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Gp spg12 geophysics

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Gp spg12 geophysics

  1. 1. geophysicsColorado School of Mines Summer 2012
  2. 2. From the Department Head geophysics ophysics Wa r m g re e t i ngs f ro m t he Summer 2012 Colorado School of Mines D e p a r t me n t of G e o phys ic s! We are glad our departmental magazine 4 Gary Olhoeft (it’s gotten too large to call it a 7 Faculty & Friends newsletter anymore!) has found its way into your hands . The diverse 8 Graduate Students articles and photos are a small sample 12 CWP of the many people and activities that enriched our year in Geophysics . 14 RCP For us, it’s all about people! So we 16 CGEM celebrate the life and career of Gar y 18 Hydrogeophysics Olhoeft , who just retired after 17 years on the CSM facult y. We are grateful 19 Edwin Nissen to add Tim Collett (USGS) to our adjunct / aff iliate facult y. And we 20 Planetary Lab look for ward to welcoming earthquake 22 Distinguished Science seismologist Ed Nissen, who joins our facult y in August . Meanwhile, 24 Colorado is Special we have a search under way for a new facult y member with broad expertise in 25 Date an Earth Scientist electromagnetics . 26 Student Life We are bursting at the seams in the 28 Why Geophysics? Green Center. In the past 4 -5 years our student enrollment in Geophysics 32 Field Camp has doubled from about 50 undergrads 34 Study Abroad and 50 graduate students to 100 of each . And we continue to welcome 37 Senior Design large numbers of visiting scholars, who collaborate with our facult y and 38 Internships research groups . So, we are out ofGREETINGS 44 Class of 2011 space . We are also at the end of the ser vice life of the roof on the Green 47 AGU Center, so we look for ward to a new On the cover Seniors Meghan Helper and Kendra Johnson and graduate student, Lillian Comegys, take a break from stringing geophones at Geophysics field camp, Neal Hot Springs, Vale, Oregon, summer 2011. 2
  3. 3. building one day soon! of Helmut Jakubowicz), a s we a pplied a va s t array of geophysicalIn Fall , we received a thoughtful , technique s to the charac teriza t ionupbeat review of our department by of the geothermal sys tem a t Nealthe External Visiting Committee, Hot Springs , Oregon . In summerwhich included Rutt Bridges 2012 , we were gue s t s of Pagosa(Transform Soft ware and Ser vices), Springs , Colorado, where we willRichard Degner (Global Geophysical conduc ted a similar f ield e xerci seSer vices), Perr y Eaton (Newmont accompanied by Imperial CollegeMining Corp.), Erec Isaacson s tudent s and facult y. We are(ConocoPhillips), Jerr y Harris gra teful for the many cont ribut ions(Stanford Universit y), Alan Levander of e x per t i se and re source s tha t(Rice Universit y), and Jill McCarthy make thi s camp a succe s s year -(USGS). We are grateful for this after year. In par t icular, weenormous contribution by these thank Sercel , for the ne w se i smicdistinguished colleagues . recording sys tem (thank you , George Wood!), CGGVeri ta s , for theOur f ield camp cont inue s to be the vibrose i s sys tems and cre w, and Mr.ca ps tone e x perience and highlight and Mrs . Richard Degner for the irfor mos t undergradua te s . La s t f inancial suppor t .summer we were joined by Boi se St .Universit y (under the leadership Enjoy!of Ka sper van Wijk) and ImperialCollege , London (under the direc t ion Look for Us at SEG! T he De par t me nt of Geophysic s Alu mni Lu ncheon at SEG La s Vega s 2012 will be held on Tue sda y, Nove mber 6 , 11:30 a m . For more infor mat ion , plea sese e Michelle S zobod y at the CSM booth , #2402, in the Shoreline s A se ct ionof the e xhibit hall , or contact her at m s zobod y @ mine s.e du . GREETINGS Thank you to BP a nd Shel l for prov id i ng f u nd i ng for t he2012 G e ophysics m a ga z i ne a nd t o a l l of ou r s p on sor s for t hei r cont i nue d suppor t of t he de pa r t me nt! ( ht t p://ge o physic s.mine s.e d u /GEO - D e pa r t me nt- S u p p or t) 3
  4. 4. DRINK ING FROM A FIREHOSE A Tribute to Gar y Olhoef t Gar y Olhoeft retired from the facult y this past year. His retirement marks the end of an era in which ever y undergraduate was initiated into the Geophysical Engineering program by taking “Gar y’s course” -- GPGN210 Materials of the Ear th. W hen Gar y retired, we also retired Gar y’s signat ure course. It’s a bit like retiring the jersey (numerals) of the perennial MVP on a spor ts team. How do you f ill the shoes of someone whose labs have titles such as “Bubble in Straw 1”, “Bubble in Straw 2”, and “Poisson’s Ratio of a Marshmallow”? St udents described Gar y as the “man of 1000 viewgraphs.” They were captivated by his lect ures, fascinated by the breadth and depth of his k nowledge, impressed by his intellect ual quick ness, and over whelmed by tr ying to take notes while drin king in new infor mation f rom a f irehose. Gar y joined the CSM facult y in 1994. He brought to CSM a wealth of experience from his prior work with NASA and the USGS, along with some unique vacuum chambers and other experimental devices. He loved to teach and found it hard to say “no” when, in addition to his regular load, his graduate st udents asked him to teach courses on a wide variet y of ad hoc topics. W hen st udents evaluated his teaching they always remarked on the unique and valuable experience of having been in his class, noting that he “really made them thin k for themselves.”GARY OLHOEFT In addition to the technical subject matter, he insisted that st udents lear n the right way to keep lab and f ield notebooks, appreciate professional ethics, and recognize that you can’t believe ever y thing you read in technical jour nals. 4
  5. 5. We miss Gar y and wish him all the best. His contributions to the Depar tment and thegeophysics communit y, and his impact on the minds and the lives of his st udents, willnever be forgotten.Among the innumerable anecdotes concer ning Gar y are these: –* In Hawaii all the students had to hike 1.5 miles over an active lava tube to reachour f ield site. It was about 90 degrees and humid. We were wearing long trousers,long-sleeved shirts, and gloves to protect us. We were all carr ying gear (I carriedthe EM-31). It was a ver y diff icult hike over the razor sharp lava f lows. Just as wearrived at our site, Gar y came f lying in on a helicopter (due to his medical condition)wearing his big white cowboy hat, grinning with his little kid smile. It was great hecould join us. * “Detective Gar y” helped the G Golden police catch a robber. This u unsuspecting individual made the u unfortunate choice of tr ying to rob G Gar y’s house. Of course, Gar y’s was n no ordinar y house. It was equipped w with Gar y’s custom state-of-the-art s securit y camera system, including n night vision capabilit y. The robber f forced open the garage door and t tried to roll in under it, only to be s stopped by a bigger version of Gar y’s o off ice – a mountain of boxes, books, a and equipment all stacked to the r roof. Dejected, the robber left and d drove right by Gar y’s cameras that c captured the details of his vehicle. David Stillman, PhD 2006 * One of my favorite Gar y s stories happened in Summer ‘98. A Abraham Emond and I were doing a g ground penetrating radar sur vey at D Dinosaur Ridge. Our goal was to GARY OLHOEFTdetect negative Iguanodontid tracks bulging out on the underside of the upper layer ofDakota sandstone. These slabs are prett y steep…maybe 50 degrees or more in placesand quite high. High enough to need ropes. A rope for us, and a rope for the radarequipment. I think the orders were, ‘ let Erin fall, save the GPR.’ Not really. Anywaywe worked for several days doing radar lines ever y 20 cm across the entire slab, withGar y yelling up at us not to move so fast ‘cause any sudden moves would result ina loss of data’. Not an easy feat. Anyway, we needed the ropes set up at the top tosecure us and hold the radar system…so ever y morning Gar y would climb up the slab 5
