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Relc lecture makoto ikeda

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As anywhere in the world, developing the so-called ‘global human resources’ is at the top of the agenda in Japanese educational policies. To give a few examples, MEXT (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has selected 56 ‘super global high schools’ and 37 ‘super global universities’, which are expected to design and supply models for global education at the secondary and tertiary levels; the number of International Baccalaureate schools (Diploma Programme) is planned to increase from 27 to 200 on government support; in primary schools, full-scale English language education (i.e. three 45-minute lessons a week for Years 5 and 6 pupils) will be made compulsory in 2020. In parallel with these government-led undertakings, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) has been attracting teachers’ attention and its practices have been slowly but steadily spreading at grass-roots level. In this context, I will first talk why CLIL is considered to be effective for the education of global citizens and then show how CLIL is explained, localized and implemented in the Japanese school environment. Useful materials for CLIL teacher training will also be provided.

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Relc lecture makoto ikeda

  1. 1. 1 CLIL in Japan: Educating global citizens in the 21st century 16 March 2015 50th RELC International Conference Makoto Ikeda Sophia University makoto-i@sophia.ac.jphttp://www.cliljapan.org/ Outline 1 What is the status quo of ELT in Japan? 2 Why are we promoting CLIL? 3 How are we diffusing CLIL? 1 What is the status quo of ELT in Japan? Accent rating means (pleasantness) Raters Native Non-native Self Swedish English 2.18 2.85 2.60 German English 3.27 3.35 3.00 Spanish English 2.75 3.40 3.95 Brazilian English 2.21 3.35 3.04 China English 3.90 3.72 2.68 Japanese English 3.00 4.11 3.43 (Based on Jenkins, J. 2007, English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity, Oxford: Oxford UP, pp. 161-165) Comments on Japanese accent  Not very good  Difficult to understand  Almost incomprehensible  Like a strange melody  Torture! (Jenkins 2007, pp. 174-175) TOEFL iBT scores by country 2009 2013 Denmark 100 98 Spain 88 89 Singapore 99 98 Philippines 88 89 Finland 97 96 Israel 94 93 Korea 81 85 China 76 77 Japan 67 70 (Based on Test and score data summary for TOEFL iBT tests, http://www.ets.org/toefl) Indo-European languages Former colonies Small advanced countries ‘Need to have’ English ‘Nice to have’ English
  2. 2. 2 Why are we weak in English ?  Linguistically not related  Historically not colonized  Economically not small  Geographically not surrounded  Socially not required  Educationally not up to date Government’s ELT policies  Starting full-scale English education at primary schools  Urging secondary school teachers to teach English in English  Increasing the number of International Baccalaureate schools  Selecting 37 higher institutions as ‘super global universities’  Introducing 4-skill English entrance examinations for universities Improving ELT in Japan Government ELT policies Individual practices such as blended learning flipped classroom CLIL 2 Why are we promoting CLIL? Benefits of CLIL in SLA theories  rich meaningful input  authentic interactions  ‘organic’ skills integration  enhanced motivation  appropriate language transfer Transfer-appropriate processing Remembering what we learn is easier when we are in a situation that is similar to the one in which we learned it in the first place or when using the kinds of cognitive processes that we used during learning. (Lightbown 2008, 2014)
  3. 3. 3 Research evidence CLIL students are better at  vocabulary  morphosyntax (grammar)  oral fluency  writing accuracy  communication strategies But not at pronunciation, non-technical language and writing coherence/discourse. (Dalton-Puffer, C. 2015, ‘Policy and practice of CLIL in Europe and beyond’, Open lecture at Sophia University, Japan) ICJR – CLIL in Japan Learning outcomes in writing (Ikeda, M. 2013, ‘Does CLIL work for Japanese secondary school students?: Potential for the weak version of CLIL’, ICRJ, 1/5) N=69 Improved fluency and complexity 埼玉県立和光国際高校2年生「異文化理解」履修者69名(2013年3月実施) Category Scale Test Mean SD t-value Holisticscore Criterion score Pre-test Post-test 2.03 2.72 0.73 0.77 -8.10** Fluency Numberof words Pre-test Post-test 153.67 196.38 53.24 63.99 -6.47** Accuracy Numberof errors Pre-test Post-test 15.03 19.61 8.30 10.04 -3.55** Numberof errors persentence Pre-test Post-test 1.07 1.29 0.43 0.54 -2.98** Complexity Numberof word types Pre-test Post-test 83.38 97.33 21.09 24.86 -4.86** Percentage of Base list 1words Pre-test Post-test 83.92 80.88 5.14 5.33 3.76** Percentage of Base list 2words Pre-test Post-test 4.78 5.16 2.48 2.48 -1.07 Percentage of Base list 3words Pre-test Post-test 3.00 3.39 1.79 1.37 -1.75 Percentage of otherwords Pre-test Post-test 8.30 10.58 4.12 4.75 -3.40* Students’ perceptions (Ikeda 2013) N=74 CLIL is NOT just about English!
