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F_Meneguzzo-SuNEC_2012-06sep2012

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http://solar-conference.eu/
The solar PV era is entering into its mature stage with Italy in the forefront due to its large installed power (around 14 GWp in summer 2012), the generally very favorable insolation as well as the worldwide price decrease.
While the spreading of the PV generation has produced a significant daytime “peak shaving” effect, the decrease of power market prices as well as has pushed off the market the most costly oil and gas power plants, the operating costs of the power grid have mildly risen due to the intermittent PV generation, and the feed-in tariffs had to be frequently reduced in order to match and further pursue the decreasing investment costs as well as to limit the net spending by the power consumers.
As a result, the new Italian PV incentives law (June 2012) captures the essential features of the new solar era: all-inclusive and decreased tariffs as well as an additional bonus for PV power consumed by internal loads (not fed into the grid).
On the basis of the above, the requirements for the energy end uses and the respective equipment served by PV installations in any kind of buildings clearly arise, shortly: electrification and load profile matching the PV average generation profile.
About the air conditioning of buildings and greenhouses, while in summer it is usually powered by electricity as well as its load profile closely matches the PV generation, in winter the vast majority of the heating devices are powered by natural gas (diesel for greenhouses), moreover the usual load is shifted to the evening and night.
In order to capture the opportunities of the mature PV solar era, the winter heating should shift to the electrical powering as well as match the PV generation profile, while increasing its energy efficiency and preserving limited installation and operating costs to pursue an overall significant economic convenience.
On the basis of the above criteria, the simple electric boilers are ruled out due to their limited energy efficiency, while the heat pumps, despite their high efficiencies (even though depending on the environmental conditions) are generally unable to rise the temperature of the heat carrying liquid during the daytime up to the levels (>80°C) needed for storage in order to support the nighttime heating distribution, unless additional complex and costly devices are added.
A brand new class of devices for the heating generation and storage is presented, which after extensive experimental testing has shown to match all the above requirements for the mature solar PV era and the new Italian PV incentives law: electrically powered, very high energy efficiency regardless of environmental conditions, ability to rise the temperature of the heat carrying liquids to any level for its daytime storage, autonomous, very simple and commercial components, very low installation and operating costs, virtually no maintenance.

Publié dans : Technologie, Business
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F_Meneguzzo-SuNEC_2012-06sep2012

  1. 1. Francesco MENEGUZZO Yu. A. BAUROV G. M. LANINI G. TAGLIAFERRI F. ZABINI f.meneguzzo@ibimet.cnr.itHEATING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDINGS ANDGREENHOUSES IN THE MATURE SOLAR PVERA: REQUIREMENTS, INNOVATIONSanta Flavia (PA) – September 6th, 2012
  2. 2. LAST YEAR MY SPEECH COVERED BASICALLY THREE ISSUES: 1. PEAK OIL AND ECONOMIC DOWNTURN 2. STRONG IMPACT OF THE PV GENERATION UPON THE ELECTRICITY MARKET3. ROAD-MAP TO STABLY LOW ELECTRICITY PRICES BY MEANS OF UTILITY-SCALE (SUN-TRACKING) PV INSTALLATIONS The first two arguments have shown to be definitely trueThe road-map revealed at least partially a wishful thinking… at least for the time being
  3. 3. THIS YEAR MY SPEECH WILL COVER THE SUBJECT OF “ELECTRIFICATION OF HEATING” WITH THE FOLLOWING SPECIFIC ISSUES:1. TRENDS OF HEATING FUELS AND ELECTRICITY PRICES (IN ITALY)2. THE NEW (5th) ITALIAN PV INCENTIVES LAW AND THE SHIFT TO THE DIRECT USE OF PV POWER3. REQUIREMENTS OF HEATING SYSTEMS TO MATCH THE NEW (MATURE?) PV ERA4. AN INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES DEVELOPED AFTER OUR COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH A RUSSIAN TEAM
  4. 4. 1. TRENDS OF MOST USED HEATING FUELS AND ELECTRICITY PRICES (IN ITALY) • FUELS’ PRICES TREND SIGNIFICANTLY STRONGER THAN ELECTRICITY’S • MOST OF ELECTRICITY PRICE (decided in advance for any 3-months period) INCREASE OCCURRED IN EARLY 2012: o Worries about rising PV incentives o Electricity market price spikes
  5. 5. 1. TRENDS OF HEATING FUELS AND ELECTRICITY PRICES (IN ITALY) ITALY – NUMBER OF PV INSTALLATIONS ITALY – PV CUMULATED POWER (kW)  15 GW JAN-2007 JUL-2012• PV «peak-shaving» more and more effective• Smaller trend of power vs fuels’ prices is expected in future too!
