,Productionengineers,Maintenance engineers,Quality,Warehouse etc.alsoare included inthe workers. ― Now ―Iexplained―,whatis"Cost"?…A cost iscalculatedas next:―AndIwrite below downon the whiteboardatthe time I speak:“Cost= Fixed cost+ Variablecost” andI detailed eachone. ― Fixedcost:Labourcost (DirectandIndirect),Headoffice,Depreciationof machine &equipment, land& building,paymentof patentandinterestandetc. ― Variable cost:Material,transportationcost,outsourcingcostandothercost variable relatedto salesamount. ― Subcontractalsoproducesyourproductsor work-in-progresswithusingfixedcostandvariable cost. Nowyou understand, Ithink ―andItray to explain… ― There are big Muda inthisproduction. These are duplicate fixedcost ―andIdetailed―: Outsourcingfixedcostplusinternalfixedcost. Andunfortunately, youcannoteliminatethe internal fixedcostwhichislabours (directandindirect) andexcessmachines.Also,thereare some variable cost Mudas. For instance, transportationMuda… ― I confirmyou.Youcannot dismissexcesslabourswhichare directproductionworkersandalso supportingstaffs(office workers,supervisors,material handlers.) And,youcannotdeal withexcess machines,because of the will of yourpresident. ―ThenIasked― How canyou eliminate these duplicate Fixedcosts?…The answeris to stopto use subcontractfor supplementsome processes. One of the subdirectorsanswered: ― Sir,if we stopto use outsourcing,the product'scostisincrease. And,we cannot have the necessarycostcompetitiveness. Itisquite clearthatthe cost of subcontract ischeaperthan our internal production.
  33. 33. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 33 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. ―OK―Itriedto explain―Mr.Subdirector,pleaseconsiderthe next:Isittrue that the cost submittedbysubcontractischeaperthaninternal productioncost? ―Iaskedfiguratively―.You compare the internal costwhichiscalculatedwiththe hourlyrate and standardhoursand Variable cost. ThenI written downonthe whiteboardmeantime Ipointedout again:“Cost= Variablecost+ Hourly Rate x SH (Standard Hourof the product) “ ― And,the hourlyrate isconstitutedof the fixedcostsuchlabourcost,machine depreciationand headoffice expenses ―Idetailed ―.Thisinternal costisina sense provisional cost.Anditisessential to see andcalculate as companywide situation. ― Onthe otherhand―Ifaced―,buyingfromsubcontractisthe external purchase costandis variable cost.And basically, the calculation methodisdifferent.If youuse anoutsourcingcompany justbecause the internal costisapparentlyhigh,youwill notbe able tosecure enoughprofittocover the internal fixedcost… ― Thismeansthat profitsthatwouldhave beengainedif done internallycouldnotbe obtained,and it isdifficulttomake asufficientprofitinthisstate ―Iconcluded. The subdirectorshownanexpressionof surpriseanddoubtandthenI triedto explaininabetter way:― Mr. subdirectorstill you seemtobe notto understandwell. OK.Let'sconsideritfromthe pointof viewof Muda. ― AndI detailed― youpaytosubcontractthe moneyof subcontract'sFixed cost (suchlabourand machine) andVariable cost(Material,transportation cost) … ― If you couldproduce same productswith"0 Fixedcost",don’tyouthinkitischeapestdoyou? …Variable costmightbe same evenif usingsubcontractor internal process… ― Andif youcouldproduce withno cost of subcontract Fixedcost(eventhoughthe fixedcostof subcontractis cheaperthaninternal fixedcostwhichisunneglectable),itcanbe calculatedas "profit”―Icontinued… ― You reviewthe outsourcingpolicyimmediatelyandreturnthe productionprocessof outsourcing. Above iswe lookedatfromthe pointof view of Muda (duplicate fixedcostwhichare internal and,in the subcontract) ... ― You have workers(productionandindirect) andmachines(depreciation)andexpense thesecosts. And,these internal fixedcosts are notused. So―Iconcluded―,youhave excesslabourcapacityand alsomachines. ― I thinkIcouldunderstandthe duplicate fixedcost.But…―the subdirectorcontinuedtryingto explaindeeply despite his doubtsinhisassertion. ― Let'slookat from the pointof view of marginal profit. Ibelieveyoucould understand"Marginal profitand Break-even point". ― Marginal profit…Nowlet'slookat fromdifferentview pointwhichisthe Marginal Profit. Asyou know ― I thoughtthatthey know― Marginal profitsare calculatedasnext:―AndIwrittendownin the whiteboardagain―  Marginalprofit=Sales amount - Variablecost(expense) And,  Profit= Marginalprofit - Fixed cost
