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Renewable Energy and Storage Systems

  1. 1. Overcoming Intermittency in Renewable Energy through Storage Systems<br />Irene Fastelli<br />ENEL Ingegneria & Innovazione<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Enel Group
  3. 3. Renewable into the grid
  4. 4. Approaches to compensation
  5. 5. Scenario
  6. 6. EnelGroup on-going programs and next activities</li></li></ul><li>Enel, an international GroupA global dimension<br />Americas<br />Europe<br />RUSSIA<br /><ul><li>49.5% of RusEnergoSbyt
  7. 7. 40% of SeverEnergia gas reserves (total 700 bcm)
  8. 8. 55.8% of OGK-5 (installed capacity 8.183 MW)</li></ul>SLOVAKIA<br /><ul><li>66% of Slovenské Elektrárne: installed capacity 5.705 MW of nuclear, thermal and hydro capacity</li></ul>FRANCE<br /><ul><li>12.5% EPR project,
  9. 9. Wind capacity 12 MW</li></ul>NORTHAMERICA<br /><ul><li>Enel’s Installed capacity 749 MW</li></ul>ROMANIA<br /><ul><li>51% Banat & Dobrogea and Enel Energie
  10. 10. 64.6% Electrica Muntenia Sud
  11. 11. 2.6mn customers</li></ul>SPAIN AND PORTUGAL<br /><ul><li>92% of Endesa (22,123 MW, 12.6mn customers)
  12. 12. Total net production of 31.4 TWh
  13. 13. 50% of EUFER: 399 MW2</li></ul>BULGARIA<br /><ul><li>73% Maritza
  14. 14. Capacity 602 MW</li></ul>LATINAMERICA<br /><ul><li>Enel’s capacity 667 MW, Endesa’s capacity 15.284 MW
  15. 15. Endesa’s customers 12,4 mn</li></ul>GREECE<br /><ul><li>Renewables 112 MW</li></ul>MOROCCO<br /><ul><li>Endesa’s installed capacity 123 MW</li></ul>ITALY<br /><ul><li>Enel’s capacity 40.323 MW ow Enel’s Green Power 2.547 MW.
  16. 16. Total Net Production: 96,3 TWh.
  17. 17. Enel’s customers 33.1 mln</li></ul>94,3 GW of installed capacity61 million customers 83,300 employees<br />2008 pro-forma data with Endesa, OGK-5 and Electrica Muntenia Sud consolidated respectively at 100%. Data net of assets to be disposed to Acciona<br />Value corresponding to 50% of Eufer’s total capacity<br />
  18. 18. Iberia and Latin America <br />North America<br />Italy and Europe(2)<br />Enel Green Power<br />Operating 788 MW<br />Production 2.4 TWh<br />In execution 0.3 GW<br />Pipeline 8.3 GW<br />Operating 2,076 MW<br />Production 6.4 TWh<br />In execution 0.5 GW(1)<br />Pipeline 15.6 GW<br />Operating 2,897 MW<br />Production 12.0 TWh<br />In execution 0.4 GW<br />Pipeline 5.8 GW<br />Operating 5,761 MW<br />Production 20.9 TWh<br />In execution 1.2 GW(1)<br />Pipeline 29.9 GW<br />Global leader in a growing industry<br />EGP global footprint – H1 2010<br />EGP presence<br />Unrivalled footprint in 16 countries across all main renewable technologies<br />Source: Company information.<br />Note: Presentation includes consolidated financial and operating data unless otherwise stated. Capacity as of 30 June 2010 - Production end 2009 PF - Pipeline and in execution data as of 30 June 2010.<br />(1) Includes ENEOP (Portugal), 137 MW in execution. Equity consolidated as of 30 June 2010; full consolidation is expected in 2013.<br />(2) Ongoing disposal process of Bulgarian assets, which are included in the figures.<br />
  19. 19. Renewable into the grid<br />
  20. 20. Wind and Solar PV fluctuations<br />Implications for compensation<br />Fluctuation pattern<br />Compensation<br />Day-night fluctuations<br />(PV only)<br /><ul><li>Recurringpatternswithspecificregionalvariations
  21. 21. Balanceresidualloadwithflexible generation </li></ul>Cyclical, predictable<br />Seasonal fluctuations<br />(climate)<br />Medium term fluctuations<br /><ul><li>Improvementsthroughbetterforecasting are possible
  22. 22. Needtobalancefluctuatingrenewabletoensure the security of the overallenergysupply</li></ul>Erratic, unpredictable<br />Short term fluctuations<br />
  23. 23. Needs for compensating capacity<br />*Courtesy of IHS Emerging Energy Research<br />7<br />
  24. 24. Approaches to compensation<br />
  25. 25. Integration of intermittent renewables<br />Approaches to compensations<br /><ul><li>Interregional compensation (grid extension)
  26. 26. Conventional backup capacity
  27. 27. Demand side management
  28. 28. Large scale electricity storage</li></ul>Each has its strength and limitations!<br />
