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The study took place in three countries of different levels of
infrastructure and wealth, as well as usage of, and interest
in, m-commerce. from Tanzania, a developing economy,
with relatively widespread use of network operator driven
m-commerce, to south africa, an emerging market with
high levels of access to formal banking and well-established communications networks.
M-COMMERCE INSUB SAHARANAFRICAAugust 2012 Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan AfricA 1
ContentsA REGION OF CHANGE 3 IntroductionAN UNFAITHFUL LOVE FOR OPERATORs 4 How will m-commerce continue to develop in Sub SaharanNATIONS OF AMBITION 5 Africa, the region that has been home to some of its greatest success stories? Mapping out the potential forFrom the Mattress to The Bank 6 further transformation across this highly diverse region,the FAMILY CFO 7 Ericsson ConsumerLab has undertaken qualitative field-M-MONEY MAKES HELPING EASIER 8 work in Ghana, South Africa and Tanzania.opportunity to expand the use of m-money 9Trust IS CRUCIAL For M-Commerce 10 Across the African continent, mobile telephony has broughtM-COMMERCE EXPANSION 11 communicative infrastructure to areas previously lacking reliable means of reaching, and connecting with others. The mobile phone has been a connecting technology of im- mense impact on human life, and in several African nations it has found a powerful incubator. About this report The data from this report comes from qualitative, in-depth The study took place in three countries of different levels of interviews, complemented with statistical data. The following infrastructure and wealth, as well as usage of, and interest sources are used: in, m-commerce. From Tanzania, a developing economy, with relatively widespread use of network operator driven ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2011 and 2012 m-commerce, to South Africa, an emerging market with Ericsson ConsumerLab’s Analytical Platform is based on annual high levels of access to formal banking and well-estab- consumer surveys in more than 40 countries including more than lished communications networks. 100 000 interviews. Data used for this report has a representative sampling of the population aged 16 to 60 and is based on 526 ConsumerLab undertook qualitative fieldwork, conducting face-to-face interviews in Ghana, 502 face-to-face interviews in Tanzania and 1020 face-to-face interviews in South Africa. interviews with consumers in metropolitan Accra, Dar Es Salaam and Johannesburg. Interview persons also acted ConsumerLab M-commerce Sub Saharan Africa 2012 as guides giving inside access to the places where they did Qualitative fieldwork and extensive in-depth interviews with 31 their shopping, or business. Aside from the 31 interviews consumers evenly distributed in three markets. Ghana (Accra), conducted, fieldwork included visits to local businesses, South Africa (Johannesburg), and Tanzania (Dar Es Saalam). Interview shopping places, and operator stores and agents. persons were chosen to represent the financial scope of urban consumers, and were both users and non-users of m-commerce. Ericsson ConsumerLab has more than 15 years’ ex- senting the views of 1.1 billion people. Both quantita- perience of studying people’s behaviors and values, tive and qualitative methods are used, and hundreds of including the way they act and think about ICT prod- hours are spent with consumers from different cultures. ucts and services. Ericsson ConsumerLab provides unique insights on market and consumer trends. To be close to the market and consumers, Ericsson ConsumerLab has analysts in most of the regions where Ericsson ConsumerLab gains its knowledge through a Ericsson is present, which gives a thorough global un- global consumer research program based on inter- derstanding of the ICT market and business models. views with 100,000 individuals each year, in more than 40 countries and 15 megacities – statistically repre- All ConsumerLab reports can be found at www.ericsson.com/consumerlab2 Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan Africa
A REGION OF CHANGEThe story of the african continent has changed from one of shortcoming tothe realization that across vast differences and hardship, people constantlyadapt, utilize and innovate. Where reliable infrastructure was lacking, newtechnologies have stepped in, and transformed with use.figure 1: consumer overview: Tanzania, Ghana and south africa figure 2: Top three fields of current m-commerce use TANzANIA 1. buy airtime 30 Million 2. Transfer money 3. Pay for electricity unbanked without mobile phones 40 Million banked mobile GhANA phone users 1. buy airtime 2. access account information 3. Transfer money 50 Million unbanked mobile phone users SouTh AfrICA 1. buy airtime 2. receive salary 3. access account informationsource: finscope, Gallup, cia World factbook, africa mobile observatory 2011 (Gsma/a.T. kearney) source: Ericsson consumerLab m-commerce sub saharan africa 2012 key ﬁndings > hardy and driven consumers > Current use likely to expand many consumers are part of relatively poor house- Today, mobile money is mainly used for pur- holds, but strive to improve their life situation, chasing airtime and long distance person-to- constantly looking for new possibilities. unexpe- person transfers. some level of bill payment, cted expenses are managed through budgeting such as purchasing electricity is also becoming and emergency savings. consumers also save for commonplace. by building on existing behaviors major future purchases and investments. and social structures, consumers are ready to ex- pand their m-commerce usage in three key areas: > Sub Saharan consumers ready for in-store payment, wage payment and savings. m-commerce’s next step consumers are in need of reliable and conveni- > education is key for reaching ent infrastructure for money transfers. many lack consumers access to banking, especially in the less pros- Traditional advertising is insufficient to overcome perous markets. Driving factors for expansion of the main barriers for wider consumer adoption. m-commerce is the speed and convenience. The Lack of knowledge about functionality and safety remaining barrier is lack of trust; ultimately this is need to be addressed. Encouraging a matter of ensuring that consumers are properly merchants and agents to utilize knowledgeable about the services. as women are m-commerce and accept mobile often given primary responsibility for household money as payment as well as acting finances, they are important for reaching consum- as educators will be key, as they are ers for untapped m-commerce potential. the main contacts to the consumers. Ericsson consumErLab m-commErcE in sub saharan africa 3
AN UNFAITHFUL LOVEFOR OPERATORsNetwork operators stand for service and expertise “I just love MTN so much.In all three countries, network carriers have a lot of clout with their custom- I don’t know why but I’veers. Feelings are strong. When discussing their operators’ competence, it is been using them and I don’tthe technical capacity that consumers refer to when ascribing expertise. The want to change it.”reliability of service, network coverage in rural areas and access of agents and - Female, 38retailers, are other major factors that contribute to trust. South AfricaMultiple operators are commonA tendency that appears more acute with financially strained consumers andin the less prosperous countries is the practice of keeping multiple SIM cardsfor different operators. Consumers alternate between a favorite number andother numbers, used for specific rates and deals.Even if most people are very positive to their primary operator, that operatordoes not have any exclusivity. When deciding on a new operator, people donot usually give up an old one.Figure 3: Number of SIM cards among consumers One SIM 66% 26% 8% GHaNA Two SIMs Three or more SIMs54% 35% 11% TANZANIA95% 5% South AfricaSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical platform 2011. Base: Mobile phone usersFigure 4: Permeation of mobile money services Tanzania Ghana South Africa Operator Bank+Operator Bank+Operator Typical provider High Relatively high High awareness of services Mobile money services are Mobile money services are wide- provided by banks General knowledge ubiquitous spread, if not widely used of mobile money services Widespread use Largely unknown service Interesting, but novel concept Airtime and electricity is bought Interesting concept Airtime bought Merchant usage part of private traffic Airtime bought Mobile walletSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan Africa 20124 Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan Africa
“My studies will go on to the PhD and everything – all those things – I want to do that. Also I would love to travel!” - Female, 42, South AfricaNATIONS OF AMBITIONWide-spread aspiration Cash economyIn all three markets, the overwhelming impression In all three countries, household economy is stillis of people with clear ambitions and goals set largely a cash business. Most people deal andout for their futures. Those who have their own pay for goods and services in local currency.businesses usually look to expand and start ad- The primary exception was wage earning Southditional companies. When a successful business Africans, who sometimes make purchases bytakes up too much time, a relative or hired hand debit cards, and store credit. To the overwhelmingis brought in; expansion is a near-constant. majority, however, money is cash, and even those keeping their money in a bank, withdraw cashVery often hopes go towards long-term invest- to pay for goods and services. Bank cards arements such as home