  6. 6. (UNROPED) in his COWBOY BOOTS, set up the anchor and rope, then lower himself down! Remarkable. I still shake my head in disbelief. Erin Wallin, PhD 2008 * I remember my f irst classes with Gar y as a sophomore. He was really intimidating at f irst, and you could tell he was sharp. He could tell if anyone was talking about something they didn’t actually k now about, and would call them on it by staring at them until they talked themselves into a hole. He taught us it was okay if you didn’t k now things, as long as you admit it and go out and learn about it. Later on in the semester, he opened up to us with several great anecdotes about the scientif ic method or his research. The class and labs were hard; Gar y expected a lot of us: keep good notes, design your own experiments, build them with your own hands, challenge yourself and others! But even though it was hard, it was ver y rewarding. I think we all learned a lot from him. One of my favorite labs from Gar y was the myster y bag lab. He would f ill a paper bag with an assortment of items (some easy, some hard), and we would have to f igure out what was in the bag as an analog to f iguring out what’s inside the earth using geophysics. First, we weren’t allowed to touch the bag, then we could gently disturb the bag (shaking, lifting), and then we could go to town and feel around the outside of the bag and isolate individual objects. Each time, we’ d take a guess at what was inside, and why we thought so. At the end, we were allowed to see how close our guesses were, and inevitably we were totally wrong. It taught us to think critically about what we can/ can’t measure, how much we rely on our senses to understand the world, and why uncertaint y and the effectGARY OLHOEFT of preconceptions in geophysics (and science in general) is an important subject This cience subject. was one of my favorite labs to TA as well. Gar y, thank you for sharing your k nowledge and wisdom with all of us. You have taught us so many things that you can’t just read from a textbook . Thank you for devoting so much time and effort into our learning. I am a better scientist because of you. Alicia Hotovec, BS 2007, MS 2009 6
  7. 7. Congratulations... ...to Professor Roel Snieder on being n named Honorar y Member, SEG. Roel is also now Chair of Geophysicists W Without Borders and was recently a appointed Chief of the Genesee Fire R Rescue Department in Golden. ...to Professor Ilya Tsvank in on being elected Fellow, Institute of Physics (IOP).In Remembrance...Geophysics Emeritus Professor and former Department Head, George Keller, passed away onApril 24th in Evergreen, Colorado.During his career, Dr. Keller was employed by the U.S. Geological Survey (1952-1963) as well asColorado School of Mines (1960-1993).At Mines, Dr. Keller’s principal areas of interest were in the development and application ofelectrical geophysical methods to explore for mineral and energy resources. He served as head ofthe Department of Geophysics from 1974 to 1983. He retired from teaching in 1993.A memorial service was held on May 12th at Mother Cabrini Shrine in Golden.In Remembrance...Philip Linwood Lawrence passed away July 9th. He was born in New Bedford,Massachusetts on March 27, 1923. Phil served in World War II in the 759th Field Artillery Battalion and graduated with a degree in Geological Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines FACULTY & FRIENDS in 1949. Phil worked for Mobil Oil as a geophysicist f from 1949 until his retirement. After he retired, Phil was actively involved in many organizations; his favorites were Zane Grey’s West Society and Numismatics International. P Phil was a proud and devoted graduate of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado and remained close to the school his entire life. We are grateful to Phil for providing funding used to p purchase new computers for our Linux lab. Our sincerest condolences go out to Phil’s family. 7
  8. 8. Graduate Students Flock to Geophysics Fall 2011 saw a new rec o r d for the lar g es t nu mber of new gr aduate s tudents admit ted to the Geophys ics depar tment - 24 - pr opelling the total nu mber of Geophys ics gr aduate s tudents to 10 0. S o me of their s tor ies are pr of iled in the following pages and are as diverse as the plac es fr om whic h they hail. Mat t hew W isniewski, MS Student , Cent e r f o r Rock Abuse G raduating with a Bachelor of Science in Geophysical Engineer ing f rom the Colorado School of Mines has provided me some really cool oppor t u nities. My f irst job af ter g raduating was work ing for an airbor ne geophysics company. My time was mixed bet ween work ing in ou r base off ice and t ravelling to work on an acquisition team. I n the off ice I was involved in var ious aspects of the su r veys including su r vey layout, dat a processing, and even inter pret ation. Field time was a mix of per for ming qualit y cont rol of dat a and work ing with acquisition equipment; f ield work was exciting as new issues of ten ar ise and need to be handled promptly. On my last f ield assig n ment I was able to ser ve as crew chief which added the handling of su r vey logistics to my duties. My f ield assig n ments took me to Saudi A rabia and G reenland, places I other wise would have probably never had the oppor t u nit y to see. Following this I moved to New Zealand where I worked with a small geophysical consulting company t ravelling th roughout the cou nt r y per for ming var ious su r veys. It was a really g reat job assig n ment that involved a nu mber of different geophysical tech niques and var ied applications. For example, we per for med a ref raction micro -t remor su r vey to character ize the area where a large storage building was to be placed. I n another su r vey we used g rou nd penet rating radar to look for bu r ied st r uct u res f rom a histor ic Maor i ( people indigenous to New Zealand) set tlement. I was also involved in a couple of g ravit y su r veys aimed at character izing the area arou nd geother mal f ields. I n addition to multiple tech niques, theseGRADUATE STUDENTS jobs provided me the oppor t u nit y to work alongside people f rom var ious f ields including pilots, air plane mechanics, tech nicians, geotech nical engineers, d r illers, and others. I have ret u r ned to Colorado School of Mines because I am still excited about the f ield of geophysics and k now that there is much more I still want to lear n. With my work backg rou nd I thin k I will be able to look at the presented mater ial and u nderst and it in a new way by relating it to my work exper ience. I am par ticularly interested in geother mal exploration as I thin k this will be an impor t ant application in the f ut u re, and I am hoping to per for m research work and a thesis in this area. In addition, I am also excited to lear n more about the many other areas of research happening in the depar t ment. 8
  9. 9. Ke lsey Schilt z , MS Student , Re se r voir Characte r ization Pr ojectI’m ju s t b eg i n n i ng my r e s e a r ch wh ich w i l l fo c u s o n c o nve r t e dwave a n alysis of he av y oi l sa nd s at Nexe n’s L ong L a ke, A lbe r t a .I’m or ig i n al ly f rom Mont a n a but re ceive d my u nde rg r a du at edeg r e e f rom R ice Un ive r sit y i n Hou st on. Hou st on get s a ba dr ap; a f t e r fou r ye a r s , it h a s a s p e ci a l pla c e i n my h e a r t . T h i si s go o d b e c a u se a s a ge o physic i s t i n t he oi l a nd g a s i nd u s t r y,I w i l l m o s t l i kely b e s p e nd i ng a sig n i f ic a nt p or t ion of my l i fet he r e. I neve r pla n ne d on goi ng i nt o Ge ophysics, or scie nce ata l l for t h a t m at t e r, but a n i nt ro d u c t or y e a r t h s c ie n c e cla s s w it ha g r e at profe s sor spa rke d my i nt e re st i n t he t opic. I g r av it at e dt owa r d G e o physic s b e c a u se I t hou g ht t he a bi l it y of s e i s m ic t oi m age t he subsu r fa ce wa s awe some (a nd be cau se I don’t have much of a n eye for ge olog y) y).I cho s e C olor a d o S cho ol of M i n e s , a nd m o r e s p e ci f ic a l ly RC P, b e c a u se of t he g roup’sr e put at io n a nd d i r e c t t ie s w it h i nd u s t r y. I d o n’t t h i n k I f u l ly r e a l i z e d u nt i l I a r r ive d ,howeve r, t he ex t r e mely h ig h c a l ib e r of t he f a c u lt y a nd r e s e a r che r s h e r e. A lt hou g h Ia d m it it is sl ig ht ly i nt i m id at i ng, I fe el so for t u n at e t o have t he opp or t u n it y t o le a r n f romsome of t he most br i l l ia nt a nd re sp e c t e d p e ople i n t he f ield . A not he r hu ge d r aw for mewa s Color a do. I love t he we at he r he re, t he sm al l-t ow n at mosphe re w it h