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quand le lien fait sens

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introduction au web sémantique et au web de données à Blend Web Mix 2013

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quand le lien fait sens

  1. 1. quand le lien fait sens web sémantique fabien, gandon, @fabien_gandon, http://fabien.info
  2. 2. identification (URI) & adressage (URL) http://www.inria.fr communication / protocole (HTTP) GET /centre/sophia HTTP/1.1 Host: www.inria.fr langage de représentation (HTML) Fabien travaille chez <a href="http://www.inria.fr">Inria</a> 3 composants de l’architecture du web
  3. 3. le web originel liens typés…
  4. 4. le web originel liens typés…
  5. 5. W3C®
  6. 6. W3C® UN WEB DE DONNÉES LIÉES
  7. 7. RDFest un modèle de triplets i.e. toute connaissance est décomposée en ( sujet , predicat , objet )
  8. 8. doc.html a pour auteur Fabien et a pour thème la Musique
  9. 9. doc.html a pour auteur Fabien doc.html a pour thème Musique
  10. 10. Fabien auteur doc.html thème Musique
  11. 11. URL URI identifier ce qui est sur le web identifier sur le web ce qui est
  12. 12. http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me http://inria.fr/schema#author http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html http://inria.fr/schema#theme Music
  13. 13. ouvrir et relier des données dans un graphe mondial
  14. 14. ( doc.html , author , Fabien ) ( doc.html , theme , "Music" )
  15. 15. http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me http://inria.fr/schema#author http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html http://inria.fr/schema#theme "Music"
  16. 16. RDF< /> a une syntaxe XML
  17. 17. <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22- rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:inria="http://inria.fr/schema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html"> <inria:author rdf:resource= "http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me"/> <inria:theme>Music</inria:theme> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
  18. 18. RDFa d’autres syntaxes (Turtle, JSON, Triple)
  19. 19. @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix inria: <http://inria.fr/schema#> . <http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html> inria:author <http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me> ; inria:theme "Music" .
  20. 20. rdf:about rdf:type ex:ingredients rdf:label dc:creator ex:weight
  21. 21. May 2007 April 2008 September 2008 March 2009 September 2010 Linking Open Data Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ September 2011 0 100 200 300 400 10/10/2006 4/28/2007 11/14/2007 6/1/2008 12/18/2008 7/6/2009 1/22/2010 8/10/2010 2/26/2011 9/14/2011 4/1/2012
  22. 22. contenus et thématiques Domaines Nombre de jeux de données Triplets % Liens sortants % Media 25 1 841 852 061 5,82 % 50 440 705 10,01 % Géographique 31 6145 532 484 19,43 % 35 812 328 7,11 % Gouvernement 49 13 315 009 400 42,09 % 19 343 519 3,84 % Publications 87 2 950 720 693 9,33 % 139 925 218 27,76 % Inter-domaine 41 4 184 635 715 13,23 % 63 183 065 12,54 % Sciences de la vie 41 3 036 336 004 9,60 % 191 844 090 38,06 % Contenu utilisateur 20 134 127 413 0,42 % 3 449 143 0,68 % 295 31 634 213 770 503 998 829 42% 20% 13% 10% 9% 6% 0% Gouvernement Géographique Inter-domaine Sciences de la vie Publications Media Contenu utilisateur
  23. 23. principes  utiliser des URI HTTP (URL) pour que l’on puisse les suivre  lorsqu’un URI est suivi donner des informations (HTML, RDF)  inclure dans ces informations des liens vers d’autres données HTTP URI GET HTML,RDF,… GET 303
  24. 24. interroger avec SPARQL SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language
  25. 25. examplepersons at least 18-year old PREFIX ex: <http://inria.fr/schema#> SELECT ?person ?name WHERE { ?person rdf:type ex:Person . ?person ex:name ?name . ?person ex:age ?age . FILTER (?age > 17) }
  26. 26. e.g. DBpedia
  27. 27. HTTP SPARQL
  28. 28. Linked Data Platformaccès à la REST aux ressources & conteneurs LD HTTP pour l’accès, la modification, la création et l’effacement de ressources d’un serveur linked data PUT http://data.inria.fr/people/fab HTTP/1.1 Host: data.inria.fr Content-Type: text/turtle <fab> a foaf:Person ; rdfs:label "Fabien" ; foaf:mbox <fabien.gandon@inria.fr> .
  29. 29. data.ratatouille.com
  30. 30. ne lisez pas le panneau suivant
  31. 31. Perdu!
  32. 32. les machines, non. nous identifions et interprétons l’information,
  33. 33. le sens des données et des opérations + =????? + =
  34. 34. web sémantique mentionné par Tim BL en 1994 à WWW [Tim Berners-Lee 1994, http://www.w3.org/Talks/WWW94Tim/]
  35. 35. W3C®
  36. 36. W3C® PUBLIER LA SÉMANTIQUE DES SCHÉMAS
  37. 37. RDFS pour définir les classes de ressources, leurs propriétés, et organiser leur hiérarchieDocument Rapport créateur auteur Document Personne
  38. 38. OWLin one… par énumération par intersection par union par complément  la disjonction par restriction! par cardinalité 1..1 prop. algébriques par équivalence [>18] union disjointe restrict. valeur prop. disjointes cardinalité qualifiée 1..1 ! négation prop. indiv prop. chainées   clefs …
  39. 39. ouvrez vos données à ceux qui pourraient les utiliser
  40. 40. watchdogs #wearedata
  41. 41. VoID: description de jeux de données
  42. 42. tri sélectif sémantique le web est une poubelle, le web sémantique sera une poubelle sémantique.
  43. 43. W3C® PROVENANCE
  44. 44. Provenance: PROV-DM & PROV-O décrire les entités et activités impliquées dans la création d’une ressource
  45. 45. beaucoup de données dans beaucoup de pages
  46. 46. R2RML a standard transformation of a relationnal database in RDF schema mapping
  47. 47. RDFa signifie RDF dans des attributs de HTML <div xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"> <h2 property="dc:title">The trouble with Bob</h2> <h3 property="dc:creator">Alice</h3> ... </div>
  48. 48. schema.org schemas to improve index, search and display e.g: • Creative works, Book, Movie, MusicRecording, Recipe, TVSeries ... • Embedded non-text objects, AudioObject, ImageObject, VideoObject • Event • Organization • Person • Place, LocalBusiness, Restaurant ... • Product, Offer, AggregateOffer • Review, AggregateRating = + + +
  49. 49. doggy-bag
  50. 50. web 1
  51. 51. web 1, 2
  52. 52. price convert? person homepage? more info? web 1, 2, 3
  53. 53. un et un seul web données personnes documents programmes un espace unique dans tous les sens du terme métadonnées
  54. 54. celui qui contrôle les métadonnées contrôle le web et à travers le world-wide web une part grandissante de notre monde. fabien, gandon, @fabien_gandon, http://fabien.info

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