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Classic and Modern Philosophy: Rationalism and Empicism

Rationalism and the rationalists, such as Plato, Descartes, and so on.
Empiricism and empiricists, such as Aristotle, Locke, Hume, Kant, William James.

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Classic and Modern Philosophy: Rationalism and Empicism

  1. 1. Presented by: Yoyok Agus Wahyudi Zukrina Kholis Amalia Uswatun Khasanah Musfera Nara Vadia
  2. 2. Classical and Modern Rationalism
  3. 3. Background  In this chapter we would like to study about the figures of rationalism in the classic and modern era.  For the classic era, it will be represented by Plato  For the modern era, it will be presented by Rene Descartes and Baruch Spinoza 3
  4. 4. The main subjects of Rationalism 1. Rationalism believes that through the process of abstract thinking , we can achieve the fundamental truth that cannot be denied. 2. Rationalism believes that some of the reality truth can be achieved without empirical methodology. 3. Rationalism believes that thinking can know some truth about reality. 4. Rationalism believes that ratio is the main source of knowledge. 5. Rationalism believes that truth can not be examined through sense verification. 6. Rationalism believes that universe follows the role of systematical laws 4
  5. 5. “ Alfred north whitehead ( 1861- 1947) said , “ The whole later development of western philosophy can be a series of extended footnote to Plato”. 5
  6. 6. Plato 1. Phythagoras (the eternity of soul, mysticism, mathematics 2. Parmenides (eternal reality), it cannot be changed by the time called idea world 3. Heracleitos (nothing is permanent in the physic life, the understanding of empirical world is only Doxa (opinion) not episteme (the perfect knowledge) 4. Socrates (morality) and the essence of life destination in the world Thinkers who influenced Plato: 1
  7. 7. Plato was an Epistomology and Knowledge theory founder ● He was Admitted AS ONE OF THE EARLIEST FIGURE TO MAKE QUESTION , “ What do we know?”, “How do we know”? And “When is knowledge said true?” ● Plato said episteme has to meet two criterion : 1. Knowledge has to be certain 2. Knowledge has to be about perfect and eternal reality 7
  8. 8. Doxa and Episteme  Doxa (opinion) is the real object that can be a perception.  Episteme ( the true knowledge) is the object that is related to “ that is genuine” or “arkhai”. 8
  9. 9. 1. ‘Truth means only the shadow of images’ 2. Relevant to the nowadays phenomenon: The allegory of the cave • As a sharp critic to the life / shallow thinking • Political life • As a critic to the naïve realism point of view • The need of figure that is free from shadow and illusion 9
  10. 10. The perspective about human • Plato separate between the “soul” and “spirit”, “mind” and “body • If our body is destroyed when we die, spirit will always be exist. • There are 3 elements of soul: 1. Nous/thinking, part of rational 2. Thomus/caurage 3. Ephitumia/lust/desire (nafsu) 10
  11. 11. Rene Descartes • Renatus Cartesius was born in 1596 in La Haye north west of French • He was admitted the modern figure of rationalism • He had an idea to renew the philosophy and knowledge 2
  12. 12. Descartes’ View 1. View about God; as the religious person, he placed God as the highest place, “unlimited and perfect power”. 2. Body and soul; he believed that body and soul are both real. every substance (body-soul /ratio) has a specific different character. . 12
  13. 13. Descartes rationalism and idea 13 Innate Ideas Thinking Allah; as the perfect power Thinking Idea; allow I, my self as the thinking creature . Widening thinking; allow us to understand the things, object, as like something that we can learn (math) Descartes recommends ratio as the source of knowledge than empiric / body
  14. 14. Experience will only bring us to the “appearance” not to the real knowledge. Descartes’ 3 innate ideas: 1. The idea of mind 2. The idea of God 3. The idea of (definite) body 14
  15. 15. Methodological Principles 15 1. Accepting only information you know to be true 2. Breaking down these truths into smaller units 3. Solving the simple problems first 4. Making complete lists of further problems
  16. 16. 16 Descartes tried to doubt his own existence, but found that even his doubting showed that he existed, since he could not doubt if he did not exist.
  17. 17. Methodological scepticism 17 The dream argument There is no sufficient ground to believe whether we are dreaming or awake The Evil Demon Our experience is might be controlled by powerful evil demon
  18. 18. Baruch Spinoza There is only one substance that is God/nature and it is in everything (Pantheism) God/Nature: 1. Has no willing or intention 2. Doesn’t do anything 3. Doesn’t care to human 4. Everything in this world are already put in proper order and are already determined 3
  19. 19. Gottfried Wilhem Leibniz  Substance is more than one; it’s uncountable.  Each substance is called monad  Each monad is different with one another  God is Supermonad (the creator of all monads) 4
  20. 20. George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 1. METAPHYSIC (all that is real is rational and all that is rational is real) 2. ABSOLUT IDEALISM Reality is the realization of unfolding of spirit (Geist) 3. DIALECTIC (thesis-antithesis-synthesis) 1. Thesis (universal abstract concept) 2. Antithesis (contradiction of thesis) 3. Synthesis (a phase that bring together thesis- antithesis) 5
