Communications & Marketing

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14 Jul 2020

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Communications & Marketing

  1. Communication the act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc., to someone else 3 parts to Communication: • Sender • Message • Recipient The sender ‘encodes’ the message - usually in a mixture of words and non-verbal communication. It is transmitted in some way (e.g. - by speech or writing), and the recipient ‘decodes’ it. Recipients can be one / more thus the complexity of communication means that each one may receive a slightly different message e.g., 2 people may read very different meanings into the choice of words and/or body language. It is also possible that neither of them will have quite the same understanding as the sender. In face-to-face communication, the roles of the sender and recipient are not distinct. The two roles will alternate back and forth between two people talking. Both parties communicate with each other, even if in very subtle ways such as through eye-contact (or lack of) and general body language. In written communication, however, the sender and recipient are more distinct.
  2. The Skilled Communicator Communication Skills: Definitions and Examples Communication skills allow you to understand and be understood by others. These can include but are not limited to effectively communicating ideas to others, actively listening in conversations, giving and receiving critical feedback and public speaking. What are communication skills? Communication skills are abilities you use when giving and receiving different kinds of information. E.g., include communicating ideas, feelings or what’s happening around you. Communication skills involve listening, speaking, observing and empathizing. It is also helpful to understand the differences in how to communicate through face-to-face interactions, phone conversations and digital communications, like email and social media.
  3. The Skilled Communicator: e.g. Communication skills There are different types of communication skills you can learn and practice to help you become an effective communicator. Many of these skills work together, making it important to practice communication skills in different contexts whenever possible. Active listening Active listening means paying close attention to the person who is speaking to you. People who are active listeners are well-regarded by their coworkers because of the attention and respect they offer others. While it seems simple, this is a skill that can be hard to develop and improve. You can be an active listener by focusing on the speaker, avoiding distractions like cell phones, laptops or other projects, and by preparing questions, comments or ideas to thoughtfully respond. Adapting your communication style to your audience Different styles of communication are appropriate in different situations. To make the best use of your communication skills, it’s important to consider your audience and the most effective format to communicate with them in. For example, if you are communicating with a potential employer, it’s better to send a formal email or call them on the phone. Depending on the situation, you may even need to send a formal, typed letter over other forms of communication. In the workplace, you may find it’s easier to communicate complex information in person or via a video conference than in a long, dense email.
  4. Friendliness In friendships, characteristics such as honesty and kindness often foster trust and understanding. Same characteristics are important in workplace relationships. Whilst working with others, approach your interactions with a positive attitude, keep an open mind and ask questions to help you understand where they’re coming from. Small gestures such as asking someone how they’re doing, smiling as they speak or offering praise for work well done help foster productive relationships with both colleagues and managers. Confidence In the workplace, people are more likely to respond to ideas that are presented with confidence. There are many ways to appear confident, including by making eye contact when you’re addressing someone, sitting up straight with your shoulders open and preparing ahead of time so your thoughts are polished. You’ll find confident communication comes in handy not just on the job but during the job interview process as well. Giving and receiving feedback Strong communicators are able to accept critical feedback and provide constructive input to others. Feedback should answer questions, provide solutions or help strengthen the project or topic at hand. The Skilled Communicator: e.g. Communication skills
  5. Volume and clarity When you’re speaking, it’s important to be clear and audible. Adjusting your speaking voice so you can be heard in a variety of settings is a skill, and it’s critical to communicating effectively. Speaking too loudly may by disrespectful or awkward in certain settings. Empathy Having empathy means that you can understand and share the emotions of others. This communication skill is important in both team and one-on-one settings. In both cases, you will need to understand other people’s emotions and select an appropriate response. E.g., if someone is expressing anger or frustration, empathy can help you acknowledge and diffuse their emotion. At the same time, look to understand, be positive and enthusiastic. Respect A key aspect of respect is knowing when to initiate communication and respond - allowing others speak without interruption is seen as a necessary communication skill tied to respectfulness. Respectfully communicating also means using your time with someone else wisely—staying on topic, asking clear questions and responding fully to any questions you’ve been asked. The Skilled Communicator: e.g. Communication skills
  6. Understanding nonverbal cues A great deal of communication happens through nonverbal cues such as body language, facial expressions and eye contact. When you’re listening to someone, you should be paying attention to what they’re saying as well as their nonverbal language. By the same measure, you should be conscious of your own body language when you’re communicating to ensure you’re sending appropriate cues to others. Responsiveness Whether you’re returning a phone call or sending a reply to an email, fast communicators are viewed as more effective than those who are slow to respond. Consider how long your response will take: is this a request or question you can answer in the next five minutes? If so, it may be a good idea to address it as soon as you see it. If it’s more complex request or question, you can still acknowledge that you’ve received the message/mail and let the other person know you will respond in full later. The Skilled Communicator: e.g. Communication skills
  7. Improving Communication Skills Start by identifying your strengths and then practice and develop those areas. Ask a close friend or colleague for constructive criticism. It can be hard to know how you are perceived as a communicator. Get an objective opinion, ask a trusted friend for their honest feedback. Understand your areas of improvement for communication in order to identify what to focus on. Practice improving communication habits. Communication skills are habits you have developed over time. Improve those skills by practicing new habits that make you a better communicator. These could include being more responsive to communications when they are sent, reminding yourself to give eye contact, practice giving positive feedback and ask questions in conversations. Attend communication skills workshops or classes. There are several online and offline seminars, workshops and classes that can help you be a better communicator. These classes may include instruction, roleplay, written assignments and open discussions. Seek opportunities to communicate. Seek out opportunities both on and off the job that require you to use your newly acquired communication skills. This will help you keep good skills fresh while also allowing you the opportunity to practice new skills.
