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100 Years Chapters 04-05

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100 Years Chapters 04-05

  1. 1. Chapter Growth and Beauty Under 4 the Bureau of Forestry 1917-1936
  2. 2. W hen Major George Ahern retired on December 31, 1914, he was succeeded by Mr. Forsythe Sherfesee Manila, Dean Fischer had to designate a Forester-in- Charge of the School in Los Baños. Forester Otto W. as Director of Forestry. However, Mr. Sherfesee left Pflueger was the Forester-in-Charge of the School from the position on December 31, 1915 to serve as 1920 to 1925. Forester Harold Cuzner, who transferred Forestry Adviser of the Chinese Government.9 from the College of Agriculture to the Forest School in 1921 as Professor of Dendrology, took the place of Pflueger Mr. Arthur F. Fischer who joined the Division of as Forester-in-Charge beginning 1925. 8, 9 Forest Investigation in 1911, and became Chief of the Division in 1916, was appointed the Director of the Bureau of Forestry on January 27, 1917. He was a strong leader and manager of the Bureau.20 Act No. 2578 created an independent “Forest School” under the University of the Philippines. However, the law provided that the Bureau Director would serve as the ex-officio Dean of the School. Thus Forsythe Sherfesee Arthur F. Fischer Professor Harold Cuzner starting in 1917, Fischer was recognized as the first Director of the Bureau of Director, Bureau of Forester-in-Charge, Dean of the Forest School. However, because of the Forestry with responsibility Forestry and first Dean, School of Forestry for the Forest School from School of Forestry beginning 1925 distance of Los Baños from the Bureau of Forestry in January 1, 1915 to effective January 27, 1917 December 31, 1915 Filipinos Trained as Forestry Pensionados in US Universities D • Felipe Amos – MF (Yale University) • Eugenio dela Cruz – MF (Yale University) irector and Dean Arthur F. Fischer, just like Dean • Juan Deprosa – MF (Montana State University) Baker, strongly felt the need to train Filipinos to sooner or later take • Nazario Peñas – MF (University of Washington) full responsibility for running the Bureau of Forestry and the Forest Felipe Salvosa of Polilio was the first Filipino forester to School. For this purpose, enabling them to get the BSF and Master of obtain the PhD degree (Harvard). He was best known for his Forestry (MF) degrees in U S universities would be highly advantageous.15 book “Lexicon of Philippines Trees.”11 The first Filipino to avail of the opportunity as forestry SOME FILIPINOS GIVEN TRAINING IN US UNIVERSITIES pensionado to the USA was Florencio Tamesis who obtained the AS FORESTRY PENSIONADOS OR SCHOLARS MF degree from the University of Washington in 1921. The other Filipinos who followed were:5 • Felix Franco – MF (Cornell University) • Alejandro de Mesa – MF (Cornell University) • Antonio Racelis – MSF (University of Michigan) • Calixto Mabesa – MF (Syracuse University) • Felipe Salvosa – MS (Harvard University) Luis Aguilar Felipe R. Amos Camaligan, Camarines Sur San Narciso, Zambales • Carlos Sulit – MF (Yale University) Educational attainment: Educational attainment: • Cecilio Maneja – MF (Yale University) Ranger Certificate,U.P., ’19; B.S.C.E., Ranger Certificate, U.P., ’15; N.U., ’37; B.S.F., U.P., ’39; B.S.F., University of Washington, ’22; • Placido Dacanay – MF (Yale University) M.S., Syracuse, ’40. M.F., Yale, ’23. 48
  3. 3. Choice of Narra as the National Tree I n 1934, a committee of four foresters from the School of Forestry and the Bureau of Forestry selected narra (Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe) as the most symbolic of the Philippines. Its popularity, utility, aesthetic value, hardiness, and tolerance made it a unanimous choice of the committee. The durability of its wood and beauty of grain in the finish make narra one of the best cabinet woods in the world.2 Flowers and fruit of narra Twig of narra showing leaves and floral development President Manuel L. Quezon, an ardent tree lover, Philippine Journal of Forestry plants narra in Malacañang on Arbor Day. Juan Daproza Placido Dacanay Calixto Mabesa Sta. Maria, Ilocos Sur Bacnotan, La Union Hinigaran, Negros Occidental A narra tree showing Educational attainment: Educational attainment: Educational attainment: crown development Ranger Certificate, U.P., ’19; B.S.F., Ranger Certificate, U.P., ’14; Ranger Certificate, U.P.;’15; B.S., Montana, ’24; M.S.F., ’25. B.S.F., Montana, ’20; M.F., Yale, ’21. Syracuse, ’23; M.F., Syracuse, ’24. Eugenio de la Cruz Gregorio Zamuco Carlos Sulit Lingayen, Pangasinan Aguilar, Pangasinan Sta. Cruz, Laguna Educational attainment: (He studied in the USA on his own.) Educational attainment: Ranger Certificate, U.P., ’18; Educational attainment: Ranger Certificate, (Medalist) U.P., ’15; (winner of Ahern’s Medal); B.S.F., Ranger Certificate, U.P., ’21; M.F., (cum laude) Yale, ’25 (magna cum laude) University of B.S.F., University of Washington ’21; Observation trips in the United Idaho, ’26;M.F., Yale University, ’27. M.F., Yale University, ’29. States, Europe, India, and Federated Malay States – 1925 49