t he prox i m it yof a la rge cit y, a nd t he a c t ive l i fe st yle. Si nce com i ng he re, I have st a r t e d t r y i ng newt h i ngs l i ke yoga , f i sh i ng, h i k i ng, a nd i n t he w i nt e r, I’m lo ok i ng for wa rd t o sk i i ng. I a me njoy i ng eve r y t h i ng I a m le a r n i ng a nd lo ok i ng for wa rd t o t he next t wo ye a r s.Jieyi Zhou, PhD Student, Hydrogeophysics and Porous MediaI a m f rom Hu n a n P rov i nce, sout he a st of C h i n a , a ve r y be aut i f u l pla c e. I st ud ie d a c ou st icsa s a n u nde rg r a du at e at Na nji ng Un ive r sit y,i n one of t he most gla morou s cit ie s i nC h i n a . Ac ou st ics is t he physics of sou nd ,a nd I l i ke t he c oncise a nd pre cise be aut y ofphy sics a nd m at he m a t ics. I h ave a l s o b e e ni nt e r e s t e d i n ge olog y si n c e I wa s a ch i ld .T he e a r t h i s s o m a g ic a l a nd a p p e a l i ng, l i kea k a leido s c op e, at t r a c t i ng p e ople t o ex plor e. GRADUATE STUDENTSI bel ieve ge ophysic s ca n le a d t o a bet t e ra nd de e p e r u nde r st a nd i ng of t he e a r t h.T h at is why I ca me t o M i ne s, wh ich ha s ag r e at re put at ion i n ex plor at ion ge ophysics.T hou g h my ex a c t r e s e a r ch i nt e r e s t i s yett o be de cide d , I hop e I ca n u nde r st a nd wh at it is l i ke u nde r ou r fe et a nd wh at is goi ng ont he r e. T he r e a r e m a ny t h i ngs I love about Color a do, e s p e cial ly t he mou nt a i n s, t he t r e e sa nd t he snow. I have t r ie d h i k i ng but not yet sk i i ng. I a m lo ok i ng for wa rd t o it . . 9
  10. 10. Anya Reitz, MS Student, Center for Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Studies Im one of t he less excit i ng i n t h is f resh crop of g r a du ate st udent s; i n stea d of ga r ner i ng ood les of life exper ience bet ween deg rees, I opted to st ay r ig ht where I wa s a nd f u r t her my educat ion i n a fa m ilia r env i ron ment. I received my u nderg r a du ate deg ree i n Geophysics here at M i nes i n May 2011, a nd li ked it so much t he idea of st ay i ng on for a not her t wo yea r s d id nt fa ze me. O r ig i nally, I hail f rom Texa s. As t he d aug hter of t wo explor at ion geolog ist s, its ext remely i mprobable t hat Id never be exposed to Hou ston. St ill, Ive been i n Golden, Color a do for t h ree f u ll yea r s now, a nd Id li ke to pretend I come f rom here. T hats what my d r ivers licen se says, a ny way.My resea rch i nterest s a re ver y broa d , t houg h I tend to st ick towa rd s t he non- seism ic side of t h i ngs i n aca dem ia. I have been k now n to work on seism ic project s du r i ng su m mer i nter n sh ips, i nclud i ng Ci ma rex Energ y Co i n dow ntow n Denver i n t he su m mer of 2011. I a m work i ng for Apache i n t he su m mer of 2012. Cu r rently, t he focu s of my ma sters t hesis resea rch is borehole g r av it y g r a d iomet r y a nd its applicat ion i n reser voi r mon itor i ng. Id be ly i ng if I said I d id nt fall i nto t he potent ial side of geophysics becau se of my fa sci nat ion w it h color f u l maps. I love my af f iliat ion w it h CGEM. I look for wa rd to t hese next 2(?) yea r s here i n Golden. I hope t hey a re ju st a s g reat a s t he la st t h ree! Esteban Diaz Pant in, MS Student , Cent e r f o r Wave Phenomena Si nce t he t i me I wa s a ge ophysical e ng i ne e r i ng st ude nt at t he Un ive r sid a d Si món Bol íva r I have k now n about CSM. It is ve r y fa mou s abroa d be cau se of Seism ic Un*x. A l so, I he a rd st or ie s about CSM f rom my g r a nd fat he r about h i s favor it e brot he r who st ud ie d he re i n t he e a rly 1950 s. A f t e r obt a i n i ng my e ng i ne e r i ng deg r e e I joi ne d t he seism ic i nd u s t r y. I h a d t he o p p or t u n it y t o wor k f ro m 2D t i m e d at a seism ic pro c e s si ng t o 3D de pt h i m ag i ng /model bu i ld i ng p r oje c t s. L at e r I h a d t he ch a nc e t o wor k i n a r e s e a r ch g roupGRADUATE STUDENTS w it h ve r y t a le nt e d a nd ex p e r ie nce d p e ople. A f t e r t h at I k new wh at I wa nt e d t o do i n Ge ophysics. T he de cision t o apply t o M i n e s , a nd p a r t ic u la rly t o C W P, c ou ld n ot h ave b e e n a ny e a sie r. It wa s t he re s e a r ch ce nt e r w it h wh ich I sh a r e d m o s t of my i nt e r e s t s. I a m r e a l ly h a p py wor k i ng w it h p e o ple who have be e n pione e r s i n m a ny a s p e ct s of seism ic ex plor at ion. I n C W P, I a m o n t he I-Te a m , u nd e r t he s u p e r v i sion of D r. Pau l Sava . I pla n t o cont i nue work i ng i n velo cit y model bu i ld i ng. So fa r t he ex p e r ie nce ha s be e n g r e at! Golde n is a ve r y n ice t ow n , a nd t he p e o ple at C SM a r e ve r y f r ie n d ly. L o ok i ng b a ck , I k now I m a d e t he b e s t choic e! 10
  11. 11. Andrew Munoz , MS Student , Cent e r f o r Wave Phenomena I a m a n at ive Tex a n a nd g r a d u at e d f ro m Tex a s A&M U Un ive r sit y i n t he s p r i ng of 2010 w it h a B. S. i n G e o physic s. A f t e r I g r a d u at e d , I e nt e r e d i nt o a long i nt e r n sh ip w it h New f ield Explor at ion , du r i ng wh ich I le a r ne d about m a ny N oi l a nd g a s i nd u s t r y p r a c t ic e s a nd p r oble m s. I a p pl ie d t o o g r a d u at e s cho ol s al l ove r t he Un it e d St at e s , but whe n I f i r st v i sit e d M i ne s, I k new I wa s home. I met w it h al l of t he CW P profe s sor s a nd wa s wa r m ly welc ome d i nt o t he prog r a m. p D r. Dave Hale a nd I m a de a g r e at con ne c t ion , a nd held m a ny si m i la r i nt e re st s i n re se a r ch a nd l i fe st yle; he wa s a n at u r a l pick for a n a dv i sor. A s a Ma st e r s st ude nt , I wou ld l i ke t o fo cu s o n i mp rov i ng t he i nef f icie nt p r a c t ice s a nd i n a c cu r at e a s su mpt ion s seism ic i nt e r p ret e r s u se i n oi l a nd ga s ex plor at ion. I hop e t o u se my t i me at M i ne s t o m a ke a greleva nt i mpa ct e s p e cial l relat e d t o proble m s w it h wel l log a nd seism ic d at a i nt eg r at ion. l t t i l ly lO ut side of s cho ol , I e njoy t he m a ny out do o r a c t iv it ie s C olor a d o h a s t o of fe r, a nd I h aved i r e ct e d most of my f r e e t i me t o r u n n i ng, h i k i ng a nd v i sit i ng p a rk s.Luiz Marcelo Ribeiro Martins, MS Student, Reservoir Characterization ProjectI g r a d u at e d i n Ge olog y i n 1999 f rom t he Un ive r sid a d e Fe d e r a l d e O u ro P r et o ( U FOP),i n t he St a t e of M i n a s G e r a i s , Br a z i l. Two ye a r s l a t e r, I obt a i ne d a s p e ci a l i z at io n d eg r e ei n Pet roleu m Eng i ne e r i ng at Un ive r sid a de de Ca mpi n a s ( U N ICA M P) i n t he St at e of Sã o Pau lo. Bet we e n 20 02 a nd 20 0 4, I worke d a s a f ield m a n a ge r for a d r i l l i ng m i n i ng compa ny i n t he c ou nt r y side of t he St a t e of M i n a s G e r a i s. Si n c e Feb r u a r y 20 0 4, I h ave b e e n wor k i ng a s a S ge ophysicist at Pet rob r a s, m a i n ly de al i ng w it h g r eg ion a l s ei s m ic i nt e r p r e t at ion . At t he b eg i n n i ng of my c a r e e r a t Pet rob r a s , I A t o ok s e ve r a l i nt e r n a l c ou r s e s t h a t a l lowe d m e t o have a bet t e r u nde r st a nd i ng of ge ophysics appl ie d h t o p et roleu m ex plor at ion. I n 20 09 I at t e nde d t he Un ive r sit y of Hou st on , for a t wo mont h cou r se on U GRADUATE STUDENTS p r a c t ic a l a nd t he or e t ic a l a s p e c t s of G e o physic s. I n p a r a l lel , I h ave b e e n wor k i ng w it h t he r eg io n a l seism ic i nt e r p ret at ion t e a m of Pet rob r a s for s t he e a st e r n Br a z i l ia n coa st ba si n s. My m a i ngoal is t o work i n RC P, whe r e I bel ieve t he r e i s a n ap p ro p r iat e e nv i ro n me nt t o d e al w it hmu lt id iscipl i n a r y p et roleu m ex plor at ion t e ch nolog ie s.CSM ha s e d ucat e d a nu mb e r of ge oscie nt i st s work i ng for Pet rob r a s. T hey al l ag re e t h atCSM of fe r s a n i nt el le c t u al ly st i mu lat i ng e nv i ron me nt for p e r son al a nd t e ch n ical g row t h .Mor e ove r, G olde n i s a p e r fe c t pla c e t o l ive h e a lt hy a nd h a p py, a nd si n c e I a r r ive d h e r eI’ve be e n so wel l t r e at e d . RC P st ude nt s a nd st af f a r e always helpi ng a nd supp or t i ng me! 11