  8. Effective Communication in The Workplace Be clear and concise. Make the message as easy to consume, thus reduce the chance of being misunderstood, speed up projects and assist in quickly understanding your goals. Practice reducing your message down to its core meaning. Better to give the most necessary information when trying to communicate your idea, instruction or message. Practice empathy. Understanding your colleague’s feelings, ideas and goals when you communicate with them. E.g., you might need help from other departments to get a project started. Practicing empathy to help position your message in a way that addresses their apprehension.
  9. Assert Yourself. At times, it is necessary to be assertive to reach your goals whether you are asking for a raise, seeking project opportunities or resisting an idea you don’t think will be beneficial. Present with confidence but be respectful. Keep an even tone and give sound reasons for your assertions will help others be receptive to your thoughts. Be Calm and Consistent. In a disagreement or conflict, do not bring emotions into your communications. It is important to remain calm when communicating with others in the workplace. Be aware of your body language by not crossing your arms or rolling your eyes. Maintaining consistent body language and keeping an even tone of voice can help you reach a conclusion peacefully and productively. Effective Communication in The Workplace
  10. Effective Communication in The Workplace Use and read body language. Body language is a key part of communications in the workplace. Pay close attention to the messages people are sending with their facial expressions and movements. Pay close attention the way you might be communicating (intentionally or not) with your own body language.
  11. Categories of Communication The different categories of communication include: Spoken or Verbal Communication, which includes face-to-face, telephone, radio or television and other media. Non-Verbal Communication, covering body language, gestures, how we dress or act, where we stand, and even our scent. Many subtle ways that we communicate (perhaps even unintentionally) with others. E.g., the tone of voice can give clues to mood or emotional state, whilst hand signals or gestures can add to a spoken message. Written Communication: includes letters, e-mails, social media, books, magazines, the Internet and other media. - Today, we can all write and publish our ideas online, which has led to an explosion of information and communication possibilities. Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can all communicate messages.
  12. The Communication Process A message or communication is sent by the sender through a communication channel to a receiver, or to multiple receivers. The sender must encode/ package the message being conveyed in a form that is appropriate to the communication channel, and the receiver(s) decode the message to understand its meaning and significance. Misunderstanding can occur at any stage of the communication process. Effective communication involves minimizing potential misunderstanding and overcoming any barriers to communication at each stage in the communication process. An effective communicator understands their audience, chooses an appropriate communication channel, hones the message to this channel and encodes the message to reduce misunderstanding by the receiver(s). They will also seek out feedback from the receiver(s) as to how the message is understood and attempt to correct any misunderstanding or confusion as soon as possible. Receivers can use techniques such as Clarification and Reflection as effective ways to ensure that the message sent has been understood correctly
  13. Decode Encode Encode Decode Channel RecipientSender The Communication Process
  14. Common Barriers to Effective Communication: The use of jargon. Over-complicated, unfamiliar and/or technical terms. Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it difficult to express their emotions and some topics may be completely 'off-limits' or taboo. Taboo or difficult topics may include, but are not limited to, politics, religion, disabilities (mental and physical), sexuality and sex, racism and any opinion that may be seen as unpopular. Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. Differences in perception and viewpoint. Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties. Language and linguistic ability may act as a barrier to communication.