  4. 4. Birth of the Makiling Echo in 1922 F or the first time, Makiling Echo, a mimeographed quarterly publication by the Division of Forest Investigation with rangers throughout the country greatly appreciated receiving copies of Makiling Echo.1 Forester Otto W. Pflueger as the editor-in-chief, came out in 1922. This journal recorded results of scientific and technical investigations Technical information from Makiling Echo that the alumni found in forestry by the technical staff of the Division, and the faculty as useful were many, including tree species suitable for reforestation in well as students of the Forest School. Reviews of forestry news abandoned “kaingin” areas, and the propagation of Cinchona, a from abroad were regularly included. The alumni serving as forest major source of quinine, a medicine against malaria. Forester Otto W. Pflueger Philippine Journal of Forestry He served as Chief, Division of Investigation Reforestration project in Arayat, Pampanga established in 1919, of the Bureau of Forestry and Forester-in-Charge showing seedling nursery (Vitex parviflora and Pterocarpus spp) of the School (1920-1925). In 1922, he initiated and result of direct seeding on an abandoned “kaingin” site. the quarterly publication of the Makiling Echo and served as its Editor-in-Chief Glorious Celebration of the School’s 20th Anniversary T he School of Forestry celebrated its 20th anniversary on June 14, 1930 which included the dedication of its new forestry OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE SCHOOL IN HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING building constructed with P 30,000 allocated by the University. No less than 5,000 people attended the celebration. About 30 tents In 1936, the 2-year Forest Ranger course was phased were pitched to accommodate visitors.17, 18 out to enable the faculty to focus more on training students in the BS Forestry course. The celebration included a parade , one of the best ever seen From 1910 to 1930, the School had turned out 646 in Los Baños, with many units, including the elementary schools of alumni, of whom 16 took the straight course (BSF), Bay and Los Baños, the Laguna Institute, Laguna Academy, Veterans and 630 received the ranger certificate. Twenty-three of the Revolution, Timber Licensees of Laguna with float and band, went to the USA for advanced studies. Except for the provincial officials, and the College of Agriculture and College of Director of the Bureau of Forestry and two professors Veterinary Science floats. in the School of Forestry, all the staff members of the Bureau and the School were Filipinos!15 50
  5. 5. A lumbering class under Prof. G. Zamuco Forestry students doing fieldwork and making forest observations. School of Forestry building Makiling Echo Completed in 1930, this building was inaugurated during the School’s 20th anniversary. It housed the library, offices, and classrooms of the School. 51
  6. 6. Forestry students constructing a log bridge (1930). School of Forestry students in nursery work Stages of growth of Cinchona legeriana, A plot of 4-year old Philippine Journal of Forestry source of quinine alkaloid, the active Cinchona succirubra A 4-year old Cinchona legeriana with flowers principle for treatment against malaria. 52
  7. 7. “FLANGING” TO INCREASE TIMBER UTILIZATION Preparing to fell a High stump typical in High stump before the tangile tree logging areas “flanging” process Foresters, like those in Class ’28 as shown below, Philippine Journal of Forestry Two views of a tree after it has been flanged off. have to be strong, rugged and committed to be equal The tree is ready for cutting at the base. to the demands of work in forestry. They seldom dressed up formally, but when they do, who would say they were those who sacrificed working in isolated forest areas? Golden Book-Bureau of Forestry 53
