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This slide is in Spanish, but I will show you the translation in English in a few seconds. There are two students talking about what they nave done. This dialog is authentic, I heard this coming from two of my students some years ago
These students are making mistakes, misunderstanding each other and accepting the misunderstandings without challenging each other. Research shows that Students often ignore breakdowns in communication in favor of task completion. I teach in an international environment and students come with many different language and cultural backgrounds. It is important to keep this in mind to understand why the girl perhaps did not understand her partner. So teaching students oral strategies come very handy and necessary.
I frequently ask my students to work independently in small groups because in this way they have more chances to practice new structures, vocabulary, new situations and to become more fluent in the target language. It is good that they work alone because they can help each other learn the language. But for this to happen, our role as teachers is to teach our learners oral strategies as early as possible.
Students learning a new language often lack strategic competence Communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing (1980) There are 3 components which are very component in the Communicative Approach: grammatical component, the sociolinguistic component and the strategic component.Very important if we are in an IB program is to emphasize the ATL : approaches to learning
They occur at the level of Language forms: errors in grammar, in morphology They also occur at the level of Language meaning; lack of vocabulary. expressionsWhat we realize from these breakdowns is that students lack Strategies to keep the conversation going: They also lack strategies that can help them to gain time to think ; to think of how to proceed with the conversation, and/or to mend these breakdowns and go back to a meaningful conversation
There is a clear breakdown in communication. There is a long pause and awkwardness.. They boy does not understand what the girl asked him. The girl does not really know what is the problem with what she is saying . They try a few things, which are good. What could have they done? The boy could have said WHAT DOES CUAL MEAN?
Communicative strategies: are more related to the sociolinguistic aspect of communication (maintaining communication) They also provide learners with a sense of security in the target language when they experience communicative problems (Dornyei, 1995)Negotiation strategies: are more related to the language aspect of communication. Strategies or expressions used by the speakers to make each other focus on specific structures or words and to negotiate their meaning or grammar, and hopefully modify language to make it more correct.When we teach them comm. strategies we have to teach them a variety of expressions in the target language that they can use to maintain comm.
Communicative strategies help the speakers to MAINTAIN COMMUNICATION and they give them a sense of security during the conversation. It helps them to have time to think, to avoid long awkward pauses and to ask for help. It helps them to STAY in the conversation, even if they cannot keep up with the topic of the conversation, because they can at least keep speaking in the target language. We, teachers, will provide them with certain expressions in the target language for this purpose.
In this case, both are talking about what they like to do, but the second girl (red haired) needs time to come up with something to say to continue the conversation. She needs time to think, so she uses an expression.
Some time-gaining expressions (some call them fillers) are these expressions in the target language which will help them to gain time to think.These expressions will help them to maintain the conversation. To avoid long pauses. We have to model them.
These strategies use expression that will help the students to show interest in what their interlocutor is saying and at the same time maintain the conversation.
The student is listening to his partner and making a remark before changing the topic. (The students begin to listen)
These are example of possible expressions we can give and teach our students to use to show interest.
b. Shadow to show that you are listening by partially repeating what the other had said. Shadowis useful when a student cannot come up with a comment or remark and so he can just take a segment of what his/her partner is saying and repeat it.
This expressions should be in the target language that we teach. The important thing is for the student, is to develop and havea repertoir of expressions in the target language that they can use in any conversation, but we teachers have to provide it to them, We have to model themSo, if the students cannot follow or keep up with the topic of the dialog, they can still be in the conversation speaking in the target language using the expressions of that repertoir.
So, teach them how to say HOW DO YOU SAY in french, german, spanish AND INSIST THAT THEY USE THEM.
These strategies focus more on the language itself. They are used to negotiate meaning during a conversation when the message is not clear.In a CLARIFICATION REQUEST, the listener, who has not understood well, request an explanation. It is similar to ASK for HELP
The listener checks that he has understood correctly a message, a word.In other words, Did you say XXXX? Or just paraphrase like in the example. Also, the girl might attempt to modify her output and say Many FRIENDS? (you want these modifications to occur)
This strategy is used to make sure that our partner has understood what we are trying to say. The speaker checks that his partner is understanding him.