  6. 6. 2. NEW (5th) ITALIAN PV INCENTIVES LAW KEY FEATURES OF MINISTERIAL DECREE SIGNED ON JULY 5th, 2012:• Hereafter, only “ordinary” PV installations over buildings (roofs) with power between 3 kW and 20 kW will be considered;• The fraction of PV electricity fed into the grid is given a single comprehensive remuneration on a kWh basis (constant for 20 years);• The fraction of PV electricity consumed by in situ loads is given a «premium», constant for 20 years (adding to the avoided cost of power that would have been drawn from the grid);• Both the single remuneration and the «premium» are defined on a 6-months basis for new installations, as well as decreasing over time.• SEPTEMBER, 2012 TO FEBRUARY, 2013 – POWER 320 kW – VALUES: o SINGLE REMUNERATION = 0.196 €/kWh (+0.02 €/kWh if EU) o «PREMIUM» FOR IN SITU USE = 0.114 €/kWh (+0.02 €/kWh if EU)
  7. 7. 2. NEW (5th) ITALIAN PV INCENTIVES LAWSCHEME OF  With peak power price almostPV POWER 0.20€/kWh, the PV electricityINCENTIVES used by in situ loads has a totalAS PER 5th value  0.32 €/kWh  ITALIAN MAXIMIZE IN SITU FRACTION ! LAW  In SUMMER, the power load profile of air conditioning closely matches the PV generation hourly curve.  In WINTER, the thermal load profile usually mismatches the PV generation  NEED FOR HEAT ACCUMULATION !
  8. 8. 3. REQUIREMENTS OF HEATING SYSTEMSKEY REQUIREMENT OF HEATING SYSTEMS TO MATCH PV MATURE ERA: ELECTRIFICATION  Heat from power-fed devices, also because: a) Shifting final uses from fuels to power pushes RES deployment; b) In turn, RES expansion decreases power price. HIGH EFFICIENCY  Economy w.r.t. diesel/Gas If “Power To Heat > 1” LOW INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS  Economy if investment and maintenance are cheap • NO SIMPLE ELECTRIC RESISTANCES : EFFICIENCY < 1 • NO HEAT PUMPS : EFFICIENCY > 1 BUT : 1. Performance depending upon environmental conditions (the colder the weather, the lower the performance); 2. No heat accumulation (storage) due to low to moderate working temperatures (<50°c) unless expensive equipment is added; 3. Usually high investment cost.