  8. 8. Discovery of Doña Aurora, Mount Makiling’s Legacy to the World of Ornamentals A Mamerto D. Sulit Lobo, Batangas He named the mutant Kahoy dalaga beautiful variety of kahoy dalaga or Mussaenda Mussaenda philippica A. Rich. Var. Aurora philippica A.Rich was discovered in 1930 at the foot of Mt. Makiling by Prof. Hugh M. Curran of the School of Forestry. Botanical specimens of this variety were first collected by Prof. Calixto Mabesa in 1915 Mutant Kahoy dalaga was named Doña Aurora. at Tuntungin Hill, but the original plant was destroyed when the site Its profuse leaf-like whitish bracts was converted to a livestock pasture area.19 against the predominantly green background made it most popular. The mutant plant discovered by Prof. Curran in Boot valley not too far from the School of Forestry was balled and transplanted to the Forestry nursery. A few living plants were obtained by marcotting and planted in the gardens of Doña Aurora de Quezon, the First Lady of the land at that time. Through the recommendations of Director Edgardo Quisumbing of the National Museum, and Dean Tamesis of the School of Forestry, Mamerto Sulit described the mutant as Mussaenda philippica A. Rich. Var. Aurora.19 In no time, plant propagators obtained samples from the UP garden, multiplied the plant through asexual propagation and sold them in the market at P20 to P25 per plant. Thus, with the possible exception of very rare orchids, Variety Aurora more popularly known as Doña Aurora became the most expensive and coveted ornamental plant in the Philippines before the outbreak of the Second World War. About 4,000 Hectares Converted to the Makiling Forest Reserve and National Park G overnor-General Cameron Forbes signed Proclamation No. 106 on November 21, 1910, which set aside 3,767 hectares of public domain in Mount Makiling covering parts of Laguna and Batangas as Makiling Forest Reserve and placed this under the responsibility of the Bureau and the Forest School. In November 1920, Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison changed the Makiling Forest Reserve to Makiling National Botanical Garden. But in 1933, Governor-General Theodore Roosevelt Jr. converted this to Makiling National Park. Gateway to Makiling National Park 54
  9. 9. INTERESTING POINTS OF THE MAKILING NATIONAL PARK Guesthouse done in bamboo and nipa Drinking fountain Philippine Journal of Forestry Visitors resting in the Makiling National Park Philippine Journal of Forestry A natural swimming pool in a setting of wilderness Mudsprings, the last gasping breath of an expiring volcano 55
  10. 10. Beginning of Traditions: Celebrations of Forestry Day and Moving-Up Day F or the first time, Forestry Day was celebrated on November 30, 1935 under the auspices of Classes ’36, ’37, ’38 and ’39 of the Moving-Up Day: Passing-of-the-Key Ceremony School of Forestry. The celebration consisted of athletic games, a musical and a literary program, and a School of Forestry lechonada. President Jorge Bocobo was the guest speaker.16 Likewise, Class ’37 initiated the Moving-up Day in 1937, a day of celebration for the graduating seniors and the juniors who were moving up.4 Moving-up Day helped in highlighting the successes of graduating students and challenges to the junior class. It also helped in bringing the alumni together and creating opportunities to pass resolutions for the good of the service and the school. Forestry Day and Moving-up Day became traditional events in the School of Forestry. Augustine T. Springer Leader of Class ’37 that initiated the Forestry Day and Moving-up Day. Faculty and Student Body of the School of Forestry in 1937 Golden Book-Bureau of Forestry 56
  11. 11. Students performing “La Jota Moncadeña” The Forest Songbirds (Left to right, front) Mrs. A. B. Tamolang, Ms. A. de Dios, Mrs. F. Pollisco, Mrs. N. Vergara, and Mrs. Ranit Tamesis Rose to the Top Positions in the Bureau and the School A fter completing 25 years of service to the Philippine government, Arthur F. Fischer retired as Director of the Bureau of Forestry on December 31, 1936. For his splendid work in the Arthur F. Fischer Philippines, he was conferred the degree of Master of Arts, Retired and became honoris causa, by Yale University in 1939. Adviser on Natural Resources of the Florencio Tamesis (Forest Ranger ’12), the Assistant Director Commonwealth of of the Bureau, was appointed by President Manuel L. Quezon in the Philippines December 1936 as Director of the Bureau of Forestry to succeed Director Arthur F. Fischer. As the Director of the Bureau, Tamesis became ex-officio Dean of the School of Forestry.20 Everyone in the Bureau and in the School hailed the elevation of Tamesis to the top position in the Bureau and to the top leadership