  29. 29. Approaches to compensation<br />Limitations<br />Grid extension<br /><ul><li>It cannot mitigate all types of fluctuations (e.g. day-night fluctuations)
  30. 30. Political barriers to implementation (public resistance, permitting process)
  31. 31. Energy losses in transmission</li></ul>Backup power<br /><ul><li>Increasing dependence on fossil fuel
  32. 32. Uncertainty regarding fuel prices
  33. 33. Risk of low utilization
  34. 34. Requirement of decentralized unit where small scale wind and PV are present</li></ul>Demand side management<br /><ul><li>Most loads can be deferred for a short period of time
  35. 35. Requires behavioral adaptations by customers and adequate pricing flexibility to actually drive changes
  36. 36. The potential demand reduction is a small percent of peak load</li></li></ul><li>Approaches to compensation<br />Electricity Storage – a key enabler<br />Pros<br />Cons<br /><ul><li>Cost-effectiveness is the key weakness of storage technologies
  37. 37. Technologically it is still relatively immature for large applications other than hydroelectric storage
  38. 38. Self-sufficient solution
  39. 39. Not affected by increases in renewable penetration
  40. 40. Possibility of having decentralized units</li></ul>Most promising technologies for large-scale application<br />
  41. 41. Technologies for large scale applications<br />Pumped hydro<br />Pumped hydro will continue to be the leading storage technology in terms of installed capacity<br /><ul><li>Profentechnology
  42. 42. High efficiency
  43. 43. Relatively low specific storage capacity
  44. 44. Mainlimitation: New siteshardlypossibletodevelop</li></ul>More than 5,2 GWhinstalledcapacity in Italy <br />
  45. 45. Technologies for large scale applications<br />Compressed Air (CAES)<br />Huntdorf, Germany, 290 MW<br />Diabatic CAES<br /><ul><li>Wide output powercontrolrange
  46. 46. Relatively low investmentcosts
  47. 47. Low cycleefficiencyof up to 0,55
  48. 48. Mainlimitation: storagesites</li></ul>McIntosh, Alabama, 110 MW<br />2 CAES Projects, 450MW, in Stimulus Package<br />Advanced CAES plants are expected to be significantly more efficient.<br />Enel is carrying on engineering research to validate economic and technical viability of different solutions<br />
  49. 49. Scenario<br />
  50. 50. Smart energy management<br />How to get there? <br />Identify flexibility needs<br />Identify best storage technologies and competing alternatives<br />Analyse the trade off between storage and its competing options<br />Allow for markets and legislation to foster the environmentally best option<br />Analyse, suggest and implement the storage and generation mix best suited for a low carbon energy system<br />
  51. 51. Generation portfolios with and without storage<br />Storage can increase the share ofbase-loadpower generation<br />Withoutstorage: 25 GW baseload<br />Withstorage: 30 GW baseload<br />*Source: BCG “Revisiting energy storage”<br />Load profile based on average data for January and June 2009 in Germany.<br />
  52. 52. Storage services<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br /><ul><li>Emission benefits
  53. 53. Load management
  54. 54. Integration of large scale renewables
  55. 55. Ancillary services
  56. 56. Transmission& Distribution services
  57. 57. Energy management
  58. 58. Reserve/regulating power
  59. 59. Market regulations regarding ancillary services
  60. 60. Strategic planning
  61. 61. Large scale introduction of renewables
  62. 62. Emission benefits
  63. 63. Customer site applications
  64. 64. Load management & response</li></ul>Storage can provide several functionalities:<br />Different applications are best served by different technologies<br />
  65. 65. Enel Group on-going programs and next activities<br />
  66. 66. ENEL approach to tackle over the topic<br />Value chain<br />Shortlist of “opportunities” for storage systems<br />Modeling, technical feasibility<br />Economic, environmental, organizational aspects<br />Experimental validation<br /><ul><li>T&D curtailment
  67. 67. Time-shifting
  68. 68. Forecast hedging
  69. 69. Frequency control
  70. 70. Voltage control
  71. 71. Ancillary services