  12. 12. Center for Wave Phenomena Seismic Hazard: Weakening of the Near Surface in Japan After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Nori Nakata, PhD Student & Professor Roel Snieder The Tohoku- Oki earthquake (MW9.0) on 11 March 2011 is one of the largest earthquakes in recent times, and the resulting tsunami caused much damage in Japan including its nuclear reactors . This unprecedented earthquake has weakened the soil in the near surface throughout northeastern Japan . We analyzed ear thquake data f rom 1 Januar y 2011 to 26 May 2011 recorded by KiK-net, the st rong-motion net work operated by NIED in Japan, to measure shear-wave velocities. Each station has t wo seismographs at the surface and the bot tom of a borehole, a few hund red meters deep. By applying seismic interferomet r y to these t wo sensors, in which we deconvolve the seismog ram at a top receiver with that at a bot tom receiver, we ret r ieved the shear wave propagating f rom the bot tom sensor to the top sensor at each station and thus deter mined the shear-wave velocit y in the upper few hund red meters of the subsurface under each KiK-net station. Using velocities of all available stations (blue dots on the maps), we create shear- wave velocit y maps before (1 Jan. - 10 Mar. 2011) and af ter (12 Mar. - 26 May 2011) the Tohok u- Oki ear thquake (“Before” and “Af ter” maps in the Shear-wave velocities before and after the Tohoku-Oki f ig ure). By subt racting the “Before” earthquake and its difference. velocit y f rom the “Af ter” velocit y, weCWP obtain the map of the relative velocit y area in nor theaster n Japan about 1,200 k m wide. change af ter the Tohok u- Oki ear thquake The shear-wave velocit y is related to the shear (“Difference” in the f ig ure). modulus, which measures the st rength of the soil; hence the reduction of the shear-wave velocit y As show n in the f ig ure, the shear-wave over nor theaster n Japan implies that the Tohok u- velocit y was reduced by about 5% af ter Oki ear thquake reduced the shear st rength of the the Tohok u- Oki ear thquake over an near surface th roughout nor theaster n Japan. 12
  13. 13. Seeing Earth’s Hidden SecretsTongning Yang, PhD CandidateOne important goal in exploration geophysics is to discovernatural resources, like oil, gas or other minerals. We achievethis goal by processing data acquired from various geophysicalmethods to inter pretable images of the subsurface. Theseimages are similar in character to the ones obtained in medicalimaging and depend on the type of data used for analysis. Forinstance, with ref lected seismic data we can obtain an image ofthe subsurface representing the geologic str uctures as contrastsof acoustic properties which are related to the lithology of thesubsurface and to the f luids present in the rocks. This process is known as seismic imaging andis one of the most computationally intensive geophysical techniques.One key element in seismic imaging is the velocity, or speed of seismic waves, in the subsurface.This information is necessary to relocate the ref lections observed on the surface to their correctposition in the subsurface. The accuracy of the subsurface seismic image is strongly dependenton this velocity reconstr uction. The image is significantly improved and shows amazing detailsof the geologic str ucture, like layering and faulting which can guide oil and gas exploration.My current research focuses on the technique known as wavefield tomography, one of the mostadvanced for velocity model building and one that receives a lot of attention in the geophysicalcommunity. A key demand of this methodology is to quickly simulate accurate seismic wavefieldsin complex geologic models, which is extremely computationally demanding. My research isfacilitated by the High Performance Computing infrastr ucture provided by CSM through theGolden Energy Computing Organization (http://geco.mines.edu). CWP is one of the top users ofcomputing resources on the available clusters. I am fortunate to have the opportunity to developboth my geophysical and computational skills and make an impact on such an important field.“Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization”In their new book, Professor Ilya Tsvank in and his colleague, Vladimir Grechka of Shell,present a systematic analysis of seismic signat uresfor azimuthally anisotropic media and describesanisotropic inversion / processing methods for wide-azimuth ref lection data and VSP (ver tical seismicprof iling) sur veys. The main focus is on kinematicparameter-estimation techniques operating withP-waves as well as with the combination of PP and PS(mode-conver ted) data. The par t devoted to prestackamplit udes includes azimuthal AVO (amplit udevariation with offset) analysis and a concise treatmentof attenuation coeff icients, which are highly sensitive CWPto the presence of anisotropy. Discussion of fract urecharacterization is based on moder n effectivemedia theories and illustrates both the potential andlimitations of seismic methods. Field-data examples highlight the improvements achieved byaccounting for anisotropy in seismic processing, imaging, and fract ure detection.This book is published by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) as part of the “GeophycalReferences Series’’ and is available as an eBook or in print edition from the SEG Digital Library at http://library.seg.org/ebooks/seg.geophysical_ references_ series/177e. 13
  14. 14. Reservoir Characterization Project “In Pursuit of New Ideas” Ahmad Ihsan Ramdani T he H ist or y of RCP d at e s ba ck t o t he m id - 80’s. I n 1985 D r. Tom D av is for me d t he Re s e r voi r C h a r a ct e r i z at ion P roje c t ( RC P), a r e s e a rch g roup i n t he G e ophysic s De pa r t me nt whose m ission is to develop a nd apply mu lt icompone nt seismolog y a nd a ss o ciat e d t e ch nolog ie s t o mod el a nd ch a r a cte r i ze complex rese r voi r s. Nu me rou s f ield i nve st igat ion s, new conce pt s, new t e ch nolog ie s , a nd mu lt i- d is cipl i n a r y i nt eg r at ion a re fa c t or s t h at h ave c ont i nuou sly evolve d w it h i n RCP for more t h a n 26 ye a r s. RCP’s Ph a se I r e s e a rch st a r t e d w it h f r a ct u r e d r e s e r voi r ch a r a ct e r i z at ion i n Si lo Field , Wyom i ng. I n 2011, Ph a se X I V re se a rch i nclude d t i me -lapse mu lt icomp one nt st ud ie s for CO2 i nje ct ion mon itor i ng i n Del h i Field , L ou isia n a; a he av y oi l rese r voi r ch a r a ct e r i z at ion st u d y i n L ong L a ke Field , A lbe r t a , Ca na d a; sh ale oi l rese r voi r ch a r a ct e r i z at ion i n t he Ba k ke n Sh a le; a nd a sh ale ga s rese r voi r ch a r a cte r i zat ion st udy i n t he Mont ney Sh ale, Ca na d a . C u r re nt ly, 27 st u d e nt s a re wor k i ng i n RCP a nd t hey c ome f rom d i f fe re nt a ca de m ic ba ckg rou nd s a nd c u lt u re s. Most of t he st u d e nt s a re f rom t he G e ophysic s De pa r t me nt , but t he re a re st udent s f rom t he Geolog y a nd Pet roleu m Eng i ne e r i ng d e p a r t me nt s a s wel l. T he st u d e nt s a re d ist r ibut e d i nt o d i f fe re nt g roup s /t e a m s ba s e d on t hei r r e s e a rch i nt e r e st s. T he re a re c u r re nt ly f ive a ct ive g roup s i n RCP. Del h i Te a m is t he tea m t h at is work i ng on t i me -lapse mu lt icompone nt for CO2 i nje c t ion mon itor i ng i n D el h i Field , L ou isia n a . T h is te a m wor k s w it h one of t he best t i me -lapse, mu lt icompone nt seism ic d at a set s eve r recorded by RCP. C u r rently, t h is tea m is fo cu si ng on del i ne at i ng CO2 m ig r at ion f low pat h s cont rolled by t he complex f luv ial- delt aic set t i ng of t he rese r voi r. Postle Te a m is work i ng on t i me -la pse mu lt icompone nt mon itor i ng of Wate r-RCP A lt e r n at i ng- G a s ( WAG) i nje c t ion i n Postle Field , Ok la hom a . T he r e s e r voi r i nte r val is t he Mor row A sa nd st one. T h is rese r voi r is below seism ic resolut ion a nd sei sm ic d at a we re hy pot hesi z e d to be i mpr a ct ic a l to ma p a nd mon itor t he rese r voi r. Howeve r, w it h t he t i me -lapse mu lt icompone nt d at a a c qu i red at Postle, RCP h a s b e e n a ble t o m a p t he Mor row A s a nd st one a nd mon it or t he ch a nge s i n t he rese r voi r due to WAG i nje ct ion. 14