  15. Physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective. Phone calls, text messages and other communication methods that rely on technology are often less effective than face-to-face communication. Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents. Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping. People often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect conclusions. Our page The Ladder of Inference explains this in more detail. Cultural differences. The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings. See our page on Intercultural Awareness for more information Attitudinal Barriers: may result from personality conflicts, poor management, resistance to change or a lack of motivation. To be an effective receiver of messages you should attempt to overcome your own attitudinal barriers to to help ensure more effective communication. Common Barriers to Effective Communication: Contd’
  16. Other Barriers to Communication Psychological Barriers: The psychological state of the communicators will influence how the message is sent, received and perceived. E.g Anger, anxiety, stress Physiological Barriers: a receiver with reduced hearing Physical Barriers: geographic distance between the sender and receiver(s). Systematic Barriers: may exist in structures and organisations where there are inefficient or inappropriate information systems and communication channels, or where there is a lack of understanding of the roles and responsibilities for communication. In such organizations, people may be unclear of their role in the communication process and therefore not know what is expected of them. 
  17. Listening Skills
  18. Listening Principles • When somebody else is talking listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen! • When the other person has finished talking you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately. • Focus on the speaker. • Clear your mind - The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the message being communicated. • Help the speaker feel free to speak. • Remember their needs and concerns. • Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. • Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said. Stop Talking Prepare to Listen: Ease
  19. • Focus on what is being said. • Don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. • Avoid unnecessary interruptions - these behaviors' disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted. • Understand your clients person’s point of view.-Try perceiving from your client perspective • Let go of preconceived ideas – have an open mind in order to empathize with the speaker… If you disagree, then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said whilst, you keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others. • A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. • Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. • Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone. Focus Empathize Be Patient Listening Principles
  20. • Try to be impartial • Don't be irritated and don't let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from the message. - Everybody has a different way of speaking – • Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery. • Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. • A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said • Get the full picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. • Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this becomes easier. Personal Prejudice Listen to the Tone Listen for Ideas Listening Principles
  21. • for Non-Verbal Communication  Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important.  Listen with our ears & eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication. Wait and Watch Listening Principles
  22. HURIER Model of Listening …model was developed by Judi Brownell of Cornell University H – Hearing ‘Hearing’ is used here in a very broad sense. Not only does it refer to the physical act of hearing, but also to picking up on non-verbal and other signals; tone of voice, body language and facial expressions, for example. U – Understanding Once the message has been ‘heard’, the next step is to understand. This means tying together all the element of ‘hearing’ to create a coherent understanding of what was communicated. Factors like language and accent may affect your understanding. R – Remembering Remembering requires focus. An effective listener needs to be able to remember the message they are receiving in its entirety.
  23. HURIER Model of Listening I – Interpreting Interpretation of the message builds on, and enhances, understanding. Interpretation means considering factors such as the context in which the message was sent. Importantly, here the listener also needs to be aware of, and avoid, any preconceptions or biases that they may hold that may affect how the message is interpreted. E – Evaluating Evaluating requires that the listener keeps an open mind on the messages they are receiving and doesn’t jump to conclusions about what is being said. Evaluate all the information and only then start to formulate a response. R – Responding Finally, your response should be well-measured and demonstrate that you have understood what was communicated. It may be necessary to use techniques such as clarification and reflection as part of the response.
  24. Improving Business Language Skills Increase Your Vocabulary Improving vocabulary is key to mastering specialized words used in specific business contexts. You can easily improve your vocabulary through training software that offers a comprehensive range of exercises. Learning commonly-used business idioms and abbreviations also enhances your vocabulary. Furthermore, you can do research on the Internet in order to find the terminology used in the specific field that you are currently employed in. It is important that you adopt an inquisitive approach towards learning, and find the meaning of any business word that you are currently unfamiliar with. A business dictionary can prove to be particularly helpful, since you'll be able to find the complete meanings for new terms and their relevant usage within business communication.
  25. Improving Business Language Skills Read Business-Related Material Enhance your vocabulary by reading a wide variety of material related to your field or business. Reading business information and current updates will not only allow you to remain abreast with the recent changes in the business environment but also allow you to keep up with any changes in terminology. This knowledge can prove to be essential when you are communicating with third parties or working on customer contracts.
  26. Play Games You can even learn business language by playing games like crosswords and word search games. games can enhance your business vocabulary & ensure the learning process is fun and engaging. Business-themed language games e.g. crosswords based on financial terms and important concepts, or word search games with banking & industry terms, use of free word-search puzzle generators to create your own games, if you can't find one specific to your field. Watch Business-Oriented Programs Watch programs that focus on business. - people in those programs will be using key terms frequently and correctly. Experts in the field host these programs - f valuable information and knowledge as well as vocabulary terms. Business terminology is naturally used on these programs and merely watching them attentively can help you grasp terms that are part of business communications. these programs enable familiarity with new words but also learn their correct pronunciation and usage. Improving Business Language Skills
  27. Improving Business Language Skills Practice: Learning new business terminology will not impact your communication skills until and unless these terms are used correctly in daily conversation. Use as many relevant words as possible during conversations with colleagues and peers. Learned business terminology can and should be incorporated into the presentations you give, so that you are able to gain confidence in your ability to use the terminology. Practice your business language skills by writing business letters (emails) and memos.