in the School. His record was very inspiring because of his rise from forest guard to Director of Forestry, and from houseboy to Dean of the School.10 Florencio Tamesis The first Filipino who became Director of the In 1909, Tamesis was one of the first students in the College Bureau of Forestry and of Agriculture. He transferred to the Forest School upon its Ex-officio Dean of the organization in 1910. After graduation as a forest ranger, he worked School of Forestry. under the Bureau in Negros Occidental as well as in eastern and He rose from forest guard western Visayas islands. He undertook reconnaissance and to Bureau Director, and from houseboy to Dean exploration work, got a good grasp of the lumber business, and of the School. enriched his forestry knowledge by actual field practice and contact with lumbermen and forest users.10 57
  12. 12. Landmarks in Agriculture Chapter 5 Under B. M. Gonzalez 1927-1938 The center of the campus viewed from Balong Bulo Hill in 1930. The Central Experiment Station is shown in the foreground.
  13. 13. Bienvenido M. Gonzalez, the First Filipino at the Helm of the College O n August 27, 1927, the Board of Regents appointed Dr. Bienvenido Maria Gonzalez as Acting Dean of the College of Agriculture at age 34. He first came to the College with advanced credits from the Philippine Normal School as a freshman in 1910 and joined the students in carving the College of Agriculture out of the wilderness. After graduation, he was absorbed by the College as an assistant in animal husbandry and sent to the University of Wisconsin as a University Fellow (1914-1916) where he obtained the MS (Animal Husbandry) degree. In 1917, he was appointed Assistant Professor; in 1919, Associate Professor, and in 1920, Full Professor.11 Again, he was sent as University Fellow to the USA for PhD studies. He obtained the ScD degree in Hygiene from Johns Hopkins University in 1923. Dr. Gonzalez had virtually been directing the Department of Animal Husbandry since 1916, and he built the unit into one of the three largest and most important departments of the College, the two others being Agronomy and Plant Physiology. 11 Dr. Gonzalez was also the first President of the College of Agriculture Alumni Association and the first President of the Los Baños Biological Club. He also served as the first Alumnus- Regent of the University from 1918 to 1921. Bienvenido M. Gonzalez Full Professor at age 26, and Dean at age 34 60
  14. 14. The New Dean Expected No Less Than Excellent Outputs from the Faculty and Students I want every product of this College, whether it be a student, a plant, a domestic animal, or a scientific paper, to bear a mark similar to that of “sterling” in silver. -Bienvenido M. Gonzalez T eaching was a responsibility of the most senior professors in each department, who had to combine theory and a lot of field Judging carabaos practice for students. In research, exposure of researchers to field problems was considered most important for them to appreciate the actual problems encountered by farmers. Better research facilities were provided to enable everyone to undertake excellent research. Class in Plant Pathology studying coconut bud rot. Philippine Agriculturist 61
  15. 15. The field is the principal laboratory. Selecting corn plants for desirable traits at an early stage Students and faculty spent much of their time making soil surveys and mapping the soils. A party of thesis students as shown mapping Kapatagan Valley soils. Field class in Entomology observing insect infestation College Ornamental Nursery, established by Mr. Vicente Dawis and his assistants in landscape gardening, located on a site now occupied by the ACCI dormitory and International House – Graduate School. Thousands of College visitors appreciated this Nursery. 62
  16. 16. Creation of a Department of Agricultural Education and a Rural High School T he creation of the Department of Agricultural Education in 1929 highlighted a new dimension in the role and responsibilities of As a teacher-training department, the Department of Agricultural Education organized the Rural High School. the College of Agriculture. The Vocational Education Act No. 3377 With an allocation of P 20,000 from the University, a had a provision requiring the College to train teachers for lower Rural High School building was constructed. It opened its agricultural schools.8 Funds appropriated under Act No. 3377 door on June 1, 1929. This enabled sons and daughters of enabled the College to construct an Agricultural Education building.1 College employees to take secondary education on campus. To turn out first class graduates to be teachers in farm schools, the College designed a one-year course over and above the BSA for a Certificate in Agricultural Education.6 Department of Agricultural Education main building constructed on a site now occupied by the College of Development Communication building. 63
