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Teaching oral communication strategies

Enhancing oral interactive work in the FL classroom. Patricia Ghivarello Stuessy

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Teaching oral communication strategies

  1. 1. Enhancing oralinteractive work in the FL classroomTeaching communicative and negotiation strategies Patricia Ghivarello Stuessy
  2. 2. Breakdowns in communication¿Qué comida de cena? Em ….a las ocho OK BEN KATE
  3. 3. Em ….at eight. What food of dinner?OK BEN KATE
  4. 4. Working collaborativelyStudents in a FL or SL classroom canbe directed to help each other focuson meaning and form after learning specific strategies.
  5. 5. Why? Strategic competence Verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that compensate for breakdowns incommunication due to insufficient grammatical or sociolinguistic competence (Canale & Swain, 1980)
  6. 6. Breakdowns in communication occur a) language form b) language meaning c) they lack strategies to keep the conversation going d) they lack strategies to make theconversation meaningful for each other
  7. 7. • BREAKDOWN in communication
  8. 8. Types of Oral StrategiesI. Oral communicative strategies: strategies which help us tokeep the conversation going.II. Oral negotiation strategies: strategies which help us tofocus on form and meaning, so thatreal communication is possible.(McDonough, 2004) (Nakatani, 2005)
  9. 9. I. ORAL COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES1. Time-gaining strategies2. Maintenance strategies3. Help-seeking strategies
  10. 10. 1. Time-gaining strategies Ehm, I like golf Oh, really ?
  11. 11. Time-gaining expressions (using fillerexpressions to gain time to think)  really? de verdad? ¡Así!  uhm, let me see uhm, déjame ver…  well….. bueno, vale….  sure….. ¡Claro!
  12. 12. 2. Maintenance strategies a. Make positiveremarks/comments b. Shadow
  13. 13. a.Make a positive comment or a remark - make a comment to keep the conversation goingI don’t have a dog. Oh, how sad.
  14. 14. a. Comments or remarks show interestand keep the conversation going.  I understand (entiendo)  I see or, I see what you mean (ya veo)  Sounds good (suena bien)  Very good (muy bien)
  15. 15. b. Shadow by partially repeating what the partner has saidI am from Kenya, Oh ! Kenya and my family is ! very big.
  16. 16. 3. Help-seeking strategiesa. Ask for help  I don’t understand  What? What does XXX mean?  How do you say XXX?b. Ask for repetition  Please repeat / can you repeat please?c. Indicate there is a problem  louder please  I can’t hear you well
  17. 17. ¿Uhm.. I was Ask for help….uhm, I was…. ¿How do you born say XXXX? Oh, ok, ..I was born in Holland.
  18. 18. 2 sets of strategies:I. Oral communication strategiesII. Oral negotiation strategies
  19. 19. II. ORAL NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES a. Clarification requests: one partner does not understand well and requests an explanation.  A what? What did you say? b. Confirmation checks: the listener checks that he/she has understood his partner correctly.  Did you say XXXX? c. Comprehension checks: to be sure our partner has understood us.  Do you understand? Is it clear? Do you agree? (Oliver, 1998)
  20. 20. b. Confirmation check Imanyfren You have many friends? (Pica et al., 1989)
  21. 21. c. Comprehension checks I have been to this new store LIBRO with my father, a new store…. Do you understand? Yes, the store is LIBRO.
  22. 22. d. Negotiation strategies, which focus on form:Recast: your partner corrects your languageMe like I like golf. golf.Yeah, I like golf.
  23. 23. Explicit Correction: you correct your partner by explaining what is wrong You need DOYou get up YOU before early? GET UP. DO YOU get up early?
  24. 24. Benefits1. BETTER LISTENERS2. MAINTAIN A CONVERSATIONin the target language3. TO FOCUS ON MEANING, toachieve a coherent conversation in thetarget language4. TO FOCUS ON FORM and achievemodified output
  25. 25. Final comments from the literature Knowing about communicative and negotiation strategies may dispose the students to work in a more collaborative way, where both moreproficient and less proficient studentsshare more equally the role of expert.(Storch, 2000)
  26. 26. Students participate inconstructing knowledge togetherwith the teacher and other peers(Wells, 1999)
  27. 27. • Language learners are frequently and increasingly each other’s resources for language learning. (Pica et al. (1996)• It is possible that they can also attend to form. (Long, 1996)
  28. 28. ¡Gracias por escuchar! pstuessy@vis.ac.at