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SURVEYING IN
REMOVABLE PARTIAL
DENTURES
Dr Farah Ahmed
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SURVEY
• To examine as to condition,value or situation , to
appraise.
• To determine the form ...
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SURVEYING
An analysis and comparison of the prominence
of intraoral contours associated with t...
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SURVEYOR
A surveyor is essentially a parallelometer, an
instrument used to determine the relat...
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A paralleling instrument used in the construction
of a dental prosthesis to locate and delinea...
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“Intelligent use of a dental surveyor is the best
way to prevent the occurrence of countless
p...
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The History and Development of the Dental
Surveyor (Robert L Engelmier)-JOP vol 11(march)
2002...
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Manual Surveying
• Visual survey
• Eyeballing
• Dr W M Randall’s
technique for
surveying.(1890)
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Early Paralleling instruments
THE CHAYES PARALLELOMETER (circa 1920)
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THE CHAYES PARALLELOMETER
SYSTEM
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Paralleling device used as a jig for the Grisworld Attachment System
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The First Dental Surveyor
• Dr Rudolph Hanau (1917)
• Dr A J Fortunati (1918)
• Dr Edward Ken...
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THE ROBINSON SURVEYOR (circa
1918)
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DENTAL SURVEYING APPARATUS – HANAU
(1917)
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The Basic Dental Surveyor
1. Level platform
2. Cast holder
3. Vertical arm
4. Horizontal arm
...
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Scientific Exhibits American Dental
Association (1948)
1. Ney (1923)
2. Brown Maier (1925)
3....
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7. Franzwa (1937)
8. Ringle-Hiatt-Smith (1944)
9. McKay (1944)
10. Hagman (1944)
11. Roach (1...
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A. Original Ney’s Surveyor (1923)
B. Current model of Ney’s Surveyor (1937)
C. Modified Ney’s...
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Will’s Surveyor 1937 Recent Design Of The Will’ Surveyor
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The Roach Surveyor (1944)
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RECENT INNOVATIONS
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Austenal 42 inch blockout
surveyor
Austenal Micro Analyser
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PARTS OF A SURVEYOR
British dental journal, volume 189, no. 10, november 25 ,2000
1. Level pl...
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Accessories/surveying tools
1.Analyzing rod
2.Carbon(graphite) marker
3.Undercut gauges
4. Wa...
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Analysing Rod
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Identifies undercut areas and to determine the
parallelism of surfaces without marking the ca...
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Graphite Marker
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• moved around the tooth and along the alveolar
ridge
• the tip of the marker should be level...
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False Survey Line
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Undercut Gauges
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the shank and head should contact the cast
simultaneously.
• more sophisticated, types of und...
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Wax Knife
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• To blockout
undesirable undercuts
• To prepare guiding
planes
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1. Survey line
2. Undercut
3. Guiding planes
4. Path of insertion
5. Path of displacement
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SURVEY LINE
Survey line is a line drawn on a tooth/teeth of a
cast by means of a surveyor for...
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TYPES OF SURVEY LINES
• Blatterfein classified survey lines as:
1. High survey Line
2. Medium...
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•Found near the occlusal
surface of a tooth often
parallel to the gingival
margin
• It result...
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•It is situated across
the center of the tooth
• Exhibits a slight
occlusogingival incline
fr...
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•It is situated close to and
parallel to the gingival
margin.
• It frequently occurs as a
res...
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It travels diagonally
from near the occlusal
surface in the near
zone to the gingiva in
the f...
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Class I:
•Survey line runs diagonally
across the tooth surface.
•The type of clasp indicated
...
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Class II: Survey line also runs
diagonally across the tooth
surface but as a mirror
image of ...
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Class III:
Survey line is parallel to
the occlusal surface and
lies just below it
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Undercut
the portion of the surface of an object that is below
the height of contour in relat...
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Types Of Undercuts
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Tooth Undercuts (Proximal
undercuts)
Soft Tissues or bony
Undercuts(on ...