  9. 9. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES PATENTS AND THEORY FOUR PATENTS: • TWO SUBMITTED IN ITALY IN 2011 AND EXTENDED (PCT) IN 2012• PATENT N°. 1 – HEATING OF LIQUIDS (pools, accumulators, food liquids, …)• PATENT N°. 2 – HEATING OF SUBSOIL (greenhouses, floor, …) • TWO SUBMITTED IN ITALY IN 2012• PATENT N°. 3 – NEW PROPULSION ENGINE (traction of spacecrafts, airplanes, ships and ground means, …)• PATENT N°. 4 – NEW POWER GENERATOR (stationary generation, assistance to traction, power services for transportation means, …)
  10. 10. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES PATENTS AND THEORY ALL PATENTS BASED UPON THE «NEW FORCE» ARISING FROM THE «BYUON» THEORY AFTER PROF. Yu. A. BAUROV PROF. YURIY A. BAUROV FORMER HEAD OF LABORATORY FOR FRONTIER ENERGY SIYSTEMS at the COSMIC PHYSICS INSTITUTE OF THE CENTRAL (FEDERAL) RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MACHINES CONSTRUCTION Korolyov Town, Region of MoscowNon-gauge theory of formation of the physical space and the elementary particles on the basis of interactions of unobservable objects named «byuon»
  11. 11. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES PATENTS AND THEORY «BYUON» THEORY NEW FORCE, different from known ones (Electro-Magnetic, Gravitational, Strong and Weak Nuclear): 1. Generally anisotropic 2. Acts on all scales (10-17 cm  1028 cm) 3. Explains the origin of the «Dark Energy» causing the accelerated recession of Galaxies – explains, in example, the Motion of Pulsars 4. Determines the formation of masses (as well as charges) of the elementary particles – offers the chance of extracting energy from a small fraction of the mass of elementary particles
  12. 12. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES SCIENTIFIC BASESSINCE 1990: Scientific bases developed In USSR, Russia …
  13. 13. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES SCIENTIFIC BASES… As well as in Italy
  14. 14. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY«THERMAL» PATENTS INSTALLATIONS’ «CORE» Autonomous simplified scheme very high efficiencyelectro-thermal conversion
  15. 15. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY Autonomous very high efficiency electro-«THERMAL» PATENTS thermal conversion SHORTLY, HOW DOES IT WORK? • Magnetic fields associated with the electric currents in the plasma, in turn produced in the liquid’s cavitation bubbles; • Change of the gravitational potential along the vertical section of the circuit.
  16. 16. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY Number of stable Self-energy of an electron neutrino- antineutrino elementary particles 2 mve c2 couple which forms the geometrical space of an (electrons) in plasma elementary particle ( 33eV)  А Microscale magnetic fieldsF = N  2m e c 2  1  A  2 (plasma bubbles  CAVITATION) х Gradient of the Gravity field Coefficient Gradient of the gravity field Space CAVITATION (PLASMA) anisotropy BUBBLES: axis• Shape: Toroidal (Ag)• Sizes  1 m• Temperature > 5,000 °K• Pressure > 2,000 Atm• Jet speed > 150 m/s Cavitation
  17. 17. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY The gradient of thegravity field, along thegiven vertical path, is needed to gain a significant energy efficiency!
  18. 18. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY AVERAGE POWER (3 PUMPS) < 5,500 W “EXCESS” POWER IN REGULAR TESTS: 687 W to 1,179 W  To be meant as «Pumps’ power in BLANK Test»
  19. 19. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES FOR ANY DETAIL:http://www.ijopaasat.in/volumes/vol_11_no_1_july_2012
  20. 20. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY WHAT APPLICATIONS? • Heating of swimming pools and heat accumulators; • Heating of soil and pallets in greenhouses; • Building’s heating; • Pasteurization of food liquids.
  21. 21. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY 2011 - 2012: PILOT / INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATION agricultural greenhouse in Italy CLAY SUBSTRATE HEAT DELIVERY (25 mm PE pipes)
  22. 22. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGYSimple draft of SOIL OR PALLET IN THEthe greenhouse GREENHOUSE installation PE PIPES FOR CIRCULATION AND HEAT DELIVERY BLIND MAIN OUTPUT AND INPUT PIPES
  23. 23. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES THERMAL ENERGY WHICH ADVANTAGES? • “Power  thermal” conversion factor > 120% • Completely Autonomous Working (power fed) • Performances: independent from environment • Heating Up To Any Temperature (water: 90-100°C) • Only commercial components • Cheap, robust, maintenance-free • Clean heating: no emissions, no fouling MOREOVER … The efficiency (power to thermal rate) can be further increased  research ongoing!