  34. 34. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 34 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Then,  Marginalprofit - Profit= Fixed cost. ― InJapan marginal profitiscalledasLimitprofit.Whyso called? ―Iaskedfiguratively―…Even thoughat worst case,itmust be requiredtocoverand obtainthe fixedcostinthe sales.And,the case of Profit= 0 isthe case of Marginalprofit= Fixed cost ― But itis notthe worst case ―I recognize―.There isacase to acceptto receive ordereven though it isnot possible tocoverall fixedcost.Youroutsourcingcase ispossibletocalculate asnext:  Marginalprofit= Salesamount - variablecost (outsourcing) ― It seemstobe smallerthaninternal production.But actually, yoursituationis:  Profit= Salesamount - variable cost- internal Fixed cost. ― And,yourinternal Fixedcostwhichare excesslabours,excessmachinessupportstaffs&land& buildingetc.(allocatedtothe products) are veryexpensive ―Icontinues… ― These expensive internal fixedcosts canneverbe 0, evenif these are notusedfor the products. No,it ispossible to0 amount.If you couldreduce indismissal anddeal machinesandshrinkcompany scale.But notpossible,isn’tit? The Subdirectordoubted fora while andthen,he askedme:― AndSensei,whatisyoursuggestion? ― I conformyouagain ―andI repeatedagain―.Youcannotdismissexcessdirectlabour(production processworker),indirectlabour(office staffsandGembasuchsupervisor.) andreduce Headoffice expensesanddepreciationof machine &equipment&buildingandrentexpenses(These costs are allocatedtothe hourlyrate). ― Your decisionwasnot sellingortreatexcessmachines,wasn’tit? …Also, youmightnotpossible to make downsizingyourcompanyscale whichmeaningistodownsize yourheadofficeandlands, mightnot you? ―Iaskedfiguratively… ― Inshort, youcannot treatanythinginternally,canyou? …Then,the answerisjustone.Undo the processeswhichyoutransferredtosubcontractandthe productswhichyou can make ininternal productionline. ― I understandyoursaying ―the directorsaid―.I've learnedTOC(Theoryof Constraint).TOC teachesthatthe secretmeasurestogainprofitis the maximizingThroughput. Sensei,yoursayingis TOC, isn'tit? I triedto showa compromisedface but,inmyheart,I feltitcouldbe acceptable togaintheir understandingwithanyidea.Throughputof TOCis almostsame toMarginal profit ―Well,yes ―I said. TOC and Throughput You knowthe wordof TOC and Throughput.Thisstudysaysone importantpointwhichisthe relationof "time conceptwithprofit". Forus(inthe conceptof TPS or factory management) it isquite natural thing. For instance,gaining$100 profit,one istobe needed10days fromgettingorderand productionplan,purchase materialsproductionanddeliveryandgettingcash,andanother
  35. 35. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 35 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. one isto be neededone month(30days),whichisbetterforacompany? …The cash flow is verymuch different. In the thoughtof cash flow whichisbetterinternal productionoroutsourcing? …Of course, internal productionisbetter. The case of outsourcingnecessityisjustnext3: a. To supplementthe functionbeinginsufficientinternally. b. Needequipmentandtechnologynotavailable inthe company. c. To cover fluctuationsindemand.Demandfluctuatesgreatlyandfixedresources cannot be kept Throughput In somewhere,Ihave writtenthis:“A scholarissucha personwhowrite