  15. 15. I n a dd it ion t o t he En h a nce d t hei r c u r re nt r e s e a rch p r og r e s s t o t heO i l Re c ove r y ( EOR) D el h i a nd spon sor s. I n a dd it ion , t he spon sor sPostle Te a m s, RCP also ha s t h ree also gave present at ion s a nd ma deUnconvent ion al Re se r voi r Te a m s. p o st e r s i n wh ich t he i nt e r a c t ionT he Pouce Coupe Te a m is work i ng bet ween st udent s a nd spon sor s wa son re se r voi r ch a r a ct e r i z at ion for e st abl i she d . T he st u d e nt s v iew t hei rSh a le G a s i n t he Mont ney Sh a le, r e se a rch a s a pa r t of t hei r a ca de m icPouce Coupe Field , Ca na d a . T he prog ress, wh ile t he spon sor s v iewBa k ken Te a m is work i ng on rese r voi r st u d e nt s’ r e s e a rch a s a “ t e st i ngch a r a ct e r i z at ion for Sh a le O i l i n t he g rou nd” for new t e ch nolog ie s a ndBa k ke n Sh ale, Ba n ne r Field , Nor t h new idea s a nd to see whet he r t heyDa kot a . Bot h of t hese tea m s a re a re appl icable or not. From t h iswork i ng on u nconvent ion al sh ale plays relat ion sh ip, a good d ialog ue bet weenby conduct i ng i nteg r at ed ge ophysical, spon sor s a nd st udent s is a n essent ialge olog ica l a nd ge omecha n ical st ud ie s c omp one nt of RCP.ut il i z i ng logs, cores, a nd t h i n sect ion sw it h a z i mut hal a n isot ropic a n alysis “I n P u r su it of New Idea s” is t he newf rom mu lt icomp one nt seism ic d at a . RCP t ag l i ne a nd i s r ef le c t e d i n ou rO u r He av y O i l Te a m i s t he t e a m new logo. RCP a spi r e s t o c re at e a nwor k i ng on he av y oi l ch a r a ct e r i z at ion e nv i r on me nt t h at w i l l s p aw n c re at iv it yi n L ong L a ke Field , A lb e r t a , a nd i m ag i n at ion. RCP w i ll cont i nueCa na d a . T h is tea m is work i ng on t o b e a worldw ide e nt it y t h at i st he ge ome ch a n ic a l ef fe c t s of st e a m recog n i z ed for c reat i ng value t h roug hi nje ct ion i n t he he av y oi l rese r voi r. i n novat ive resea rch a nd educat ion. T he t e ch nolog ie s t h at RCP h a s b e e nNove mb e r 10 t h a nd 11t h , 2011 we re developi ng for t he pa st 26 ye a r s a ret wo of t he bu sie st d ays for RCP. A l l cu r rently bei ng appl ie d i n va r iou sof t he RCP st udent s pa r t icipat ed pa r t s of t he world. A nd a s t he t agl i nei n a spon sor s me et i ng. T hey ma de s ays, RCP w i l l ke e p pu r su i ng new a ndp r e s e nt at ion s a nd p o st e r s t o show i n novat ive ide a s. RCP 15
  16. 16. Center for Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Studies GEM Beijing 2011: The SEG -CGS Workshop on Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Methods and Their Applications Xiong Li, Fugro Gravity & Magnetic Ser vices & Yaoguo Li, Colorado School of Mines G EM Beijing 2011, China implies a st rong com mon tech nologies and organized by SEG demand on nat ural methodologies. Sensors, and CGS (the Chinese resources. Rapid and acquisition tech niques, and Geophysical Societ y), was massive const r uction processing and inter pretation held in the newly opened in China also raises methods are com mon. By Inter national Conference geotech nical and br inging together this Center at China Universit y environ mental challenges collection of applications, of Geosciences (CUGB) in daily. Gravit y, elect r ical, geophysicists can enjoy Beijing on 10 –13 October elect romag netic, and and lear n f rom related 2011. The workshop was mag netic methods are applications of the same a great success than ks to effective tools for explor ing tech nolog y. cont r ibutions of the t wo nat ural resources (oil and CGS was the par t ner whenCGEM professional societies (Jian gas, minerals, geother mal SEG held its f irst conferences Guo of CGS in par ticular), energ y) as well as in China in the 1980s. SEG local host (Xiaohong Meng tackling geotech nical and now has an inter national in par ticular), authors, environ mental problems. off ice in China and the t wo par ticipants, sponsors, and Although these different societies were delighted to many volunteers. applications are diverse, work together again af ter Sustainable development in they are all based on (continued on page 46) 16
  17. 17. Learning of Life and Geophysics in Brazil Cericia Martinez and Jiajia SunSandy beaches, sprawling forests, and a veritable cornucopia of geophysics. These are just a fewof our favorite things...about Brazil! Whoever said ‘all work and no play’ was not familiar withthe duties of a geophysicist. For us, our work and play were one and the same on a trip to Rio deJaneiro and the nearby state of Minas Gerais. In August, we had the opportunity to attend and present at the 12th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society in Rio de Janeiro. While in the area, we visited the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, or Iron Quadrangle, which is an area of historic and significant mineral resources in Minas Gerais. During this two-pronged trip, we were able to sample the local culture and see some of the wondrous scenery and that served as a backdrop to our geophysical adventures. Drinking fresh coconut juice, watching the sunset from Sugar Loaf Mountain, and learning to samba were just a few of the perils we were obliged to enjoy. One of our fondest memories is Jiajia splashing against the tide in an attempt torecover his sandal from the Atlantic Ocean. While that was a rookie mistake of walking along thebeach with shoes on, it made for an excellent photographic sequence exhibiting how something canbe ‘just out of reach’. Needless to say, we both walked away with an appreciation of the deceptivecalm ebb-and-f low of Copacabana’s oceanfront. We also learned that Brazil is a hotspot for bothbreathtaking scenery and geophysics. In a weeklong conference, we were introduced to the manygeophysical applications our Southern friends are faced with. We took note of the numerousgeophysical applications and work being done to solve real world problems in Brazil. On acontinent where mineral abundance is the norm and oil reserves have proven substantial, the utilityof geophysics is in efficient characterization and production. The practical discussions we wereable to have with our new Brazilian friends sent ushome with multiple research areas to explore.After Rio, we visited Minas Gerais for a tour of themining region. Just as Colorado can be describedby blue skies, the region around Belo Horizonte inMinas Gerais can be summed up with two words:red soil. It seemed like you could look in anydirection and see evidence of iron formation simplyby observing the color of the ground. We gained anunderstanding of the need for airborne geophysics CGEMwhile exploring the densely forested region. Intraipsing around iron formation overrun withfoliage, an army of Brazilian bees gave us practicalexperience in the hazards of ground geophysics.Luckily, we walked away with only a few stings and did not encounter any slithering reptiles orother creatures that we were warned about. Altogether, we left Brazil with a deeper appreciationfor applied geophysics problems, for Brazil’s environmental beauty and dangers, and for theinterweaved ramifications of doing geophysics in such a beautifully treacherous environment. 17