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• 0.25 mm - 0.01” chrome cobalt
• 0.5 mm – 0.02” cast gold
• 0.75 mm – 0.03” stainless steel
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Guiding Planes
vertically parallel surfaces on abutment teeth
or/and dental implant abutments...
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Two or more parallel axial surfaces on abutment teeth which can
be used to limit the path of ...
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PATH OF INSERTION
Surveying removable partial dentures:the importance of guiding planes
and p...
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The RPD path of insertion and withdrawal is the
direction in which the prosthesis moves in
re...
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A single path of insertion
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Multiple Paths of Insertion
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Two paths of insertion Rotational path of insertion
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Potential Path of Dislodgement
Regardless of the path of insertion the path of
dislodgement r...
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USES OF A SURVEYOR
1. Surveying the diagnostic cast
2. Tripoding the cast
3. Transferring tri...
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5. Contouring cast restorations
6. Placing internal attachments and rests
7. Surveying the ma...
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Process Of Surveying
1. Preliminary visual assessment of the study
cast.
2. Initial survey.
3...
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Visual assesment:
• Eyeballing
• Form and arrangement of teeth
• Potential problem areas
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Anterior tilt (‘heels up’) Posterior tilt (‘heels down’).
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Left and Right Tilts
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Initial survey
• Cast positioned with
the occlusal plane
horizontal.
• The position of the
su...
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Analysis
• Occlusal plane horizontal
• Consider:
1. Appearance.
2. Interference.
3. Retention
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Appearance:
• Undercuts on the
mesial aspects of the
abutment teeth.
• Unsightly gap
between ...
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posterior tilt so that the analysing
rod is parallel with the mesiolabial
surfaces of abutmen...
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Interferences:
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Interferences in the maxillary arch
Maxillary tori
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Exostoses and undercuts on maxillary buccal surfaces
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Interferences in the mandibular arch
Mandibular tori
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Lingually tilted premolars
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Undercuts adjacent to pear
shaped pads
Bony prominences on facial surface
of mand canines
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Retention:
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Final Survey
• The aims for optimum
retention should be to
provide:
• Resistance along the
pa...
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•guide surfaces are used to provide resistance to displacement
•retentive portion of the clas...
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Gingivally approaching clasp
positioned at the cross-over point
of the survey lines.
•survey ...
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Tripoding the cast
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Alternate method of tripoding
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Other Methods of Tripoding
• Pin cemented in the centre of the cast
• Use of protractor fixed...
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Transferring tripod marks to
another cast
• 3 anatomical points
marked on diagnostic
cast
• S...
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Contouring the wax patterns
• With cast on
surveying table , tilt
adjusted to original
tilt.
...
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Contouring Crowns & cast
restorations
• Shape of wax pattern altered during
casting & finishi...
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Placing internal attachments/rests
• Intracoronal retainers.
• Surveyor acts as a drill press
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OBJECTIVES OF SURVEYING
1. Path Of insertion
2. Guiding planes
3. Height of contour
4. Dental...
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6. Cast position and relation to path of insertion
7. Transfer of design to master cast
8. Bl...
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Maintenance of Surveyor
• Wipe the base of surveying table and surveying
platform with alcoho...
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SUMMARY
Surveying is undertaken to obtain information
that will help us decide:
(1) The optim...
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• the need to avoid interference by the teeth or
ridges with correct positioning of denture
c...
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MICROSURVEYOR
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1. O. L. Bezzon, M. G. C. Mattos, R. F. Ribero,
Surveying removable partial dentures: the imp...
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4. Robert L. Engelmeier
The History and Development of the Dental Surveyor: Part II
Journal o...
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Surveyor and technique of Surveying in Removable partial denture

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Surveying and surveyor in RPD

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Surveyor and technique of Surveying in Removable partial denture

  1. 1. Free Powerpoint Templates 1 SURVEYING IN REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES Dr Farah Ahmed
  2. 2. Free Powerpoint Templates 2 SURVEY • To examine as to condition,value or situation , to appraise. • To determine the form and position of a given entity by taking linear and angular measurements
  3. 3. Free Powerpoint Templates 3 SURVEYING An analysis and comparison of the prominence of intraoral contours associated with the fabrication of a dental prosthesis.