andpresentvery natural thingin Gembaas if new discovery”. TOC advocate to maximize Marginal profit.And,accordingtoa book, Throughputis explainedasnext. 𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 In the partial optimization,onlythe productionefficiencyof acertainprocessisimproved, and as a result,the productioncapacityof the entire factoryor the overall profitmaynotbe achieved.Therefore,overalloptimizationisrealizedbyaimingatmaximizingthe throughput. "True variable costs"are onlyvariable costssuchas raw materialsandtransportationcosts, and do notinclude so-calledfactorycostssuchas depreciationcosts,utilitiescosts,and labourcosts includedincosting.And,profitabilityisdeterminedbasedonthe throughputper unittime inthe constraintprocess. Why issuch obviousnessinthe limelight? …The jobof a scholaristo identifythe truth.And thisadvocate scholardidgood job. However, itistoousual inGemba. Therefore, Iwrote the reportof Making streamof production10 .Whywasitnecessarytouse such new words (Throughput) ratherthanthe oldword Marginal Profit? Now,againMarginal Profit... ― I thinkyouunderstandMarginal profit ― Itriedto explain―.Forgettingyourbetter understanding,Igive youanotherone of explainwithusing"Break-evenpoint".Ibelieve youknowit. Yes?―I askedtothem. ― Yes, we knowit―the directorconfirmed. 10 Makingthe stream of production lectures by Sensei Koichi Kimura: «ENGLISH» https://archive.org/details/makingstreamofproduction13_202001/mode/2up «SPANISH» https://archive.org/details/establecerlacorrientedeproduccion13_202001
  36. 36. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 36 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. ― But whydon’tyouuse it before continuingoutsourcingpolicy? ―Iaskedandalsoansweredto myself― Let'slookatitand I example the break-evenpointchart. Break-evenpoint Whenyoumake a profitplan,the break-evenpointchartshowsthe relationshipthat"how much salesyoumake will generatealotof profits.And,if youdon'tmake at leastthismuch salesyouwill be inthe red." ― Atthismomentintime I have no exactfiguresof yoursalesandconstructionof cost. Therefore, please acceptthatmy explanationisjustimage comparison Then,I removedall mypreviousannotationsonthe whiteboardof the meetingroomand,Istart to draw the belowfigure aboutthe Break-evenpoint. Fig- 1: Break-even point ― Fig-1showsyourcompany'ssituationof Break-evenpoint,salesprospectsinyourshare inthe market,andthe relationof Fixedcost,Variable cost,SalesamountandProfit. Easy? ―Iasked figuratively―…Yes,of course easyforyou.In Fig-1I assume to be profitable.ExactlyIdon’tknow. ThenI draw the line oV [Variable cost:Outsourcing] showedinthe above Fig-2.AndIexposedthe nextlecture…
  37. 37. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 37 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Fig- 2: Break-even point with the case of Outsourcing Again: 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 = 𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 − 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 And,the Outsourcingpaymentis Variable cost.And,this,oVismuchhigherthanthe Variable cost (iV) of Internal manufacturing. Then, oV > iV. And,V isthe functionof Salesamount. Therefore y= Vx. Then, above Variable cost:outsourcinghasbiggerangle thanVariablecostInternal manufacturing. The importantpointsare THREE. One is oV > iV.Because: 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐹𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 Major variable costismaterial.And, itissame evenif procuredbysubcontract or yourcompany. And,thisVariable costof Outsourcing isincludedthe outsourcing'sFixedcost (eventhoughitis cheaperthanyours). Anotherpointisthe Break-evenpointmovestonew Break-evenpoint. Because the angle of Variable costof Outsourcing islargerthanthe Variable costof Internal manufacturing.