  18. 18. T h e s e c o n d i n t e r n a t i o n al w o r k s h o p o n a t t he p or e s c a le level s. Howeve r, in d u ce d p ola r i zat ion wa s orga ni ze d t he r e is st i l l a gap i n ou r f u nd a me nt a l a t t h e C olor a d o S c h o ol o f Min e s b y u nde r st a nd i ng of i nduce d p ola r i z at ion An d r é Re v il f ro m Mo n d a y, O c t o b e r m e ch a n i s m s a nd a u n i f ie d t he or y i s s t i l l 31 to Nove mbe r 3, 2011. I nd uc e d m i ssi ng. Con se q ue nt ly, t he f u l l p ot e nt ial p ola r i z at ion is a non-i nt r u sive ge ophysical of t he i nduce d p ola r i z at ion met hod a s m e t ho d u se d t o i m a ge t he s u b s u r f a c e. a non-i nva sive subsu r fa ce i m ag i ng t o ol A lt hou g h h i st or ic al ly develop e d t o det e ct ha s not be e n ex ploit e d . O ne f u nd a me nt a l o r e b o d ie s , t he i nd u c e d p ol a r i z at io n proble m is t h at va r iou s p ola r i z at ion m e t ho d h a s m o r e r e c e nt ly e me rge d a s me ch a n ism s ex ist a nd m ay ove rlap i n t he a n excit i ng t e ch nolog y i n t he f ield of f r e q ue ncy r a nge of labor at or y a nd f ield hyd roge ophysics a nd bioge ophysics. me a s u r e me nt s. Si xt y- one re se a r che r s I n pa r t ic u la r, l it e r at u re ove r t he la st f rom 16 n at ion al it ie s reg i st e r e d for t h is de ca de h a s conclu sively de mon st r at e d work shop, wh ich compr i se d 27 or al t he u n iq ue p ot e nt ia l of t he i nduce d pre se nt at ion s a nd 19 p o st e r s orga n i ze d i n p ola r i z at ion met hod a s a ge ophysical fou r s e s sion s c ove r i ng t he or y, l a b o r at or y i m ag i ng t o ol for ch a r a c t e r i z i ng hyd r au l ic a nd f ield me a s u r e me nt s , t omog r aphy, a nd prop e r t ie s a nd mon it or i ng bioge o che m ic al d at a i nt e r p ret at ion. T he la st d ay i nclude d t r a n sfor m at ion s i n t he subsu r fa ce (e.g., f ield t e st i ng of a t i me - dom ai n i nduce d for t he re me d iat ion of cont a m i n at e d soi l s). p ola r i z at ion t o ol at M i ne s f ield by Ja me s T he se r e c e nt d e velop m e nt s h ave b e e n i n L o Co co of Mou nt Sopr is I n st r u me nt s. p a r t d r ive n by c on side r able i mp rove me nt s T h is work shop wa s m a de p o ssible t h a n k s i n t he se n sit iv it y of t he i n st r u me nt at ion , t o t he ge ne rou s sp on sor sh ip of Tom m a c roscopic model i ng a nd t omog r aphy L a Feh r, t he f u nd i ng prov ide d by DOE , t e ch n ique s a nd t he u nde r st a nd i ng of t he a nd t he orga n i z at ion al help prov ide d by m ic roscopic or ig i n of i nduce d p ola r i z at ion SPACE . And r é Re v i lHYDROGEOPHYSICS 18
  19. 19. G ia nt E a r t hqua ke s in Outer Mongolia q M Mongolia is a land of extremes. Its northern reaches contain icy tundra, including the northern r hemisphere’s most southerly permafrost, while in h the south, the fierce Gobi is Earth’s most northerly t desert. In between lies seemingly endless grassland d interspersed with windswept mountains and i pristine lakes. Mongolia’s population of less than p three million live in an area six times larger than t Colorado, making it the most sparsely populated C country in the world. Life for many of these people c has changed little from the time of Genghis Khan, h whose fearsome cavalry swept across Asia and w into Europe 800 years ago, though thankfully i Mongolians are a much friendlier bunch these M days. For earthquake geologists like me, Mongolia dis known for other s perlati es In the early part of the kno n superlatives. earl parTwentieth Century, it experienced a series of immenseearthquakes, including the largest ever measured onEarth’s continents. Continental earthquakes are ratherdifferent than those occurring in the oceans, beingspread over wide regions rather than along narrowplate boundaries. Again, Mongolia is an extreme case:its fault-lines, and the mountain ranges that grow alongthem, are caused by collision between India and Tibet,2000 miles to the south; Mongolia lies at the northernedge of what is the widest plate boundary zone in theworld. My research here has focused on mapping thefaults on which these powerful earthquakes occur,calculating how frequently these events occur, anddetermining how long the faults have been active.Fortunately, Mongolia’s cold, semi-arid climate andits low population density mean that the landscapepreserves clues about these questions. Much of theinformation can be obtained from the comfort ofan office, using the latest high-resolution satelliteimages, but targeted fieldwork is still essentialin order to collect rock samples for dating in thelaboratory. This is also fortunate, as Mongolia isone of the most fascinating places that you couldhope to visit.F r o m t o p: R u p t u r e s f r o m t h e h u ge B u l n a y e a r t h q u a k eo f 19 05 r e s e m b l i n g a g i a n t m o l e - t r a c k a c r o s s t h el a n d s c a p e; i n q u i s i t i v e l o c a l s; c a m p s i t e EDWIN NISSENDr. Edwin Nissen was recently hired by the Geophysics depart ment to teach and conduct research in the area of earthquake seismolog y. His expertise is in Interferomet ric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), neotectonics, I and geochronolog y. A g raduate of the Universit y of Oxford in 2008, he has held post- doctoral positions at the Universit y of Cambridge and, most recently, the Arizona State Universit y School of Earth and Space Exploration. He is using his expertise in imager y, geolog y and age dating to elucidate past movement on earthquake g faults. Dr. Nissen was hired as part of the depart ments recent f collaboration with the USGS to advance the study of geohazards. 19
  20. 20. Planetary Geophysics Lab News a nd Note s f r om t he Isherwood, an undergraduate research Pl a net a r y Ge ophysics L ab assistant who graduated It’s been a busy year for the Planetary from the Geophysics Geophysics Lab. Kelsey Zabrusky, who Department in began her thesis work in the Fall of 2009 December. Ryan’s after receiving her Bachelor’s degree in research focused on Olympus Mons, the tallest geology from CSM, successfully defended volcano on Mars. His aim was to investigate how the topography around Olympus Mons changed as the planet deformed in response to the load of the volcano, and compare that to measures of the “paleo-topography”. This is revealing new information about the history of this volcano and volcanism on Mars in general. He presented this work in a poster at the 2011 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference together with Lauren Jozwiak, a summer intern who worked with the group in 2010. For the rest of us in the group, life goes on as usual as we continue working on our own research. Brian Davis continues to explore the geophysical implications of sedimentary erosion at Valles Marineris, the largest canyon system in the solar system. His work regarding the f lexural response of the lithosphere due to this erosion her Master’s thesis in the Spring of 2011 and became the first student to graduate from the planetary geophysics lab. Her thesis focused on the controversial climate transition on Mars between the Noachian and Hesperian epochs when the climate shifted from warm and wet to cold and dry. Using a combination of spectroscopic and morphological analyses, Kelsey was able to better constrain the timing and length of this transition than had previously beenPLANETARY LAB determined. This research earned her the Dwornik award for the best student presentation at the 2011 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Kelsey Gravity anomalies over Valles Marineris on Mars will definitely be missed in the Planetary Geophysics Lab, but we wish her the best of earned him the first-place award at the CSM luck in her future endeavors as a geological Graduate Student Research Fair, and he is now consultant with Gustavson Associates. working to understand how this f lexure affects The group also said goodbye to Ryan the regional stresses in the lithosphere. 20
  21. 21. the hydrological and atmospheric properties of Titan to model the subsurface f low and formation of lakes. Ezgi Karasozen continues her research on understanding the formation mechanism of the South Tharsis Ridge Belt (STRB) on Mars. The STRB is among the oldest tectonic features associated with the huge volcanic province Tharsis. Therefore, it may provide key information on Tharsis’ early evolution and the ancient tectonic history of Mars. Previous studies interpreted these ridges as compressional features, but she has noted a striking resemblance between the South Tharsis Ridge Belt and the extensional Basin andLakes on Titan revealed by Cassini radar (Jaumannet al., 2009)New to the group is David Horvath who beganwork on modeling the subsurface hydrologicalsystem on Titan. Similar to Earth, Titan is oneof the few bodies in the Solar System wherebodies of liquid are observed on the surface.Methane, which is usually in the gaseousstate here on Earth, is in the form of a liquidon Titan and takes part in a hydrocarbon-based hydrological cycle. Meanwhile water onTitan is in the form of a solid due to the coldtemperatures, and acts as the “bedrock” and“soil”. Although the liquids in the hydrologicalcycles of Earth and Titan are very different,observations have shown that they result invery similar systems of rivers, streams, and Topography of the Orientale impact basin on the Moonlakes. Like the Earth, f low of liquids beneaththe surface is expected to play an important Range province of the southwestern Unitedpart in the hydrology of Titan. Dave is using States. She is evaluating both extensional and compressional hypotheses for the origin of the ridges using a variety of approaches. When the shape, size, spacing and symmetry of the ridges are considered, the Basin and Range PLANETARY LAB province is the best analogue for the South Tharsis Ridge Belt, supporting an extensional origin. She will continue to study the formation of this unique ridge belt and its implications for early Mars. Yaser Kattoum spends his time researching the internal structure ofThe topography of the south Tharsis ridge belt on Orientale - the best-preserved multi-ring impactMars, and the basin and range province on Earth basin on the Moon. (continued on page 47) 21