  17. 17. Laboratory Research Facilities and Other Buildings Constructed D ean Gonzalez proved to be effective in the generation of resources for the construction or expansion of laboratory research facilities such as those in dairy husbandry, soil science, chemistry, entomology and botany, and other essential infrastructures such as the Infirmary, student dormitories, staff houses, and bridges.1, 3, 4 He also raised funds for the construction of Baker Memorial Hall. The big Bagtican tree This was an imposing landmark and a silent witness to the pioneering years of the College, that gave way for the construction of the Palma bridge. The foothills of Mount Makiling showing Baker Memorial Hall and dormitories The dormitories and Copeland Heights barrio nestled at the foot of Faculty Hill. Pili Drive bordered the orchards of the Experiment Station. Baker Memorial Hall is partially hidden by the trees along Molawin creek. 64
  18. 18. The Palma Bridge over Molawin Creek Note the “temporary building” at the center where the parking lot of the Physical Sciences building now stands. Laboratory practice in farm machinery. Students operating a small rice thresher at the College Tool Room. 65
  19. 19. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) building The Animal Husbandry Bridge, constructed out of the income of the Department. Silo of the Department of Animal Husbandry This 52-ton silo for the preservation and storage of feed to be used in time of need was the only silo in use in the Philippines. The Infirmary The center for medical, surgical and dental treatment for the faculties, students and staff of the College of Agriculture and the School of Forestry. 66
  20. 20. Soils building constructed on a site near the College gate. Student dormitory Baker Memorial Hall named in memory of the second Dean of the College, the late Charles Fuller Baker. This Hall served as auditorium, gymnasium and armory. 67
  21. 21. Construction of the College of Agriculture Campus Gate the Most Symbolic Landmark of the College for Decades T he University Student Council set aside P 2,000 for the The two massive and tall concrete pillars with carabao heads impressive College gate composed of two imposing pillars topped at the gate served as the most symbolic landmark of the College of with artistically sculptured heads of carabaos.5 The carabao pillars Agriculture campus for several decades until it was replaced in 1967 were sculpted by no less than Guillermo Tolentino who later on by the present UPLB gate. became a National Artist. Campus Gate This College gate, a gift from the University Student Council, was the most symbolic landmark of the College of Agriculture campus until it was relegated to the background when the present UPLB gate was constructed in 1967. 68
  22. 22. “Hail College Dear” Sung Publicly for the First Time During the 1934 Loyalty Day “H ail College Dear,” a soul-lifting tune, was For several decades until 1972 when UPLB became composed by Antonino Buenaventura who became a National the first autonomous university under UP, every student and Artist. The inspiring lyrics were written by Dr. Leopoldo B. Uichanco, alumnus on campus sang “Hail College Dear” as an opening Head of the Department of Entomology. number in college convocations, conferences or social events. The hymn was sang publicly for the first time during the 1934 Loyalty Day celebration with Mr. Buenaventura conducting.7 Loyalty Day Parade-Circa 1938 Cadet officers with their instructors The College of Agriculture Recognized Nationally and Internationally as a Scientific Center T he report of President Jorge Bocobo for the academic year June 1, 1935 to May 31, 1936 showed that out of a total of 583 on- bibliography directory published in New York. Out of 50 Filipinos in the list, 23 or almost 50% were alumni of the College going scientific investigations in the entire university for the period of Agriculture.10, 17 under review, 283 or 49% were in the College of Agriculture. This was significant most especially if one considered that the These, in addition to the fact that many Asian College had some 70 faculty members, including assistants, which countries were sending students to Los Baños and many scientists from the USA and Europe were visiting the represented only 14 percent of the University’s faculty of about 500.18 College of Agriculture, were substantial and concrete Moreover, 23 College alumni and seven others connected with testimonies that the College had arrived as a vital center of the College were listed in the 1933 American Men of Science, a science in tropical agriculture. 69