  4. 4. Free Powerpoint Templates 4 SURVEYOR A surveyor is essentially a parallelometer, an instrument used to determine the relative parallelism of surfaces of teeth or other areas on a cast of the jaws. (Stewart)
  5. 5. Free Powerpoint Templates 5 A paralleling instrument used in the construction of a dental prosthesis to locate and delineate the contours and relative positions of abutment teeth and associated structures. -(GPT-8)
  6. 6. Free Powerpoint Templates 6 “Intelligent use of a dental surveyor is the best way to prevent the occurrence of countless problems frequently related to oral rehabilitation with RPDs” -Dr O C Applegate
  7. 7. Free Powerpoint Templates 7 The History and Development of the Dental Surveyor (Robert L Engelmier)-JOP vol 11(march) 2002 “Reduced to its simplest terms , surveying a tooth is a mechanical method of obtaining its height of contour accurately. If a vertical plane is brought into contact with a curved surface it will touch at the greatest bulge on the convexity and nowhere else.” –Dr A H Schmidt (1953)
  8. 8. Free Powerpoint Templates 8 Manual Surveying • Visual survey • Eyeballing • Dr W M Randall’s technique for surveying.(1890)
  9. 9. Free Powerpoint Templates 9 Early Paralleling instruments THE CHAYES PARALLELOMETER (circa 1920)
  10. 10. Free Powerpoint Templates 10 THE CHAYES PARALLELOMETER SYSTEM
  11. 11. Free Powerpoint Templates 11 Paralleling device used as a jig for the Grisworld Attachment System
  12. 12. Free Powerpoint Templates 12 The First Dental Surveyor • Dr Rudolph Hanau (1917) • Dr A J Fortunati (1918) • Dr Edward Kennedy • The Philadelphia Dental Clinic club • Noble G Wills • Weinstein and Roth(1923)
  13. 13. Free Powerpoint Templates 13 THE ROBINSON SURVEYOR (circa 1918)
  14. 14. Free Powerpoint Templates 14 DENTAL SURVEYING APPARATUS – HANAU (1917)
  15. 15. Free Powerpoint Templates 15 The Basic Dental Surveyor 1. Level platform 2. Cast holder 3. Vertical arm 4. Horizontal arm 5. Surveying arm 6. Interchangeable Surveying tools
  16. 16. Free Powerpoint Templates 16 Scientific Exhibits American Dental Association (1948) 1. Ney (1923) 2. Brown Maier (1925) 3. Wills (1929) 4. Lentz –Circa (1935) 5. Lineer (1937) 6. Ney (1937)
  17. 17. Free Powerpoint Templates 17 7. Franzwa (1937) 8. Ringle-Hiatt-Smith (1944) 9. McKay (1944) 10. Hagman (1944) 11. Roach (1944)
  18. 18. Free Powerpoint Templates 18 A. Original Ney’s Surveyor (1923) B. Current model of Ney’s Surveyor (1937) C. Modified Ney’s Surveyor (mid 1960s)
  19. 19. Free Powerpoint Templates 19 Will’s Surveyor 1937 Recent Design Of The Will’ Surveyor
  20. 20. Free Powerpoint Templates 20 The Roach Surveyor (1944)
  21. 21. Free Powerpoint Templates 21 RECENT INNOVATIONS
  22. 22. Free Powerpoint Templates 22 Austenal 42 inch blockout surveyor Austenal Micro Analyser
  23. 23. Free Powerpoint Templates 23 PARTS OF A SURVEYOR British dental journal, volume 189, no. 10, november 25 ,2000 1. Level platform 2. Vertical arm 3. Horizontal arm 4. Surveying arm 5. Cast holder 6. Accessory tools
  24. 24. Free Powerpoint Templates 24 Accessories/surveying tools 1.Analyzing rod 2.Carbon(graphite) marker 3.Undercut gauges 4. Wax knife 5.Milling devices (with handpiece holder)
  25. 25. Free Powerpoint Templates 25 Analysing Rod
  26. 26. Free Powerpoint Templates 26 Identifies undercut areas and to determine the parallelism of surfaces without marking the cast.