  38. 38. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 38 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. Andthe Break-evenpointmovedtonew Break-evenpointwhichislocatedoutof the pointof Sales prospect.Then,asthe result,Itshouldbe occurredthe Loss inyour business. I don’tknowthe exact figures.Butit isquite true that youroutsourcingpolicyharmsthe profitof your company. Finally,Ineedtopointoutone pointwhichisthe necessaryconsiderationaboutthe reductionof Fixedcost,if youwishto continue the outsourcingpolicy.Iexplain itusingnextFig-3. Fig- 3: Fixed cost by reestructuring If you wish togain same profitinthe conditionof same Break-evenpoint,Salesprospectswith keepingoutsourcing,itisnecessarytoreduce the Fixedcostinrestructuring. In above drawing,itcan be re-drawinloweringthe line of Variable costof Outsourcingto the point where tomeetthe line andSalesAmountinsame angle. Thenthe zero pointof Variable of Outsourcingtobe zeroisthe necessaryFixedcostof After Restructuring. WhenmakingconversationwithmyJapanese friends(accountingmanagerexperience),such companieswhomisunderstandthe use of outsourcingandbelieve the costreduction. Again,outsourcingmustbe usedfornextcondition. 1. To supplementthe functionbeinginsufficientinternally. 2. Needequipmentandtechnologynotavailable inthe company. 3. To cover fluctuationsindemand.Demandfluctuatesgreatlyandfixedresourcescannotbe kept Fixedcostreduction:Torecoverandincrease profitorto judge the productionpolicy,the use of Break-evenpointchartisveryuseful andanywayitis veryeasy. (There isone difficultywhichisto decide &standardize the variable andfixedcosts.) Afterlastshort lecture tothe directors,we continuedthe conversation.
  39. 39. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 39 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. ― Andto recoverandincrease profit,itisimportanttoreduce FixedcostandVariable cost.Isit quite natural?―Iaskedthe directors. ― Yes,itis verynatural ―theyreplied. ― Now,how to reduce FixedcostandVariable cost?―Iaskedtothe group withoutexpectingany answerbutdetailinginthisway… ― Variable cost:Ibelieveyou are consideringandimplementingthe reductionactivityof variable cost reductionsuch as: Scrap reductionanddefectreductioninproductionprocess,VA/VEactivityin designengineering,procurementmethod,directsellingexpensesetc. ― Onthe otherhand, howto reduce Fixedcost?―Iansweredtomyself―,again, Fixedcostsare: Labour cost (DirectandIndirect),Depreciationof machine &equipment,land&building,paymentof patentand interestandetc. ― I believe youare consideringthe reduction of productionexcessive capacityinproductionline employees.―AndIdetailed―,reductionof productionexcessivelabourcapacityiseasyasthe activity. ― Onthe otherhand, Indirectemployee suchmanager,supervisor,groupleader,material-handler, warehouse workers,maintenance engineer,productionengineer,designengineerandoffice staff (administrative departments) whoare Costallocated,moreoverOffice rentandutilities,PCsand software leases,advertising,patentfee, depreciationof machine &equipmentandland&building ―Itriedto endup―.All of themalsomustbe neededtoreduce. The conversation wastoowide a little andItriedto finishmylecture quickly. ― If you wishtodo general costreduction,itisnecessarytomake another project. ThenI recommendtotreatthe probleminfrontof you. In thisway, I neverdenytoreduce excesslabour capacity.But the true purpose shouldbe torecoverthe profit.Yes? ―Iaskedfiguratively. ― So,I recommendtodo Break-evenpointdiagnosis andtoreview the outsourcingpolicy immediately. ― We understandSensei ―directorsagreed―.Thenhow aboutthe requestof consultingexpansion (expansionof consultingcontractfromjustTPM to wider.)? ― Sorryplease letme consider ―Iansweredbutmythinkingwasthe wayof talk in Japanand, in such situation,itmeansthe rejectionineuphemism. C. Break-even point (BEP) investigation. Basedon my suggestion,managementteamdiscussedthe implementationof investigationaboutthe outsourcingproducts withBEP.And,theydecidedtodoit andreport to the president. 1) Regrettablething andEducationof BEP. Thiswas strange,because some managersdidn’tknow the BEP.Itwasfatal because managersdon’t knowBEP. It isneverthe situationforjustthiscompany,butunfortunatelyisgeneral.
