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Knowledge Management System & Technology

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Overview of knowledge management systems and applicable technologies.

Publié dans : Business
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Knowledge Management System & Technology

  1. 1. Knowledge Management System & Technology Dr. Elijah Ezendu FIMC, FCIM, FCCM, FIIAN, FBDI, FAAFM, FSSM, MIMIS, MIAP, MITD, ACIArb, ACIPM, PhD, DocM, MBA, CWM, CBDA, CMA, MPM, PME, CSOL, CCIP, CMC, CMgr
  2. 2. Is there any relationship between Information Technology and Knowledge Management?
  3. 3. Disciplines Contributing to Current Notions of KM Theoretical Foundation Key Knowledge Management Concepts Drawn from Foundation Applied Purpose in Knowledge Management Developed Knowledge Management Concepts Information Economics Intellectual Capital Rationale Knowledge Economy Strategic Information Systems Core Competencies Rationale Dumbsizing, Knowledge Alliances Organizational Culture Tacit and Articulated Knowledge Process Definition Knowledge Culture Organizational Structure Goal-Seeking Organizations Process Definition Knowledge Organizations Organizational Behaviour Creativity, Innovation, Organizational Learning, Organizational Memory Process Definition Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Codification Artificial Intelligence Knowledge-Base Systems Process Definition Knowledge Infrastructure Quality Management Risk Value Benchmarking Evaluation Qualitative Frameworks Source: Land, Amjad & Nolas, The Ethics of Knowledge Management, International Journal of Knowledge Management
  4. 4. Wisdom Data Information Knowledge Comprehend Correlation Comprehend Patterns Comprehend Principles
  5. 5. • Information Technology isn’t Knowledge Management • Various Technologies provide value-adding deliverables for boosting and entrenching Knowledge Management
  6. 6. Deployable Technologies for Knowledge Management  Information Technology  Communication Technology  Media Technology  Film & Video Technology  Cybernetics  Robotics
  7. 7. Differences Between Information & Knowledge Information Knowledge Processed data Actionable information Provides Facts Allows predictions, associations and predictive decisions Clear, crisp, structured and simplistic Muddy, fuzzy, partly unstructured Easily expressed in written form Intuitive, hard to communicate, and difficult to express in words and illustration Obtained by condensing, correcting, contextualizing, and calculating data Found in connections, conversations between people, experienced-based intuition, and people’s ability to compare situations, problems and solutions Devoid of owner dependencies Depends on the owner Source: Abdullah, Selamat, Sahibudin & Alias, A Framework For Knowledge Management System Implementation In Collaborative Environment For Higher Learning Institution, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice
  8. 8. IMS versus KMS Information Management System Conversion of Data to Information Knowledge Management System Conversion of Information to Knowledge
  9. 9. “Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) are technologies that support Knowledge Management (KM) in organizations, specifically - knowledge generation, codification, and transfer.” - Ruggles R, Tools for Knowledge Management
  10. 10. Characteristics of Good Knowledge Management System 1. A good KM system should empower your staff. It won’t exactly turn them into superheroes but it should allow them to extend their contribution and to work faster and smarter. 2. A good KM system should be focused on your core business objectives. 3. A good KM system is needs-driven, not technology-driven. 4. A good KM system should make your business more competitive, more efficient and more profitable. 5. A good KM system should allow you to better service your customers and to raise their satisfaction level. 6. A good KM system should raise the job satisfaction level of your staff. 7. Don’t go looking for a KM system until you have formulated and agreed on your KM needs. 8. A good KM system should connect to all sources of knowledge, including tacit knowledge. 9. A good KM system should be easy to navigate and search. 10. A good KM system should be flexible enough and configurable enough to adapt to your changing needs. 11. A good KM system produces timely, accurate, concise and precise information that you can utilize (process) to make high quality decisions. Source: Frank McKenna, A Knowledge Management System
  11. 11. Focusing on Tacit and Explicit Knowledge to Ascertain the Role of Technology Tacit Knowledge In the Mind Explicit Knowledge Outside the Mind Interpret Nourishes
  12. 12. The Tacit-Explicit Model Source: Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H., The Knowledge Creating Company
  13. 13. The Four Knowledge Conversion Modes To Tacit To Explicit From Tacit Socialization Externalization • Knowledge Maps • Knowledge Portals • Groupware • Workflow • Knowledge-Based Systems • Knowledge Portals From Explicit Internalization Combination • Innovation Support Tools • Intranet • Electronic Document Management • Business Intelligence • Competitive Intelligence • Knowledge Portals Adapted from Nonaka & Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company
  14. 14. Major Components of KMS
  15. 15. Categories of Knowledge Management Systems Category Dominating Knowledge Conversion Process Origin of Concepts Example Intranet Based Systems Combination Computer Networks (Web Technology) Microsoft Internet Information Server Electronic Document Management Combination Information Science Excalibur Retrieval Ware and File Net Groupware Externalization CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange Workflow Externalization Organisation and Methods ARIS Toolset (IDS Scheer) Knowledge Base Systems Externalization Artificial Intelligence Neugents (Computer Associates) Business Intelligence Combination Database Management Business Objects Knowledge Map Socialization Information Science and Human Resource Management Gingo (Trivium) and Lotus Discovery Server Innovation Support Tools Internalization Innovation and Technology Management Invention Machine Competitive Intelligence Tools Combination Strategic Management and Information Science Knowledge Works (Cipher Systems) and Vigipro (CRIQ/CGI) Knowledge Portals Socialization, Externalization and Combination Computer Networks and Information Science Digital Dashboard (Microsoft), Lotus k-station and Sopheon
  16. 16. Identification of required and applicable knowledge management activities in an organization facilitates effective mapping of prospective knowledge management processes, which then determine fitting knowledge management system.