ownership and eduction for primarily for ATM withdrawals.one’s children or oneself. Of course, the specificcontent of ambitions changes with the overall Multi-faceted incomeprosperity of a country, and with the situation Most consumers interviewed would have moreof the person in question. than one source of income. Wage earners often have a better overall situation than to those get-Extended financial responsibility ting by doing small business, or odd jobs.Most of the African consumers asked have finan-cial responsibility within their extended family. Wage earners often maintain established sideRather than a matter of loaning and borrowing businesses, but still benefit from the stability ofmoney, this obligation is to assist, and to be able steady cyclic pay. At the same time, those livingto expect reciprocal help. Consumers are seldom hand-to-mouth will have to adapt to a wage-alone; either they support somebody else, or they earner’s monthly payment cycle of rent, bills, etc.receive money from a relation – often a familymember. Although the use of credit differs across the markets, resistance to credit is constant. Being indebted is avoided as far as possible, since it implies being in someone else’s mercy.“If there is an opportunity for me and I get some moneythen I will open another business apart from this… In thenext 5 years I would like to have my own company andemploy people to work for me.” - Female, 38, Ghana Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan AfricA 5
From the Mattress to The Bank Everybody saves Although a common response among the inter- For those earning monthly wages, banks are viewed is that they are not good at budgeting, strongly encouraged, if not mandatory. The everybody plans for the future to some extent. purpose of using a bank is not so much to gain From the most basic level of making sure that interest, but rather to set aside money and there is some extra money tucked away in case avoid spending. Many South African consumers of emergency such as illness, to keeping some are familiar with bank services via phone, and profits in a jar or in a bank account, saving for a internet banking is common among computer specific investment. owners. The interviewed with the most strained econo- The paradox of accessibility mies and least structured budgeting will simply Having access to one’s money is described as a divide money into piles, designating what goes double-edged sword. On the one hand, there is where. Advanced budgeters instead opted for a disciplining factor in putting money away. Put- lists, or even spreadsheets, allowing for follow- ting money in a place where it is not immediately up over time. available is a way to ensure that it is not spent too readily. On the other hand money is there for One of the most common ways of saving is to being used: not being able to get to one’s funds keep money at home, in a purse, jar, or under a is a distinctly negative scenario. mattress. It makes it easy to get to the money, but it also makes it easier for a burglar to steal. Saving in m-money A marginal way of utilizing m-money is to set From informal to formal saving money aside by depositing it into an m-money The countries studied feature different forms account. This works to limit access to it, while of saving societies. The level of formality varies, at the same time determining what it is to be but all are organized around people amassing used for. resources together, including peer pressure as an incentive to keep saving. In this, social ties becomes an infrastructure for economic behavior.“Me and my wife have been together for a time now sowe know already what the budget is, we discussed itand just pay it accordingly, we do it together so weknow what needs to be done.” - Male, 28, South Africa6 Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan Africa
the FAMILY CFOGendered economyBoth men and women work, and work hard acrossthe markets and interview persons of the study.However, in the cases where men and women sharea household, men are generally expected to bebreadwinners and women responsible for householdfinances.Women’s secret savingsWhile men often claimed primary financial respons-ibility in interviews, and expected to be asked formoney, women are making sure that the money lasts.This tendency is more pronounced with those mostfinancially strained. The money may be from a busi-ness or from personal savings, but regardless womensimply save what they can, in case of unexpectedexpenses or shortages.For example in Tanzania, women’s hidden savingsforms a sort of well-known secret, a field wheremen do not ask, and women do not tell. It is best foreverybody if women are allowed to set some moneyaside, for tough times.Interviewed Ghanaian women would generally gener-ate their own income and have personal savings. It isnot uncommon for married Ghanaians to live in sepa-rate households. Generally among the interviewedwomen, they financially hold their own. Similarly,South African men and women often plan and handleexpenses together, while maintaining separate savings. ”If we are out of money and we have to buy something, my wife will usually solve it somehow. I don’t know how she does it, women always have their ways.” Among small - Male, 45, Tanzania traders in the study the most common means of storing money is in one’s purse Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan AfricA 7