  23. 23. UPCA-Generated Technologies in the 1930s T he College unraveled several new researches and developed improved technologies. Initially, gasanol was used, which was a mixture of 50% alcohol, 45% gasoline, and 5% sulphuric ether. The car ran at a maximum mileage of 15.8 miles/gal. a. Outstanding breeds of livestock and poultry produced by the College With 10% alcohol, the car ran at 17.4 miles/gal. The College, through the leadership of Dr. B. M. Gonzalez, The use of 15-20% denatured 193o proof ethyl alcohol launched a livestock and poultry breeding program mixed with gasoline exceeded the efficiency of pure beginning in 1921, and after several generations, released gasoline by 0.7 to 16%.16 Berkjala, a new breed of pig, and the Los Baños Cantonese chicken, a breed that proved superior in terms of egg production.12, 13, 14, 15. In 1939, the College also had Philamin, a superior breed which was a three-way cross of Philippine native cattle, American Hereford, and Indian Nellore.25 b. Elon-ram, an outstanding rice variety produced by the College The College made a cross between Elon-elon, a low- yielding but important export variety of rice with good eating quality and superior milling recovery, and Ramai, a high-yielding imported variety with less than desirable eating quality. The end-product after six generations of breeding work was Elon-ram Strain 2.2 This variety contributed significantly in greatly increasing rice production in the country. Berkjala boar with resistance to hog cholera, age 2 years, weight 175 kg. c. Gasoline with 15-20% ethyl alcohol was better than pure gasoline as motor fuel College engineers led by Dr. Anastacio L. Teodoro in the 1930s made extensive studies on the use of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as motor fuel. De Sotto de Luxe Sedan (1929 model) was used, which performed very satisfactorily when ran for over 50,000 kilometers on alcohol fuels for a period of five years.16 Berkjala weaning pigs, offsprings of a hog-cholera resistant stock. 70
  24. 24. A Los Baños Cantonese rooster A Los Baños Cantonese hen PHILAMIN: Rebecca, one of the foundation Provincial Fair, foundation bull for a draft-beef cows for a draft-beef breed animal for the breed animal for the Philippines. The blood Philippines. The blood composition is American composition is Indian Nellore (50%) and Hereford (50%), Indian Nellore (25%), and Hereford (50%). Philippine native (25%). Comparing alcohol with imported gasoline as motor fuel. The performances of automobile and truck fuels were compared, using both the modern dynamometer shown at the right side of the picture, and extensive road tests with cars and trucks. Gasoline with 15-20% ethanol proved to be more efficient than pure gasoline. 71
  25. 25. Gonzalez Elected UP President S hortly after the appointment of UP Pres. Jorge C. Bocobo as Secretary of Public Instruction on April 14, 1939, Dean Bienvenido Some questioned his qualifications for the UP presidency, having come from a “cow college.” But Dr. Gonzalez’s rise to the M. Gonzalez was elected President of UP by the Board of Regents presidency seemed to be a divine fate. His appointment as UP at a special meeting presided over by President Manuel L. Quezon President seemed to follow the footsteps of his late father, Dr. Joaquin on April 20, 1939.8 Gonzalez, who became president of the Universidad Cientifico- Leteraria de Filipinas, which was established by the Aguinaldo Many opposed his appointment as College Dean because he Government. At age 46, he was the youngest so far to become was a very strict Department Head. He “culled” personnel who, in UP President. his opinion, failed to come up to standard.19 Aerial view of the College of Agriculture and School of Forestry in 1928. Note at the center the Coconut Grove near the entrance to the College where the two rows of Royal palms begin. 72
  26. 26. Faculty of the College of Agriculture Seated at the center is Dean Gonzalez with hands on his thighs. At his right side is Dr. Espino, Head of the Department of Agricultural Botany, and at his left side is Dr. N. Mendiola (with short arms), Head of the Department of Agronomy. Student Body of the College of Agriculture, 1934 73