  17. 17. Knowledge Management Processes & the Potential Role of IT Knowledge Management Processes Knowledge Creation Knowledge Storage/ Retrieval Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Application Supporting Information Technologies Data-mining, Learning tools Electronic bulletin boards, Knowledge repositories, Databases Electronic bulletin boards, Discussion forums, Knowledge directories Expert systems, Workflow systems IT Enables Combining new sources of knowledge, Just-in-time learning Support of individual and organizational memory, Inter- group knowledge access More extensive internal network, More communication channels available, Faster access to knowledge sources More rapid application of new knowledge through workflow automation Platform Technologies Groupware and communication technologies, Intranets Source: Alavi & Leidner, Knowledge management and knowledge management systems
  18. 18. Triggers of Knowledge Management System Change Change Strategy Growth Opportunity Threat Communities of Practice Past & Preferred Future Performance Tangible Organisation Individuals Identity Process Systems Autonomy & Consistency KMS as Focus KMS as Enabler Adaptability Implementation Dissonance Effective Organizational Alignment Technology Evolution Governance Source: Elijah Ezendu, Knowledge Management Strategy
  19. 19. IT Tools for KM Processes KM Processes Activities Sample Vendors Knowledge Creation Business intelligence, knowledge discovery, e-learning Business Objects, Skillsoft, Orbital, Knowledge Codification Content management system, document management, categorization, abstracting, taxonomy Interwoven, Autonomy Knowledge Retrieval Search, visualization Google, AskJeeves, Inktomi, Inxight Knowledge Application Workflow, collaboration, help desk eRoom, Intraspect, PeopleLink Knowledge Distribution Knowledge portal, agents Plumtree, AskMe Knowledge Validation Online expert communities, contribution valuation, assessment/rating/ranking/ scoring IBM Knowledge Tracking E-mail mining, corporate yellow pages Tacit Knowledge Personalization Expertise locators, communication, conferencing, collaboration AskMe Full-spectrum KM Complete KM suites Hummingbird, Open Text, Verity, IBM Source: Madanmohan Rao, Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques
  20. 20. Roles and Tools for Online Communities Knowledge Roles Activities Tools Knowledge Consumer Search, browse, access, apply, learn Portal, search engine, Workflow Knowledge Creator Publish, improve, classify, discuss Content management, authoring, taxonomy, online CoPs Knowledge Editor Interviewing experts, storytelling, content management Content management systems, taxonomy Knowledge Expert Validate, certify, legitimize Online CoPs, ranking/ rating tools, best practice repository Knowledge Broker Locate experts/knowledge, identify gaps, organize, filter, coordinate CoPs Enterprise portal, audit tools, online forums, organizational knowledge maps Knowledge Leader Shape KM agenda, align with business objectives Intellectual capital navigators, industry knowledge maps Source: Madanmohan Rao, Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques
  21. 21. Four Elements of Knowledge Management System • Use of Problem Finding Techniques • Build Knowledge Infrastructure • Network Systems • Use of Software for Collection of Data, Information, Knowledge as well as Sharing Processed Outcomes.