  22. 22.      The popular geodynamic conjectures that not have remained within that high-temperature whole-mantle circulation, including plumes residue or cumulate, and record progressive from deep mantle, drives tectonic plates, refertilization from the top throughout and that plate tectonics has operated since subsequent Earth history. The since-vanished early in Earth history, are extrapolated from mafic source for the voluminous tonalite 1960s geochemical speculations that Earth’s and allied low-potassium granitic rocks that fractionation is less than half finished: lower dominate preserved Archean crust, down to its mantle is still mostly “primitive”, upper mantle base against extremely depleted mantle, was the is slowly depleting, and continental crust is protocrust, incremental melting of which began growing. GP Distinguished Senior Scientist before 4.40 Ga. Densified residual protocrust Warren Hamilton is among the small minority delaminated, sank, bodily and metasomatically that reaches diametrically opposite conclusions enriched upper mantle, and increased access from geophysical, geologic, petrologic, of mantle heat to, and thereby recycling of, mineral-physics, geochemical, isotopic, and remaining protocrust and increasingly thick solar-system data. derivative overlying granitoids. Mafic and Main accretion was so rapid that Earth reached ultramafic Archean supracrustal rocks record most of its final size by about 4.48 Ga. Early- melts from both protocrust and re-enriched accretion mechanism, including possible major mantle after ~3.7 Ga, and existence of a heating by impacts and a Moon-forming mega- hydrosphere, as opposed to a hot and very dense impact, is poorly constrained, but heating supercritical atmosphere of H 2 O and CO 2 , is by short- and long-lived radioactive isotopes unproved before that time. Surviving Archean was probably alone adequate to account for cratons owe their stabilization and preservation accretion-concurrent differentiation into core, to loss of all subjacent protocrust, and hence strongly depleted mantle, and thick global the source of more tonalite, by 2.5 or 2.3 Ga, mafic protocrust. The extremely refractory but protocrust-based processes continued uniform magnesian olivine that dominates elsewhere, with diminishing intensity, through cratonic upper mantle dates from this era. early and middle Proterozoic time, when orogens Less-refractory components of the global were built mostly on pre-existing Archean upper-mantle sample—rocks bearing pyroxene granitic crust that, with voluminous clastic and garnet, and also water and CO 2 —could metasediments, was recycled into the potassic granites that typify those collapsing- geosyncline orogens. There is no structural, geologic, or petrologic FIGURE 1. A rc hean upper- c r ust al development, whic h rec ords response to long - c ontinued lower- c r ust al mobilit y unlike any thing in subsequent Ear th histor y, is illustrated by this magnetic map of the nor thwest par t of the Super ior Craton, Manitoba and O nt ar io, Canada, as integrated with other geophysic alDISTINGUISHED SCIENCE and geologic dat a. Tonalitic lower c r ust rose slowly into over lying volc anic and sediment ar y strat a as large diapir ic and remobilized batholiths, shown in least- modif ied for m as the ~ 5 0x10 0 km ovoids in the southeast quar ter of the map, bet ween which the denser suprac r ust als sank. Simult aneously, the lower c r ust per vasively nar rowed SSW- N N E and ex tended W NW, with a r ight- lateral c omponent, smear ing out the ver tic al - tec tonic features in the var iably dec oupled and more br it tle upper c r ust. The A rc hean c r ust of the c raton margin was thinned ex tensionally ear ly in Paleoproterozoic time, but c ontinues beneath, and shows through, the Trans - Hudson orogen. Shaded - relief map of the c r ust al (high -frequency) c omponent of tot al magnetic f ield, by G eologic al Sur vey of Canada. 22
  23. 23. FIGURE 2. Polymetamorphic sheath-folded Archean basement, exposed by deep erosion through central par t of Paleoproterozoic Limpopo Orogen, Limpopo River, South Africa. Zircon geochronology from this vicinity indicates cr ystallization of par tial melts, from still older Archean crust, ~3.3 Ga, fur ther plutonism and high- grade deformation ca. 2.6 Ga, deep burial by Proterozoic supracrustal rocks, and final plutonism and deformation ~2.0 Ga. Proterozoic supracrustals lap on to Archean cratons on both sides of the orogen, and other regions of Archean basement within the orogen are known. Photograph by Hamilton. Popular interpretations never theless assign both Limpopo and Trans- Hudson Proterozoic orogens to oceanic plate-tectonic processes. All plate boundaries migrate. That plate circulation is confined to upper mantle, above the profound seismic discontinuity and thermodynamic phase barrier about 650 km deep, is shown by well-constrainedevidence for either seaf loor spreading or subduction seismic tomography. Penetration of the “650"before about 1.0 Ga, when a transitional regime purportedly illustrated by some tomographybegan. Lithospheric oceans may have developed represents inappropriate modeling of non-where there had been minimal generation of constraining earthquake waves. Fluid-dynamicgranitoids from protocrust. Popular assumptions models purported to depict whole-mantleof earlier Proterozoic and Archean plate tectonics circulation combine irrelevant ideal Newtonianare based on misapplications of ratios of trace incompressible-liquid behavior with propertieselements in rocks strikingly unlike purported chosen, with disregard for mineral physics,modern plate-related analogues both individually because they enable desired pictorial results—and in their petrologic, stratigraphic, and structural and those results resemble nothing in actualassociations. Not until about 0.5 Ga was the upper plate kinematics. The possible extent of low-mantle sufficiently re-enriched in low-melting pressure syn-accretion depleting fractionationand volatile components to enable fully-modern of what is now the lower mantle is unclear, butplate tectonics. Subduction continues downward its sluggish circulation does not cross the “650".fertilization and recycling of upper mantle with low-melting and volatile materials, enabling mobility Warren’s latest published iteration of this four-and mantle magmatism despite planetary cooling dimensional contrarian model was in Lithos inas radioactivity wanes. Plate motions are self- 2011. Updates here have resulted in part fromorganizing, and are driven by subduction that rights discussions of planetary formation with Annethe density inversion produced by top-down cooling Hofmeister and Robert Criss.that forms oceanic lithosphere from asthenosphere.FIGURE 3. Seismic - tomographic depic tions of pur por tedslabs subduc ted below the 6 5 0 - km disc ontinuit y arear tifac ts of mis - assignment to the lower mantle of traveladvanc es gained by subduc tion -zone ear thquake waves thatexit obliquely downward through anisotropic high -veloc it yslabs in the upper mantle. Represent ative evidenc e for thisis provided by the 3 - D geometr y of rec orded ear ly- ar r iving DISTINGUISHED SCIENCESS raypaths, whic h at these teleseismic dist anc es traver sethe mid - lower mantle on eac h side of their Ear th - sur fac eref lec tion. Their time advanc es (blue lines) are not assignedproper ly to the sourc e regions bec ause of lack of rec ordedc rossf ire. O f ten - c ited depic tions of a slab deep beneath theGulf of M exic o and southeaster n United St ates, for example,represent mis - assignment of upper- mantle time advanc esgained in the A ndean slab. Map by Jeroen Ritsema. Reliabletomography shows slabs to be laid down on the “ 6 5 0 ".(Pur por ted tomographic depic tions of deep - mantle plumesrepresent ar bitrar y assignment to the lower mantle of relativeslowness of through - the - c ore waves that r ise steeply beneathsome islands and are unc onstrained by c rossf ire; the generalmethod has been disavowed by its inventor s, but its f lawedproduc ts are still widely c ited by plumologists. Reliabletomography shows “ hotspots” to be c onf ined to upper mantle.) 23