  27. 27. Free Powerpoint Templates 27 Graphite Marker
  28. 28. Free Powerpoint Templates 28 • moved around the tooth and along the alveolar ridge • the tip of the marker should be level with the gingival margin.
  29. 29. Free Powerpoint Templates 29 False Survey Line
  30. 30. Free Powerpoint Templates 30 Undercut Gauges
  31. 31. Free Powerpoint Templates 31 the shank and head should contact the cast simultaneously. • more sophisticated, types of undercut gauge are available such as dial gauges and electronic gauges.
  32. 32. Free Powerpoint Templates 32 Wax Knife
  33. 33. Free Powerpoint Templates 33 • To blockout undesirable undercuts • To prepare guiding planes
  34. 34. Free Powerpoint Templates 34
  35. 35. Free Powerpoint Templates 35 1. Survey line 2. Undercut 3. Guiding planes 4. Path of insertion 5. Path of displacement
  36. 36. Free Powerpoint Templates 36 SURVEY LINE Survey line is a line drawn on a tooth/teeth of a cast by means of a surveyor for the purpose of determining the various parts a clasp/clasps. -GPT 8
  37. 37. Free Powerpoint Templates 37 TYPES OF SURVEY LINES • Blatterfein classified survey lines as: 1. High survey Line 2. Medium Survey Line 3. Low Survey line 4. Diagonal Survey Line
  38. 38. Free Powerpoint Templates 38 •Found near the occlusal surface of a tooth often parallel to the gingival margin • It results from abnormal inclination of the teeth • lingual surfaces of the lower teeth and buccal surfaces of the upper teeth. •Wrought wire clasp used High Survey Line 38
  39. 39. Free Powerpoint Templates 39 •It is situated across the center of the tooth • Exhibits a slight occlusogingival incline from the near zone to the far zone. •Aker’s or Roach clasp Medium Survey Line 39
  40. 40. Free Powerpoint Templates 40 •It is situated close to and parallel to the gingival margin. • It frequently occurs as a result of marked inclination of the tooth and may also occur on conically shaped tooth. •Modified T clasp Low Survey Line 40
  41. 41. Free Powerpoint Templates 41 It travels diagonally from near the occlusal surface in the near zone to the gingiva in the far zone. Diagonal Survey Line 41 Reverse circlet clasp
  42. 42. Free Powerpoint Templates 42 Class I: •Survey line runs diagonally across the tooth surface. •The type of clasp indicated is occlusally approaching cast clasp with terminal third engaging the undercut. Ney’s Classification 42
  43. 43. Free Powerpoint Templates 43 Class II: Survey line also runs diagonally across the tooth surface but as a mirror image of Class I line. Here a gingivally approaching clasp arm is suggested. 43 .
  44. 44. Free Powerpoint Templates 44 Class III: Survey line is parallel to the occlusal surface and lies just below it
  45. 45. Free Powerpoint Templates 45 Undercut the portion of the surface of an object that is below the height of contour in relationship to the path of placement -(GPT 8)
  46. 46. Free Powerpoint Templates 46 Types Of Undercuts 46 Tooth Undercuts (Proximal undercuts) Soft Tissues or bony Undercuts(on lingual side of ridge)
  47. 47. Free Powerpoint Templates 47 • 0.25 mm - 0.01” chrome cobalt • 0.5 mm – 0.02” cast gold • 0.75 mm – 0.03” stainless steel
  48. 48. Free Powerpoint Templates 48 Guiding Planes vertically parallel surfaces on abutment teeth or/and dental implant abutments oriented so as to contribute to the direction of the path of placement and removal of a removable dental prosthesis.
  49. 49. Free Powerpoint Templates 49 Two or more parallel axial surfaces on abutment teeth which can be used to limit the path of insertion and improve the stability of a removable prosthesis. Guide surfaces may occur naturally on teeth but more commonly need to be prepared.