  24. 24. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS COMPARISON: NATURAL GAS vs POWER (new technology)
  25. 25. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS Basic data and assumptions:ANNUAL POWER INFLATION (both Peak and Off-Peak, incl. VAT) 9.39%INITIAL UNIT PRICE OF PEAK POWER (incl. VAT) 0.2462 €/kWhINITIAL UNIT PRICE OF OFF-PEAK POWER (incl. VAT) 0.1732 €/kWhANNUAL HEATING NATURAL GAS INFLATION (incl. VAT) 11.45%INITIAL UNIT PRICE OF HEATING NATURAL GAS (incl. VAT) 0.9022 €/m3INTERNAL ENERGY CONTENT OF NATURAL GAS 10 kWh/m3HEATING EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL GAS 80%ANNUAL PRICES INFLATION 2.50%NEW TECHNOLOGY: POWER TO HEAT CONVERSION EFFICIENCY 120%
  26. 26. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS Basic data and assumptions:VOLUME OF HEAT STORAGE TANK (water or other liquid) 1,500 litersNATURAL COOLING OF TANK WATER 2°C/dayCOOLING OF TANK WATER – 6 kW AVERAGE THERMAL POWER 40°C / 12 hoursPV NOMINAL POWER 5 kWpPV ANNUAL EFFICIENCY LOSS 0.50%/yearOWN CAPITAL (Y/N) NCAPITAL INTEREST RATE IN LOAN PERIOD 6.00%LOAN PERIOD (years) 10PRESENT UNIT CAPITAL PV COST (incl. VAT) 2,200 €/kWp“TURN-KEY” PV INSTALLATION COST € 11,000
  27. 27. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS Basic data and assumptions:PV O&M ANNUAL COST (AS A FRACTION OF INVESTMENT) 1.00% (grows with inflation)NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) RATE 5.00%SINGLE REMUNERATION OF PV ELECTRICITY st 0.216 €/kWh(Power: 3-20 kW – 1 six months – made in E.U.)“PREMIUM” OF PV ELECTRICITY FOR IN-SITU USE st 0.134 €/kWh(Power: 3-20 kW – 1 six months – made in E.U.)FRACTION OF PV ELECTRICY FOR IN-SITU USE WITHOUT HEATING 75%BUILDING HORIZONTAL SURFACE 80 m2BUILDING HEIGHT 3m
  28. 28. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGSPV POWER = 5 kW PALERMO (38°6’56’’ N) • PV GENERATION  PVGIS-CMSAF • TOTAL PV GENERATION = 7,560 kWh/year • HEATING: December 1st – March 31st • MAX HEATING HOURS PER DAY = 8 • ASSUMED REDUCTION FACTOR = 75% (6 hours) • SPECIFIC HEATING POWER = 29 W/m3
  29. 29. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS 120% efficiency (80% efficiency) PV POWER = 5 kW PV – NO INCENTIVES
  30. 30. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGSPV POWER = 5 kW ROME (41°54’5’’ N) • PV GENERATION  PVGIS-CMSAF • TOTAL PV GENERATION = 7,200 kWh/year • HEATING: November 1st – April 15th • MAX HEATING HOURS PER DAY = 12 • ASSUMED REDUCTION FACTOR = 75% (9 hours) • SPECIFIC HEATING POWER = 32 W/m3
  31. 31. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS 120% efficiency (80% efficiency) PV POWER = 5 kW
  32. 32. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS MILAN (45°27’55’’ N)PV POWER = 5 kW • PV GENERATION  PVGIS-CMSAF • TOTAL PV GENERATION = 6,460 kWh/year • HEATING: October 15th – April 15th • MAX HEATING HOURS PER DAY = 14 • ASSUMED REDUCTION FACTOR = 75% (10.5 hours) • SPECIFIC HEATING POWER = 38 W/m3
  33. 33. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS 120% efficiency (80% efficiency) PV POWER = 5 kW
  34. 34. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS KEY RESULTS : Southern Italy  building heating “free”; Electrically-powered building heating with new technology + PV  cheapest in central and northern Italy too;  Removing PV incentives  still cheapest after 1 year working (south), 2 years working (center), 8 years working (north) Economy up to 10 years (meaningless price extrapolations afterwards), but as PV’s loan is paid in 10 years, economy is likely to improve very much afterwards!