  21. 21. 21 Thesis : Earth is round and the center of universe Antithesis : Sun is the center of universe, not the earth Synthesis : Earth is round and is not the center of universe
  22. 22. Classical and Modern Empiricism
  23. 23. “ -Neither geometry nor logic will tell you anything about the real world. There is no magical way of going beyond the limits of what we can see, hear, taste, smell, and touch- Robinson Dave and Bill Mayblin, 2004:15 23
  24. 24. Meanings ● Empiricism is from the ancient Greek word empeiria/empeiros, “experience.” ● Empiricism is the view that all concepts originate in experience, that all concepts are about or applicable to things that can be experienced, or that all rationally acceptable beliefs or propositions are justifiable or knowable only through experience. 24
  25. 25. The main points of Empiricism 1) Believe that the source of a knowledge is experience. 2) Very emphasizing on empirical-experimental method. 3) Using inductive reasoning. 25
  26. 26. Aristotle 1 The concept of a "tabula rasa" (or "clean slate"): what the mind (nous) thinks must be in it in the same sense as letters are on a tablet (grammateion) which bears no actual writing (grammenon); this is just what happens in the case of the mind. (Aristotle, On the Soul, 3.4.430a1).
  27. 27. Aristotle’s Empirical Method 27 Empirical Method 2. Universal Concept/ General Principle 1. Perception / Assumption 3. Proof / Particular Explanation the world as a living organism, which develops as an embryo that leads to a specific purposes.
  28. 28. Avicenna 2  He developed the concept of a "tabula rasa" (or "clean slate") in the earlier 11th Century.  Argued that knowledge is attained through empirical familiarity with objects in this world, from which one abstracts universal concepts, which can then be further developed through a syllogistic method of reasoning.
  29. 29. 29 Roger Bacon He was the first one who clearly stated that the needs of experience is very important to develop a knowledge and how important knowledge for an advancement 3
  30. 30. Francis Bacon He can be considered an early Empiricist, through his popularization of an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry, which has since become known as the scientific method. Bacon's experimental empirical method 1. Observing 2. Measuring 3. Explaining 4. Verifying 4
  31. 31. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke 31 5 6 See nature and human being as atoms that move definitively (mechanically), although mechanical law in humans is more complicated than nature, so the calculation of it is more complicated. The mind is a tabula rasa on which experiences leave their marks, and therefore denied that humans have innate ideas or that anything is knowable without reference to experience.
  32. 32. 2 types of idea: 1. Idea that comes from external sensation 2. Idea that comes from internal sense or reflection 32 3 types of knowledge: 1. Intuitive knowledge 2. Demonstrative knowledge 3. Sensory knowledge
  33. 33. Bishop George Barkeley and David Hume 33 Our knowledge of physical objects must be related to our thoughts (concepts, world views) and we cannot determine what those objects are if we are separated from our views. All of human knowledge can be divided into two categories: relations of ideas (e.g. propositions involving some contingent observation of the world, such as "the sun rises in the East") and matters of fact (e.g. mathematical and logical propositions), and that ideas are derived from our "impressions" or sensations.
  34. 34. 34 Perception Impression Simple Impression Complex Impression Simple Ideas Complex Ideas Ideas
  35. 35. Immanuel Kant • German Philosopher in 18th Century (Enlightenment) • Synthesized modern rationalism and empiricism • Significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields • Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790) 9
  36. 36. Hume awakened me from my dogmatic slumber. 36 But Kant thought that Hume's two categories, true propositions were either matters of fact or relations of ideas, were inadequate. Kant proposed the theory of transcendental idealism and concluded that the extent of our knowledge is determined in by both empirical and rational principles.
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  40. 40. 40 ● An American pragmatist philosopher and psychologist. ● Pragmatism as Radical Empiricism ● Radical Empiricism holds that our minds are identical with our experience. They are nothing more and nothing less than this experience. ● “Pragmatism” is borrowed from Pierce and Kant in his famous article “How to Make Our Ideas Clear” (1878) ● Pragmatism is also known as Kantian. William James
  41. 41. 41 In his book Pragmatism, James divided two model of Philosophy ● Show Tender-minded, have more of a taste of a priori principles which appeal to the mind. Tender minded tend to be idealistic, optimistic and religious. The tender minded are “free-willist” and dogmatic. ● Tough-minded, have an empiricist commitment to experience and going by “the facts”. Tough minded are normally materialist, pessimistic, and irreligious. The tough minded are “fatalistic” and skeptical. . And pragmatic is the combination or in the middle between those two tendencies.
  42. 42. Pragmatists believe… 42 1. Practical consequences 2. All of the ideas and theories in science be grounded in direct experience. 3. That no experience be excluded from the scientific purview.
  43. 43. Rationalism versus Empiricism… 43
  44. 44. 44 Thanks! Any questions? We will try our best to answer your question 