M-MONEY MAKESHELPING EASIERamong consumers inteviewed, present use of m-mon- figure 5: Which type of organization would you like to provide mobile payment options?ey services is primarily for person-to-person transfers 55%and for purchasing airtime. additionally, bill-payment 50%and electricity purchases are important fields of use. 45%The use of m-money seems strictly utilitarian, simplyconstituting an alternative to bank transfers and couriers. 40% 35%in bill payment, opportunities to use m-commerce 30%often remain limited. Electricity purchases and satel- 25%lite television (in the case of south africa and to a 20%lesser extent Ghana) are currently primary fields for 15%bill payment using m-money. similar to transfers, pay-ing bills with m-money is an alternative to previous 10%models of going to physical offices to pay bills. 5% 0%Convenient and safe a bank (e.g. hsbc, citibank) a bank credit card provider (with Visa / a mobile network provider/carrier a mobile handset brand a large retail store (e.g. a large depart-availability is a primary driver. current infrastructure mastercard) ment store)for handling money cannot compete with many of TANzANIA GhANA SouTh AfrICAthe features of m-commerce. m-commerce solu- source: Ericsson consumerLab analytical Platform 2012, base: user or interested in mobile wallettions save consumers queuing and sticking to servicehours. consumers are attracted to the convenience fers are praised for their speed. compared to carryingof reaching money everywhere. currently, cash is the cash, having a virtual account is an attractive alterna-only truly pervasive form of payment, making aTm tive to travelers and shopkeepers running the risk ofwithdrawals central for availability of funds. Wider use robbery or theft.of mobile payment could possibly offset this need.competing with regular bank transfers, mobile trans-figure 6: m-commerce usage across the marketsMoBILe MoNeYSerVICeSMoBILe PAYMeNTSairtime top-upmerchant paymentsbill paymentssalary payments 60% 6% 19%MoBILe MoNeYTrANSferSDomesticinternational 42% 1% 4%Peer-to-peerMoBILe BANkINGbalance enquiryWithdrawals 19% 3% 13%Depositscredit servicessource: Ericsson consumerLab analytical Platform 2012, base: mobile phone users8 Ericsson consumErLab m-commErcE in sub saharan africa
opportunity to expandthe use of m-moneyThere is currently an opportunity to increase usage of m-money, Figure 7: M-commerce services used todayparticularly in the area of payments, salary payments and savings.To achieve this, it is important to stimulate consumers’ interest in Tanzaniakeeping their money within the system. Lack of interest on deposit- 50%ed funds and imposed consumer charges when sending money orpaying for merchandise are two areas that need to be addressed by 38%service providers aiming to achieve future m-commerce growth.Merchant perspectiveMerchants’ usage of m-money is crucial. The reason is the prevalence 13%of people running multiple enterprises, possibly combining paid em-ployment with side businesses. Buying air time or Transferring Paying bills like for phone credit money from person water, power etc.Many consumers are entirely self-employed. Regardless, the differ- to personence between private and business economy is not distinct. Whenengaged in business many people are prompted to make transfers, Ghana 5%often using a private account (as alternatives are seldom available), 2% 1%establishing experience with m-commerce and allowing for private Buying air time Reading your Transferring moneyand business finances to bleed into each other. or phone credit account details on from person to the phone personThe role of operator agentsAgents fill the dual role of ambassador and educator. They guarantee South Africaavailability of funds, as the option of withdrawing mobile money is so 12% 10% 8%crucial. At the same time they often constitute the main face of theservice. With many consumers still unsure of the benefits and draw- Buying air time Receiving your Reading yourbacks of m-commerce, agents play a key part in sharing knowledge, or phone credit wages / salary account details on the phoneand ultimately raising acceptance of virtual accounts as means forkeeping funds among new groups of people. Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2012, Base: Mobile phone users “With Airtel they have it linked to the bank. Services must be cheap and It is so convenient such that you don’t carry reliable to compete money about because of thieves and so most of the time if I am going to buy some- > With an overall cash-based economy, consumers put a high value on easy access thing I keep my money on my phone and to their money. They will also notice costs when I get there I go to any nearby vendor and charges that set m-money aside from us- and I get my cash.” ing cash. Consumers weigh benefits against costs, and will stick to the dominating cash - Male, 41, Ghana economy unless they find the alternative more beneficial. Network reliability is another important field, where concerns have to be completely addressed. Consumers must have no doubt about the status of a transfer or their account balance. Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan AfricA 9
Trust IS CRUCIALFor M-CommerceTrust is a major prerequisite fessional agents or local branches and use of com-Many consumers are still unaware of the opportuni- munity or congregational workshops, misconceptionsties offered by m-commerce, and harbor miscon- about the benefits and drawbacks of the servicesceptions about aspects such as safety. Consumers may be addressed. Many m-commerce users areunused to virtual accounts tend to worry about the likely to grow more trusting to the service with time,integrity of their account in case of loss of a phone. just as personal access to a bank leads to a higherGeneral knowledge about costs and benefits of the acceptance of more abstracted bank services, suchservice must be increased. There is a window of op- as online banking.portunity for operators who already have an estab-lished relationship with consumers and for agentsthat are easily accessible, because they have a wide Why trust in operators:presence also in rural areas. > Reliable and technologically adept > Personal and available to everybodyTrust lies at the core of expanding m-commerce intomore fields of use, and more consumers. Buildingtrust must largely happen in person, especially with Banks trustworthy butthose unaccustomed to financial services. Face-to- inconvenient:face introductions to services are crucial. With pro- > Troublesome to visit > Expensive to use“No one has ever encouraged me to opena bank account unlike the mobile moneyservices where everyone does encourageyou to do so, even the agents… Bank ser-vices are good for handling large amountsof money but for small amounts of moneythen mobile money services are good.” – Male, 40, TanzaniaFigure 8: Why are you not interested in banking via your mobile phone?It is not secureMobile phones can be lost easilyI don’t know how to use this serviceI would prefer to speak to someone in personI don’t trust mobile networks or carriersIt is expensiveNo one to assist me if something goes wrongMobile phones have network problemsI don’t feel like I have control over the processIt is not private or confidentialIt doesn’t allow me to deal with cashIt takes me too longIt doesn’t allow me to deal with cheques 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical platform 2012Base: THOSE WHO DON’T BANK or WOULD NOT LIKE TO BANK VIA MOBILE10 Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan Africa
M-COMMERCEEXPANSIONOperators enjoy great trust as actors serving consumers Using the service must be as simple and fast aswith reliable communication, as well as in taking up fi- possible. Current systems are largely designed tonancial services. However trust in the service remains facilitate the activities that have grown to be mostto be established. The challenge is to expand the user common: airtime purchases and long-distance trans-base, helping people realizing the benefits of using fers. Interface and functionality challenges are raisedm-commerce solutions as part of their everyday lives. by in-store payment, with even lower tolerance for delays and time consuming commands.Another challenge is that m-money today only hasan intermediary role. Consumers often go to an agentimmediately when they receive a mobile money trans- > In further developing m-commerce itfer, and convert the mobile money into cash. Build- needs to focus on user aspects in whiching up for the longer loop, it is important to stimulate it is superior to cash.users to keep money within the system. This can beachieved by building trust in the system and stimulat- > Simultaneously users need to be educateding usage, e.g. by making more aspects of people’s rather than merely informed onprivate economy easier serviced by m-commerce the scope of possibilitiessolutions than current alternatives. Two such areas of in m-commercepossibilities are enabling in-store payments and offer-ing interest on the mobile money balance. > Build trust in the service via the personal meeting Ericsson consumerLab M-Commerce in Sub Saharan AfricA 11