  4. 4. 4 CLIL global education international comprehensive 21st century skills (ATC21S) Cognition Communication CultureContent 3 How are we diffusing CLIL? Senior HS Junior HS Growing interest in CLIL UniversityPrimary school Publications in Japanese 2011 Sophia UP 2012 Sophia UP 2011 Sanshusha 2013 Taishukan 2014 Sanshusha Websites
  5. 5. 5 http://primary.cliljapan.org/ Specialists from Europe David Marsh 2009 Do Coyle 2011 Peeter Mehisto 2012 Rosie Tanner 2013 Christiane Dalton-Puffer 2015 ??? 2016 ??? 2017 Free teacher training Mapping CLIL GTM AL CLT (strong) TBI Submersion ‘sink or swim’ EFL EFL/ESL ESL CLT (weak) PPP CLIL CBI AL = Audio-lingualism ESL = English as a second language CBI = Content-based instruction GTM = Grammar translation method CLT = Communicative Language Teaching PPP = Presentation-Practice-Production EFL = English as a foreign language TBI = Task-based instruction EMI = English medium instruction Immersion EMI Structure-based instruction Communicative instruction Natural acquisition Do Coyle’s ‘the 4Cs of CLIL’ Content Cognition Community CLIL Communication
  6. 6. 6 Communication Language through learning Language for learning Language of learning Communication Content-specific language Content-compatible language Recycling & incidental learning Cognition HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills) LOTS (Lower Order Thinking Skills) Community/culture World Region Country Town/city School Classroom Good CLIL pegagogies 1 Placing equal emphasis on content learning and language learning 2 Encouraging the use of authentic materials (e.g. webpages, newspaper) 3 Giving multimodal input (i.e. written/ spoken texts, graphics, statistics, videos) 4 Using various levels of thinking skills (i.e. LOTS and HOTS) 5 Giving many tasks 6 Making the most of cooperative learning (e.g. pair work, group work) 7 Providing scaffolding in content and language 8 Incorporating elements of cross- cultural understanding and global issues 9 Integrating the four skills 10 Instructing learning skills CLIL is like … Cognition Content Language Culture CLIL
  7. 7. 7 CLIL is more like … Non-CLIL vs. CLIL Non-CLIL CLIL instruction interaction monologic dialogic spoon-feeding scaffolding unimodal multimodal artificial authentic out of context in context segregation integration practice use exercises tasks translating translanguaging repetition cognition LOTS (Lower-Order Thinking Skills) HOTS (High-Order Thinking Skills) shallow learning deep learning Non-CLIL teacher vs. CLIL teacher Non-CLIL teacher CLIL teacher CLIL materials development STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 Content Communication Cognition Community (Culture) Worksheets Step 1: Collecting authentic materials  Texts textbooks, books, websites, articles, reports, novels, etc.  Visuals photos, pictures, maps, diagrams, etc.  Statistics tables, graphs, etc.  Videos TV programmes, video clips, films, etc.  Audios radio programmes, podcasts, songs, teacher’s lectures, etc. Step 2: Designing tasks Input Processing Output CLIL lesson structure Comprehension tasks Cognitive tasks Production tasks
  8. 8. 8 1. Listing brainstorming, fact-finding 2. Ordering and sorting sequencing, ranking, classifying 3. Comparing finding similarities and differences 4. Problem-solving logic puzzles, real-life problems, case studies 5. Sharing personal experiences anecdotes, reminiscence, opinions, reactions 6. Projects and creative tasks survey, research, creative writing, skits Task types (Willis, J. 1996, A Framework for Task-Based Learning, Harlow: Longman; Willis D. & J. Willis, Doing Task-based Teaching, Oxford: Oxford University Press) CLIL task matrix LOTS HOTS Memori- sation Under- standing Appli- cation Analysis Evalu- ation Creation Solo Pair Group Class * LOTS = Lower Order Thinking Skills, HOTS = Higher Order Thinking Skills Step 3: Checking CLIL materials 1. Give rich input in content and language. 2. Use authentic materials. 3. Give multimodal input. 4. Scaffold content and language. 5. Involve both LOTS and HOTS. 6. Develop academic skills. 7. Encourage cooperative learning. 8. Stimulate content and language output. 9. Integrate the 4Cs. 10. Pursue good layout and design. Sample PD task Compare two types of teaching materials on the same topic (food) and discuss how they are different in terms of students’ learning/cognitive process.