  28. Marketing Definition: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. “Marketing is what you say and how you say it when you want to explain how awesome your product is and why people should buy it.” ~ By Michael Brenner; Insider Group … includes advertisements, brochures, a press release, a Facebook page or a Twitter account. “The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well the product or service fits him and sells itself.” ~ Peter F. Drucker
  29. Marketing Mix: 4Ps with 4Cs The marketing mix is a blend of marketing variables that determine the level of marketing efforts on the target market. 4P’s and 7P’s of the marketing mix are – People, Product, Price, Promotion, Place, Process and Physical Evidence. 4C’s – Customer, Cost, Convenience, Communication; fit marketing mix perfectly. The marketing mix is the mixture of controllable marketing variables that the firm uses to influence and pursue the sought level of sales in the target market. It is the tools use to influence or persuade the wants, needs, and demands of the customer for PSI (product, service, or information). In simple terms; the marketing mix is the tool that is used to influence the target market and its demand for product, service, or information. Usually; the marketing mix describes the combination of the 4 inputs which constitute the core of a company’s marketing system: the product, the price structure the promotional activities, and the distribution system.
  30. P’s of Marketing Product. Price. Place. Promotion. Modern marketing has added 3 new P; making it 7p; Place. Process. Physical Evidence.
  31. Product The product is something like good, service, information, etc. that satisfies the wants of a company’s target market. Products must follow a logical product lifecycle and marketers or producers need to understand and plan for the stages of the product lifecycle and their core challenges. The product must answer some questions, for example, what problem the product will solve, is the consumer or customer needs the product, and/or what will be the components of the product? Price Price means the number of dollar customers or consumers must pay to obtain/use the product. It is the amount paid by the customer to a business. For example, a bottle of Wine that may cost $100. Prices set by the business depend on the business policy those it may be adjusted through discounts, allowances, and/or credit terms. P’s of Marketing
  32. Place Place indicates the company activities that ensure a product or service available to target consumers. It includes all activities like distribution channels, logistics, transportation, and locations offered by the company. A company may have many stores offering its products across the United States, but there may still locations where customers or consumers will not access that company’s products. This is a great loss for the company. So that it must ensure that products are available to target customers or consumers. Promotion Promotion refers to the activities that communicate the merits of the product to target customers and influence to buy it. One of the major factors of promotion for products or services is advertising. P’s of Marketing
  33. People: Indicates the employees representing the company. They interact with clients or customers for various purposes. Process: The process is the procedures, mechanisms, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered to the clients/ customers. Physical Evidence: Physical evidence refers to the area or space where the company representatives will interact with the customer. It works as a tool for reassuring our customers. For example, a company might have impressive buildings, a well-trained staff, great website. Considerations include furniture, signage, and layout. P’s of Marketing
  34. C’s of Marketing Mix  Customer.  Cost.  Convenience.  Communication.
  35. Customer or Consumer is the king! The product has been created to satisfy consumer demand. Consumer need and demand is studied/identified and a product developed to satisfy it. Price is only a subset of the total cost incurred to satisfy the want or needs of customers or consumers. Cost is the most important element of marketing mix which affects the decision of the customers. The marketers must need to give special attention to the cost of a product or service. Convenience is the most important tool for more sales. The convenience of purchase products helps most of customers or consumers to choose that product. Take an example of heavy pieces of machinery products like the fridge and air cooler. If the companies sell these products and do not give you delivery and installation service. You may not buy the product as you won’t be ready to pick up the machine and install it yourself. You will be looking for your convenience product. A marketer should consider communication instead of a promotion. Promotion is manipulative, it starts from the seller while Communication requires a give and take between the buyer and seller. Customer Cost Convenience Communication C’s of Marketing
  36. The C’s & P’s Mixture When the company/rep thinks about the product consider what solutions it is providing for its customers/clients. In thinking about the price, consider what cost the customer is willing to pay how convenient is it for their customers to find, buy, and get the product. In planning consider the type of communications customers prefer and through which channels they will be most receptive. Conclusion: P’s and C’s of the marketing mix are – People, Product, Price, Promotion, Place, Process and Physical Evidence whilst the C’s – Customer, Cost, Convenience, Communication; fit marketing mix perfectly. The marketing mix is crucial for creating a plan that increases sales and profitability, customer satisfaction and brand recognition
  37. Relationship Management
  38. Fortuna Favi et Fortus Ltd., 118 Old Ewu Road, Aviation Estate, Lagos. +234 703 253 0965 (Nigeria), +1 416 262 7271 (Canada) Sourced & Compiled by: Olufemi Feyisitan