  50. 50. Free Powerpoint Templates 50 PATH OF INSERTION Surveying removable partial dentures:the importance of guiding planes and path of insertion and stability –O L Bezzon et al (JPD October 1997 vol 78 no.4 ) the specific direction in which a prosthesis is placed on the abutment teeth or dental implant(s) • path of withdrawal (reverse of path of insertion) • path of placement
  51. 51. Free Powerpoint Templates 51 The RPD path of insertion and withdrawal is the direction in which the prosthesis moves in relation to the support system when it is seated in or removed from the mouth, guided by the contact of its rigid parts with the abutments. (GPT-8)
  52. 52. Free Powerpoint Templates 5252 A single path of insertion
  53. 53. Free Powerpoint Templates 53 Multiple Paths of Insertion
  54. 54. Free Powerpoint Templates 54 Two paths of insertion Rotational path of insertion
  55. 55. Free Powerpoint Templates 55 Potential Path of Dislodgement Regardless of the path of insertion the path of dislodgement results from masticatory function that pulls the prosthesis in a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane.
  56. 56. Free Powerpoint Templates 56 USES OF A SURVEYOR 1. Surveying the diagnostic cast 2. Tripoding the cast 3. Transferring tripod marks to another cast 4. Contouring wax patterns
  57. 57. Free Powerpoint Templates 57 5. Contouring cast restorations 6. Placing internal attachments and rests 7. Surveying the master cast
  58. 58. Free Powerpoint Templates 58 Process Of Surveying 1. Preliminary visual assessment of the study cast. 2. Initial survey. 3. Analysis. 4. Final survey
  59. 59. Free Powerpoint Templates 59 Visual assesment: • Eyeballing • Form and arrangement of teeth • Potential problem areas
  60. 60. Free Powerpoint Templates 60 Anterior tilt (‘heels up’) Posterior tilt (‘heels down’).
  61. 61. Free Powerpoint Templates 61 Left and Right Tilts
  62. 62. Free Powerpoint Templates 62 Initial survey • Cast positioned with the occlusal plane horizontal. • The position of the survey lines. • ‘Triangle of light’ between the marker and the cervical part of the tooth. • Undercut gauges
  63. 63. Free Powerpoint Templates 63 Analysis • Occlusal plane horizontal • Consider: 1. Appearance. 2. Interference. 3. Retention
  64. 64. Free Powerpoint Templates 64 Appearance: • Undercuts on the mesial aspects of the abutment teeth. • Unsightly gap between the denture saddle and the abutment teeth gingival to the contact point.
  65. 65. Free Powerpoint Templates 65 posterior tilt so that the analysing rod is parallel with the mesiolabial surfaces of abutment teeth. contact of abutment tooth over the whole of the mesiolabial surface and a much better appearance results.
  66. 66. Free Powerpoint Templates 66 Interferences:
  67. 67. Free Powerpoint Templates 67 Interferences in the maxillary arch Maxillary tori
  68. 68. Free Powerpoint Templates 68 Exostoses and undercuts on maxillary buccal surfaces
  69. 69. Free Powerpoint Templates 69 Interferences in the mandibular arch Mandibular tori
  70. 70. Free Powerpoint Templates 70 Lingually tilted premolars
  71. 71. Free Powerpoint Templates 71 Undercuts adjacent to pear shaped pads Bony prominences on facial surface of mand canines
  72. 72. Free Powerpoint Templates 72 Retention:
  73. 73. Free Powerpoint Templates 73 Final Survey • The aims for optimum retention should be to provide: • Resistance along the path of displacement. • Resistance along the path of withdrawal
  74. 74. Free Powerpoint Templates 74 •guide surfaces are used to provide resistance to displacement •retentive portion of the clasp needs only to resist movement along the path of withdrawal • positioned solely with reference to the red survey line.
  75. 75. Free Powerpoint Templates 75 Gingivally approaching clasp positioned at the cross-over point of the survey lines. •survey lines converge mesially or distally •the tip of an occlusally approaching clasp can engage the common area of undercut.