  35. 35. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - BUILDINGS MOREOVER1. Economy improves further with increasing PV power (not shown);2. Economy improves further is LPG is used in place of natural gas.3. Energy efficiency of new technology is relevant, but down to 100% still preserves good economy (not shown).
  36. 36. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - GREENHOUSES COMPARISON: DIESEL (agricultural use) vs POWER (new technology)
  37. 37. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - GREENHOUSES Basic data and assumptions (only if different):INITIAL UNIT PRICE OF PEAK POWER (excl. VAT) 0.2035 €/kWhINITIAL UNIT PRICE OF OFF-PEAK POWER (excl. VAT) 0.1431 €/kWhINTERNAL ENERGY CONTENT OF DIESEL 10.03 kWh/literHEATING EFFICIENCY OF DIESEL 75%ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL DIESEL INFLATION (excl. VAT) 15.27%INITIAL UNIT PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL DIESEL (excl. VAT) 1.1635 €/literVOLUME OF HEAT STORAGE TANK (water or other liquid) 4,500 litersNATURAL COOLING OF TANK WATER 1°C/dayCOOLING OF TANK WATER – 16 kW AVERAGE THERMAL POWER 37°C / 12 hoursPV NOMINAL POWER 12 kWp
  38. 38. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - GREENHOUSES Basic data and assumptions (only if different):PRESENT UNIT CAPITAL PV COST (excl. VAT) 2,000 €/kWp“TURN-KEY” PV INSTALLATION COST(excl. VAT) € 24,000SINGLE REMUNERATION OF PV ELECTRICITY st 0.2125 €/kWh(Power: 3-20 kW – 1 six months – made in E.U.)“PREMIUM” OF PV ELECTRICITY FOR IN-SITU USE 0.1305 €/kWh(Power: 3-20 kW – 1st six months – made in E.U.)FRACTION OF PV ELECTRICY FOR IN-SITU USE WITHOUT HEATING 15%GREENHOUSE HORIZONTAL SURFACE 100 m2 ONLY CENTRAL ITALY site of most Greenhouse economy in Italy
  39. 39. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICES COMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - GREENHOUSESPV POWER = 12 kW CENTRAL ITALY • PV GENERATION  PVGIS-CMSAF • TOTAL PV GENERATION = 17,300 kWh/year • HEATING: October – May • MAX HEATING HOURS PER DAY = 24 • REDUCTION FACTOR = seasonally variable • SPECIFIC HEATING POWER = 160 W/m2
  40. 40. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - GREENHOUSES 120% efficiency (75% efficiency) PV POWER = 12 kW
  41. 41. 4. INNOVATIVE CLASS OF HEATING DEVICESCOMPARISON OF HEATING COSTS - GREENHOUSES KEY RESULTS : Electrically-powered greenhouse heating with new technology + PV  cheapest; Removing PV incentives  still cheaper than diesel Economy up to 10 years (meaningless price extrapolations afterwards), but as PV’s loan is paid in 10 years, economy is likely to improve very much afterwards !
  42. 42. KEY GENERAL CONCLUSIONS RES deployment  power = “primary energy source” in Italy Long term price trends in Italy  power convenient for heating «Power to heat» conversion rate is a relevant factor Matching with PV (in situ use) requires heat storage  high temperature liquid accumulation Coupling heating and PV  cheapest heating Removing PV incentives  still cheaper than traditional fuels Above conclusions hold for both Buildings and Greenhouses heating
  43. 43. Francesco MENEGUZZO Yu. A. BAUROVf.meneguzzo@ibimet.cnr.it G. M. LANINI G. TAGLIAFERRI F. ZABINITHANK YOU!!!

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