  72. 72. Revenues
  73. 73. Industrial maturity
  74. 74. Operating constraints
  75. 75. Environmental impact
  76. 76. Public acceptability
  77. 77. O&M costs
  78. 78. Key Performance Factors
  79. 79. Service life
  80. 80. Best practices</li></li></ul><li>20<br />ENEL projects<br />
  81. 81. ENEL Storage Test Facility - Livorno<br />Objective<br /><ul><li>Characterize promising lab-scale storage technologies
  82. 82. Identify the key aspects for large scale implementation of storage technologies and their actual suitability to the different requirements for Enel applications
  83. 83. Define storage systems optimal management strategies to ensure renewable production programmability
  84. 84. Develop guidelines and best practices for the selection, installation and use of ESS for ENEL applications
  85. 85. Assess and model the influence of operating conditions on system performances</li></li></ul><li>ENEL Storage Test Facility<br />Test rig<br />Electronic system able to reproduce typical renewable generation and load profiles<br />Performance monitoring and recording<br /><ul><li>Reproduction of wind and solar generation up to 50kW
  86. 86. Reproduction of DSO requests up to 50 kW
  87. 87. Capability to operate and characterize several systems at the same time
  88. 88. Response time ~ 1 sec
  89. 89. PLC management & PC control
  90. 90. Automatic execution of more than 400 steps
  91. 91. Measurement of AC /DC data
  92. 92. Acquisition of data communicated by storage systems</li></li></ul><li>ENEL Storage Test Facility<br />First technologies characterized<br />Key performance factors investigated<br /><ul><li>Response and inversion time
  93. 93. Time at rated power
  94. 94. Round trip efficiency
  95. 95. Real vs nominal capacity
  96. 96. Performances decay</li></ul>Operating KPIs<br />VanadiumRedox Flow battery<br />10kW 100kWh<br />Economic KPIs<br />ZEBRA battery<br />20kW 20kWh<br />Li-ionbattery<br />15kW 15kWh<br />
  97. 97. Enel Storage TestFacility<br />2011 Installations<br />Next steps<br /><ul><li>Conduct engineering research to validate economic and technical viability of applications
  98. 98. Continue monitoring technological developments: performance improvements, other technologies, cost reduction
  99. 99. Refine benefit calculations with results of ongoing experimental characterization
  100. 100. Update strategic planning figures with new information</li></ul>20 kW PV plant<br />Micro-windgenerators<br />100 kWh H2<br />storage on <br />metal hydride<br />EV quickchargepoint (<20mins) CHAdeMOcompliant<br />Optimize the integration of distributed energy resources (stochastic renewable generation, EV and storage) connected to the distribution network.<br />
  101. 101. “STORE” – Demonstration Project<br />Managing generation on island systems<br />Demonstration of different storage technologies capabilities to solve problems of grid congestion and to damp fluctuations in the Canary Islands.<br />NaS Technology – 1MW, 6MWh<br /><ul><li>Installation in Gran Canaria to replace diesel peak generation, voltage support, load leveling, etc.</li></ul>ZnBr Technology- 500kW, 2.8MWh<br /><ul><li>Mobile installation in La Gomera to replace peak generation</li></ul>UC Technology – 4MW, 5-6sec<br /><ul><li>Integration in diesel power station in La Palma (fast event response)</li></li></ul><li>Hydro-wind power facility<br />El Hierro Project – Endesapartecipation<br />Wind power: 20 MW<br />Hydro generation: 13 MW<br />Pumping :16 MW<br />Grid stability is guaranteed by the continuous operation of the hydraulic group <br />
  102. 102. 27<br />Key open questions<br />The main issues regarding new storage systems (batteries, compressed air, etc.) are:<br /><ul><li>Assessing availability and quality of flexibility resources
  103. 103. Minimizing the cost of procuring flexibility
  104. 104. Testing / demonstrating the operational viability of storage in our grid
  105. 105. Developing optimal control devices and strategies
  106. 106. Refining benefit /cost valuations with new information
  107. 107. Addressing potential regulatory issues in this space</li></li></ul><li>Thank you for your attention! <br />28<br />