  76. 76. Free Powerpoint Templates 76 Tripoding the cast
  77. 77. Free Powerpoint Templates 77 Alternate method of tripoding
  78. 78. Free Powerpoint Templates 78 Other Methods of Tripoding • Pin cemented in the centre of the cast • Use of protractor fixed on surveyor • Use of dental bur in place of pin • Use of position recorder device on a surveyor • Use of plastic plate and impression of cusp tip • Device with adjustable arms • Use of plastic tray and impression • Smooth or threaded pin with sleeve • Use of inclinometer • Key and keyway system • Tripoder attachment
  79. 79. Free Powerpoint Templates 79 Transferring tripod marks to another cast • 3 anatomical points marked on diagnostic cast • Same points marked on 2nd cast with analysing rod
  80. 80. Free Powerpoint Templates 80 Contouring the wax patterns • With cast on surveying table , tilt adjusted to original tilt. • Guiding planes • Height of contour
  81. 81. Free Powerpoint Templates 81 Contouring Crowns & cast restorations • Shape of wax pattern altered during casting & finishing. • Working cast with restorations placed at original tilt • Cylinder stone. • Guide planes refined.
  82. 82. Free Powerpoint Templates 82 Placing internal attachments/rests • Intracoronal retainers. • Surveyor acts as a drill press
  83. 83. Free Powerpoint Templates 83 OBJECTIVES OF SURVEYING 1. Path Of insertion 2. Guiding planes 3. Height of contour 4. Dental and osseous contours 5. Soft tissue contours
  84. 84. Free Powerpoint Templates 84 6. Cast position and relation to path of insertion 7. Transfer of design to master cast 8. Blockout 9. Develop axial contours 10. Machine guiding planes 11. Intracoronal retainers
  85. 85. Free Powerpoint Templates 85 Maintenance of Surveyor • Wipe the base of surveying table and surveying platform with alcohol or acetone soaked gauge pad. • Acrylic resin powder can be sprayed for smooth gliding. • Machine oil should be applied to vertical arm before and after use, each time.
  86. 86. Free Powerpoint Templates 86 SUMMARY Surveying is undertaken to obtain information that will help us decide: (1) The optimum path of insertion of the denture which in turn is influenced by: • the need to use guiding surfaces to achieve a pleasing appearance.
  87. 87. Free Powerpoint Templates 87 • the need to avoid interference by the teeth or ridges with correct positioning of denture components. • the need to use guide surfaces for retention. (2) The design, material and position of clasps.
  88. 88. Free Powerpoint Templates 88
  89. 89. Free Powerpoint Templates 89 MICROSURVEYOR
  90. 90. Free Powerpoint Templates 90
  91. 91. Free Powerpoint Templates 91
  92. 92. Free Powerpoint Templates 92 1. O. L. Bezzon, M. G. C. Mattos, R. F. Ribero, Surveying removable partial dentures: the importance of guiding planes and path of insertion for stability. J Prosthet Dent 1997;78:412-18. 2. J. C. Davenport, R. M. Basker, J. R. Heath, J. P. Ralph, and P-O. Glantz Surveying. British Dental Journal 2000, vol.189(10):532-42 3. Robert L. Engelmeier The History and Development of the Dental Surveyor: Part I Journal of Prosthodontics, Vol 11 No 1, 2002: pp 11-18.
  93. 93. Free Powerpoint Templates 93 4. Robert L. Engelmeier The History and Development of the Dental Surveyor: Part II Journal of Prosthodontics,VOL11,No 2, 2002: pp122-30. 5. Robert L. Engelmeier The History and Development of the Dental Surveyor: Part III Journal of Prosthodontics,VOL13,No 3,2004: pp 195-202. 6. Stewart’s Clinical Removable Partial Prosthodontics,3rd Edition, Survey and design 7. McCracken’s Removable Partial Prosthodontics,11th Ed
  94. 94. Free Powerpoint Templates 94

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