Negotiation strategies work when we teachershighlightsthe importance of focusing on language and insitst to the learners that they have to help each other and correct each other
1. Working in small groups or pairs helps students to become better listeners, more attuned to their partners.2. Teaching oral language strategies help our students to know how to act or proceed when they encounter difficulties in a conversation, so that the conversation can be maintained.Learners can help each other to focus on forms (grammar structures). They can be good sources or knowledge for each other and point to mistakes.This happens when students change their speech, they make it more correct, in order to be understood by their partners.
In part, these are ideas are based on The constructivism movement in education: is a cognitive approach to learning from the 20th century. It views the learner as actively involved in his/her own learning and making sense of the world through his/her thoughts and experiences. It allows for a more child-centered type of education.
Teaching oral communication strategies
Enhancing oralinteractive work in the FL classroomTeaching communicative and negotiation strategies Patricia Ghivarello Stuessy
Breakdowns in communication¿Qué comida de cena? Em ….a las ocho OK BEN KATE
Working collaborativelyStudents in a FL or SL classroom canbe directed to help each other focuson meaning and form after learning specific strategies.
Why? Strategic competence Verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that compensate for breakdowns incommunication due to insufficient grammatical or sociolinguistic competence (Canale & Swain, 1980)
Breakdowns in communication occur a) language form b) language meaning c) they lack strategies to keep the conversation going d) they lack strategies to make theconversation meaningful for each other
Types of Oral StrategiesI. Oral communicative strategies: strategies which help us tokeep the conversation going.II. Oral negotiation strategies: strategies which help us tofocus on form and meaning, so thatreal communication is possible.(McDonough, 2004) (Nakatani, 2005)
1. Time-gaining strategies Ehm, I like golf Oh, really ?
Time-gaining expressions (using fillerexpressions to gain time to think) really? de verdad? ¡Así! uhm, let me see uhm, déjame ver… well….. bueno, vale…. sure….. ¡Claro!
2. Maintenance strategies a. Make positiveremarks/comments b. Shadow
a.Make a positive comment or a remark - make a comment to keep the conversation goingI don’t have a dog. Oh, how sad.
a. Comments or remarks show interestand keep the conversation going. I understand (entiendo) I see or, I see what you mean (ya veo) Sounds good (suena bien) Very good (muy bien)
b. Shadow by partially repeating what the partner has saidI am from Kenya, Oh ! Kenya and my family is ! very big.
3. Help-seeking strategiesa. Ask for help I don’t understand What? What does XXX mean? How do you say XXX?b. Ask for repetition Please repeat / can you repeat please?c. Indicate there is a problem louder please I can’t hear you well
¿Uhm.. I was Ask for help….uhm, I was…. ¿How do you born say XXXX? Oh, ok, ..I was born in Holland.
2 sets of strategies:I. Oral communication strategiesII. Oral negotiation strategies
II. ORAL NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES a. Clarification requests: one partner does not understand well and requests an explanation. A what? What did you say? b. Confirmation checks: the listener checks that he/she has understood his partner correctly. Did you say XXXX? c. Comprehension checks: to be sure our partner has understood us. Do you understand? Is it clear? Do you agree? (Oliver, 1998)
b. Confirmation check Imanyfren You have many friends? (Pica et al., 1989)
c. Comprehension checks I have been to this new store LIBRO with my father, a new store…. Do you understand? Yes, the store is LIBRO.
d. Negotiation strategies, which focus on form:Recast: your partner corrects your languageMe like I like golf. golf.Yeah, I like golf.
Explicit Correction: you correct your partner by explaining what is wrong You need DOYou get up YOU before early? GET UP. DO YOU get up early?
Benefits1. BETTER LISTENERS2. MAINTAIN A CONVERSATIONin the target language3. TO FOCUS ON MEANING, toachieve a coherent conversation in thetarget language4. TO FOCUS ON FORM and achievemodified output
Final comments from the literature Knowing about communicative and negotiation strategies may dispose the students to work in a more collaborative way, where both moreproficient and less proficient studentsshare more equally the role of expert.(Storch, 2000)
Students participate inconstructing knowledge togetherwith the teacher and other peers(Wells, 1999)
• Language learners are frequently and increasingly each other’s resources for language learning. (Pica et al. (1996)• It is possible that they can also attend to form. (Long, 1996)