  40. 40. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 40 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. In mypreviouscompanythere isthe training&educationcourse whenjoiningthe companyandI alsogot the accountingeducationandBEP. What the profit as a Gemba is: 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 = 𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 − 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑠 (𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡) − 𝐹𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑘𝑎𝑖 𝑅𝑖𝑒𝑘𝑖 = 𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 − 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑠  Genkai Rieki:Marginal Profit(socalledThroughputinTOC); o Genkai:Limit. o Rieki:Profit;  What the variable expensesinGembais:(Omit…);  What the Fixedcostis:(Omit…); What the BEP diagram is: To gain andincrease the profit,itisnecessarytoconsiderthe improvementof Variable cost reduction,Fixedcostreductionandthe increase of Salesamount. Whenmakinga profitplan,itis requiredtoconsiderthese 3pointswithBEPas quite natural thing. I had seenthe profitrecoveryplanof thiscompany.But unfortunately, itwasanaction itemsand likelywishlistwhichhadnoaccountingbackground.Such low-level profitrecoveryactionplanwas submittedasthe companywide activityinthiscompany. Anyway,the accountingdepartmentmade the lectureof BEPto all managers. Sales Amount Variable cost Fixedcost SalesAmount Expenses , Profit Break-evenpoint Sales prospects Profit Internal ManufacturingFig-1
  41. 41. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 41 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. My previouscompanymakesthe new employees’ educationasastandard whichmightnot be a worldwidestandard.And,inthiseducation,accountingincludingBEPismade. The projectleader(She isanaccountingstaff.) made the lecture tootherteammembersandGemba supervisors.Atthattime the outsourcingproductswere usedasthe examplesof BEPwithactual figures. Andof course, theyfoundandunderstoodthatthe outsourcingpolicywaswrongandinternal manufacturingwithcurrentlabourandmachine capacitywasmuch betterprofitable.Also,itwas requiredthe salesamountincrease andthe efficiencyincrease (tosupportthe salesincrease). Thentheyconfirmedthe directionwhichis"JITmachine condition"ismatchto the company's concern. Problem Whendiscussingit,one difficultywas highlightedagain.Itwasthe issue of standardtime accuracy. So, howto calculate the Fixedcostof BEP? Again, Fixedcost:Labourcost (DirectandIndirect),Headoffice,Depreciationof machine & equipment,land&building,paymentof patentandinterestandetc. Andthese are allocatedwiththe standardtime asnext: 𝐿𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑂𝑢𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑥 𝑆𝐻 ( 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒) 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦⁄ 𝑂𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑥 𝑆𝐻 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦⁄ And, 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑥 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 Anyway, one of seriousfactorwas the standardtime accuracy. As I describedbefore,thiscompanyhasstandardtime systemandeach producthave the standard time. However, the accuracyto actual time wasbad. Then,theyneededtoconfirmormodulate the relevantproductsstandardtime. But it wasquite clearthat undoingrelevantproductstointernal manufacturingismore profitable withtentative figuresandBEP(Break-evenpoint)investigation. Theyhad not solong-time grace (6months). Andtheyneededtoimplementfollowingitems:
  42. 42. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 42 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. 1. Confirmationof standardtime; 2. Re-calculationof profitabilityinBEP; 3. Reportingtopresidentandgettinghisacceptance. (Standarddepartmental costwasn’t changedand used); 4. Line formation(layout,laboursandmachines,QC&inspection,materialsupply,supervising, material procurement); 5. Reportingtocustomerswiththe qualityassurance system; 6. Work training; 7. Machine maintenance; 8. Informationtocustomerandplanningof undoing. 2) Imperial conference Afterthe confirmationof the profitplanof those outsourcingproducts,the resultswere reportedto the president.Withthroughthe meeting,the planwhichwasthe undoingof the productsandparts was acceptedbythe president. 3) Small project for re-setupof productionlines. The Gemba wasexcitedandgot lively,becausesome employeeshadbeenhavingthe concernof losingjobforthe outsourcingpolicyandpastoutsourcing. Thenmanagementteamandprojectteamhad a meetinganddecidedtoimplementthe stepof 8. EstablishDevelopment&Managementsystemof ProductsandEquipmentof Nakajima's12steps whichthiscompany'sfavorite. Again,thisstepisto seek Developmentofproductsthat are easy to produce and machinesthat are easy to use. Of course,these undone productswerenotnew products,butexperiencedandwell-known products.But I daredto recommendtoimplementthisstepforatrainingforfuture. Again 12 steps: NAKAJIMA12 STEPS To re-introduce theseproducts,Irecommendedtouse the technique of "Initial Products QualityControl"andthe committee activity. I describedInitialProductsQualityControlinTPM-1as next(FromTPM-1): R&D? …Yes I will write the new productsdevelopmentin thearticle of Initial Products QualityControland the Committee. In theInitial ProductsQuality Control,I describethe committeeactivity which includes Quality,Design engineering,Procurement,Productionengineering,Sales, SubcontractControl,Human resources,Accounting & Financing,Production Control and of course Maintenanceand Gemba forverticalstart-up to eliminate the lossesof newproductsstartin Total PreventiveMaintenance. And,the aim of thisactivityissame to JIPM's TPMand is: Developmentofproducts that are easy to produce and machinesthat are easy to use.
  43. 43. Total Preventive Maintenance, volume XI - Koichi Kimura Page 43 of 43 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 /. I teachthis inTQM forthe developmentof "Productdesign,Processdesign,Machine & equipmentincludingtools,Materials,Material plan,Humanresources,Productionplan,Sales plan":  Product design:Making qualityindesignwithconfirmingcustomer'sneeds,FMEA, Functiondeployment,Fish-bone- diagram, Pastdefectanalysis&feedback.  Processdesign:Layout, Workdesign,Line formation,Line-balance,Workelement analysis,Time study,Workingstandard,Material handling. Machine & equipmentincludingtools(toseekbetterworkabilityandtroublefree): Peripheral equipment(PC,Material supply),Chute,Andon&indicator,Maintenance system,sensor,IoT,Recordingsystem(fordatagather),easyforSeiso,oil control, easyfor setup,easyfortakeout,safetydevise,Poka-Yoke devise.  Material: Functiondeploymentanalysis,Procurementplan,Suppliercapacity, Inventory,Warehousepreparation,  Human resources:Resource planning,Skilltraining& evaluation,PS(Preventive Safety) deployment,  Production plan: Salesplan,Minimuminventory,Deliveryplan,  Salesplan: Salesamount(prospect),Visitingcustomer(Salesengineering), Customer'sneeds,Suggestion, As youcouldimagine,the activityof InitialProductsQualityControlisindeedcompanywide activityisrequired. Therefore, Iestablishacommittee,whenIleadit.Butit isalso a fact that itis requireda certaincorporate capacity andthe history orexperience. Thus,itisnotpossible togain sufficientresultfromthe firstandisrequired some certainexperience. Unfortunately, thiscompanyisnotreachedtothis“certainlevel”. Anyway,thiscompanydecidedtoreview the currentoutsourcingpolicyandundothe relevant productsand work-in-progresstointernalproduction.Andthe productionGembawasexcitedafter alongdays. I will describe the activityof the project&committee andnew andtemporal projectof Initial ProductsQualityControl (IPQC). RegardingIPQC,(inmyteaching) itisthe range of TQM. Then I describe itinTPMveryshortlyand give the deepdescriptioninTQM. VI. Next Lecture I write the continuationof bustubcurve and tribologyandcompletionof the maintheme (Control of lubricatingoil). Koichi Kimura CC4 – March-2020.

×