Albert Einstein gave great insight with his quote, “The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.”
a German-American psychologist, known as the founder of social psychology, developed one of the first models of change which is characterized as a three-stage process. Lewin called the first stage "unfreezing" (Foschi 2006). This stage involved overcoming apathy and disassembling the existing "mind set". Employee security systems must be evaded. During the second stage is when the change occurs. During this period there is generally a time of bewilderment and evolution (Foschi 2006). During this period the early customs are being challenged but there is not a clear understanding of what they will be replacing with up till now. Lewin’s final stage was considered as "freezing". The pristine mindset is developing and the resister’s comfort level is restored to the prior echelon (Foschi 2006).
Hammer 1996). Hitt, Black, and Porter (2005). ) identify six factors that contribute to resistance or employees not being receptive to a need for change in the organization. The first factor is inertia due to apathy because they are comfortable with the present systems. They have no incentive to change or consider it a big threat not to change. The second factor is mistrust for the people facilitating change, which is an obstruction to the “unfreezing” process. The third factor is lack of information due to inadequate communication about the need for change as well as what the effects of the change will be like. This factor will be a very powerful force. The fourth factor is lack of clarity because the employees don’t have a clear understanding of the organizational goal with the change. The fifth factor is lack of capabilities which is due to employees doubting their ability to contribute to the needed change. They may resist the change even if they agree that the change is actually needed because they don’t feel they will have a contribution. The sixth and final factor is lack of sufficient incentive because the employee perception is that there will be more negative consequences than positive with the impending change. (Hitt, Black, & Porter 2005).
AJ Shuler is a well known OD consultant who works with The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, Sony Development, Nomura Securities, the Executive Office for Immigration Review, The National Institutes of Health, Crowne Plaza Hotels, Sun International Resorts, The Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Harman Management, Pepperidge Farm, Godiva Chocolate, and Bovis Construction.