  22. 22. Problem Finding Techniques Basic Phases Search Identification Solution and Implementation Problem-Centered Approach Step 1. Generation—Probe for potential problems that might exist in the future using a brainstorming approach. Step 2. Evaluation—Review problems uncovered for managerial concern, backed up by a cost-benefit analysis. If appropriate, use creative computer software to generate new ways to evaluate future problems. Step 3. Validation—Select actual problems for managerial concern. If appropriate, relate to the company's critical success factors. Step 4. Establish Boundaries— Define each potential problem within its boundaries to cover the whole area encompassed by the problem. Use steps from the problem-solving process. Opportunity-Centered Approach Step 1. Exploration—Examine the environment for opportunities that come from problems uncovered using a brainstorming approach. If appropriate, use creative computer software to explore new ideas to exploit these opportunities. Step 2. Selection—Determine that one or more opportunities should be explored by management. If appropriate, relate to the company's critical success factors. Step 3. Examine Boundaries— Survey the environment for each opportunity and determine the proper boundaries. Use steps from the problem-solving process. Source: Robert Thierauf, Knowledge Management Systems for Business
  23. 23. Why KMS Implementation Failed in Some Organizations • Poor Development of KM Objectives • Strategic Paralysis • Unfit KMS Model • Inappropriate Project Management • Absence of Favourable KM Structure led by CKO • Poor harmonization of IT Tools with Culture, Structure, Workflow, Processes and Strategy • Poor Usability of KMS • Unfitting Change Management • IT-Centered KMS • Excessive IT Control • Low Competence of Workers in Use of Installed KMS • Excessive Technicality • Poor Integration of Key Components • Absence of Common IT Platform Organisation-Wide • Lack of Participation of Users at Planning Stage • Poor Performance of Components of KMS • Lack of Top Management Buy-In
  24. 24. Key Issues in Building KMS 1. Knowledge Management Strategy 2. Organizational Structure 3. Culture 4. Installed Technology Platforms 5. Talent Flexibility 6. Knowledge Evaluation 7. Knowledge Processing 8. Knowledge Implementation 9. Leadership Drive 10. Project Scope
  25. 25. Knowledge Management System Life Cycle Evaluate Existing Infrastructure Manage Change and Rewards Set-Up KM Team Knowledge Capture Design KM Blueprint Verify and Validate KM System Implement KM System Evaluate Performance and Alignment
  26. 26. KMS Project Feasibility
  27. 27. Mapping Corporate Objectives to KM Value Propositions Instrumental KM Objectives Total KM Value Propositions Corporate Objectives Contribution Ascertainment Reverse Engineering Corporate Level Functional Transition Level Functional Offerings Source: Elijah Ezendu, Knowledge Management Strategy
  28. 28. Total KM Value Propositions must achieve Strategic Fit on alignment with capabilities of Knowledge Management System Occurrence of a form of alignment blunder shall indicate failure, and must be remedied.
  29. 29. Dr Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise in Interim Management, Strategy, Competitive Intelligence, Transformation, Restructuring, Turnaround Management, Business Development, Marketing, Project & Cost Management, Leadership, HR, CSR, e- Business & Software Architecture. He had functioned as Founder, Initiative for Sustainable Business Equity; Director, Archtalento; Director, Speakers Africana; Chairman of Board, Motus Health Initiative; Chairman of Board, Charisma Broadcast Film Academy; Group Chief Operating Officer, Idova Group; CEO, Rubiini (UAE); Special Advisor, Road Transport Employers Association of Nigeria; Director, MMNA Investments; Chair, Int’l Board of GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training), Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Governing Council Member, Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Lead Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels; Turnaround Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited; Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Executive Director (Various Roles), Fortuna, Gambia & Malta; Chief Advisor/ Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman of Board, Refined Shipping; Director of Programmes & Governing Council Member, Institute of Business Development, Nigeria; Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of Strategic Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria; Country Manager (Nigeria) & Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Regent Business School, South Africa; Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology; Editor-in-Chief, Cost Management Journal; Member of National Executive Council, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business Administration and Fellow of Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is an Innovator of heralded frameworks: Among other things, Corporate Investment Structure Based on Financials and Intangibles, for all-inclusive valuation, highlighting intangible contributions of host communities and ecological environment. It’s a model celebrated internationally (including Social Innovation Side Event of 2016 United Nations Climate Change Conference COP22 in Marrakech, Morocco) as remedy for unmitigated depreciation of ecological capital and developmental deprivation of host communities. He had served as Examiner to various Professional Institutes and External Examiner to Universities. He had been a member of Guild of Soundtrack Producers of Nigeria. He's an author and extensively featured speaker.
  30. 30. Thank You