  24. 24. Colorado is Special Dave Hale, Professor My wife Laura and I moved to Colorado f rom Califor nia in 1988. It took us an entire year to stop com menting on ever y interesting cloud we saw in a sk y that seemed to us to *def ine* the color blue. Many years later, we are still discover ing what a special place is home to the Colorado School of Mines. Our son Kevin was bor n in Colorado. He grew up here. He rarely says any thing at all about the clouds. Its just the sk y. So when he graduated f rom high school last spr ing, and before he lef t for college, we decided to walk f rom Denver to Durango, a distance of about 485 miles on the Colorado Trail. We lef t Denver on July 3 and ar r ived in Durango on the mor ning of July 27. Along the way we lear ned that somewhere bet ween t wo and th ree miles per hour is t r uly the r ight pace to see and appreciate Colorado. We walked ever y day, although some days not far, as we were slowed dow n by large snowf ields that remained af ter an unusually cool May and June. As for any t r ip of this sor t, we hoped for enough challenges and lessons to make the exper ience memorable. We were not disappointed. We used a GPS locator about t wice per day so that Laura (mom) and Daw n Umpleby (thin k mom for *ever yone* in Geophysics) would k now where we were. W hen I ret ur ned to Mines, I found the map Daw n used to t rack our progress pin ned to my off ice door, with locations marked for ever y day we were on the t rail. Its still there, reminding me that I must take another long walk.COLORADO IS SPECIAL Th ree to four weeks is a long time to unplug f rom the rest of the world, to not check email, to not work, to rarely see anyone except other hikers. I encourage Mines st udents to take that time, to appreciate Colorado and the years they spend here in some special way. Books and research and careers can wait a few weeks. From top: Dave think ing about the clouds; We like snow in Colorado, but where is the trail?; W ho wants to walk back to Denver? ( We met someone who did.) 24
  25. 25. Date an Earth Scientist Colton Kohnke, GP Sophomore Based on “Date a Girl Who Reads” by Rosemarie Urquico in response to “You Should Date An Illiterate Girl” by Charles WarnkeDate an Earth Scientist. Date a girl who spends but to her that could be the blink of an eye. Andher money on gemstones not because they always change for the better.are pretty, but because she loves the intense Fail her. Because an Earth Scientist knows thatunderground processes which create them. the world works in cycles. Shell know that youDate a girl who has problems with closet space might just be going through a phase, that youbecause of all the rocks shes collected on her can again become the man she loved. That life istravels. Date a girl who has a list of geological meant to have a f lood or two. The geology willsites she wants to visit and tucks it in her be different when you two work it out, but it willhardhat. be more fertile in the f lood plain because of theFind her in the field. Youll be able to tell her f lood.apart because shell be scribbling furiously in If you find an Earth Scientist, keep her close.her field notebook and abusing rocks with her When she wakes up at 2 AM clutching herrock hammer. Youll see her licking the rocks laptop and crying about a shallow magnitude 8.8to test the difference between NaCl and KCl. earthquake in Seattle, make her a cup of tea andThats how you spot a geologist. They really comfort her. You might lose her to the volcanism,cant resist licking a good rock. seismicity, and magnetic fields of the universe,Shell be the one at the coffee shop constantly but she will always come back to you. Shell talkrefreshing the USGS earthquake website to see as if the systems have personality, because for theif any faults have ruptured while waiting for moment, they do.her order. If you overhear her order, it will have Youll propose to her in the middle of anmore caffeine than any human should consume earthquake. Or on top of an active volcano.in one sitting because she spent the last three Or during the launch of a new remote sensingnights modeling an interesting fault zone. Buy satellite. Or casually on a hike to the summither another cup. of Mount St. Helens , on the anniversary of itsTalk to her about William Gilbert and eruption.geomagnetism. Let her know what you think Together you two will have children with strangeof William Smiths accomplishments. Ask her names such as Inge Lehmann, Mary Anning,to explain Alfred Wegners ideas about plate and Li Shizhen. Theyll have a taste for rocks,tectonics. Let her describe Bowens reaction especially the mud-stones. Youll introduceseries and paint the picture of formation them to geomagnetic reversals, banded ironconditions of her favorite rocks. Let her tell you formations and plate tectonics, perhaps all in theof her dream to travel to Mars and experience same day. Youll both cry when they decide tofirst hand the processes of other planets. study Petroleum Engineering over GeophysicsIts easy to date an Earth Scientist. Give or Geological Engineering. Youll walk through DATE AN EARTH SCIENTISTher books on forensic geophysics, seaf loor your old age together, and shell quote Stenosspreading, magnetism and remote sensing. Buy stratigraphic principles, because to her they areher new waterproof field notebooks, compasses, more romantic than any poem or sonnet.rock hammers, magnets and magnifying lenses. Date an Earth Scientist because you deserve it.Shell keep the old ones because they have You deserve a girl that can take you around thecharacter, like the rocks, but shell appreciate world, under the surface of the Earth and to thethe gesture. farthest planets. If you only give her schist andLet her know that you understand the rocks. granite, then youre better off alone because thisThat they speak to her and tell her stories of girl deserves diamond. If you want the world andtransgression and regression, of extinction and the worlds beyond it, date an Earth Scientist.specialization. Always change like the rocks, http://www.delhi-university.co.in/blog/wp-content/they remain constant except over geologic time, uploads/2010/06/earth-science.gif 25
  26. 26. O ne of t he g re a t e s t t h i ng s a bo u t C o l o r a d o S c hoo l of Mi ne s i s t he p e o p l e . A l most eve r yone he re f it s t he re cip e of f u n , a dve nt u rou s, d a r i ng, wh i le m a i nt a i n i ng t he p e r fe c t spla sh of i n ne r ne rd! Ju st about eve r y we ek a g roup of u s go e s out t o do somet h i ng out- of-t he - ord i n a r y. For ex a mple, we have wat che d t he Mo scow Nut c r a cke r Ba l let i n De nve r, e njoye d dow nt ow n De nve r, we nt t o a conce r t , wat che d a sk i r a ce a nd sk ie d a bit ou r selve s, e njoye d a l ive - orche st r at e d re nd it ion of t he f i r st ( but si le nt) hor ror m ov ie , s wa m i n t he lo c a l Cr e ek i n l a t e O c t ob e r t o p r ove we c ou ld h a n d le t he c old , h i ke d up a snow y mou nt a i n at su n set t o e njoy t he st a r s, at t e mpt e d wat e r- p olo, at t e mpt e d t o b a l l r o o m d a n c e a nd t a ngo, e pic a l ly f a i le d a H a lo t ou r n a m e nt , g a z e d a t t he Pa r a d e of Lig ht s , l i s t e ne d t o a s p e e ch f ro m M a r t i n Lut he r K i ng’s s p e e chw r it e r / c o n f id a nt e, a nd so much , much more! T he cla s se s a r e i nt e re s t i ng a nd ch al le ng i ng, t he a r e a s e re n e a nd i nv it i ng, but it is t he p e ople t h at a r e he re t h at m a ke me happy t o cal l M i ne s home. E l i z a b e t h Pe t t i nge r, G P S o p h o m o r eSTUDENT LIFE 26
  27. 27. STUDENT LIFE 27