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The Professional Bureaucracy<br />Stable & complex work, standardized behavior – simultaneous standardization and decentralization.<br />Universities, hospitals, school systems, government agencies, & production firms<br />
Each professional works independently at his task but closely with his clients.<br />Teacher in a classroom<br />(teachers with students)<br />Doctors treating a patient<br />(surgeon & anesthesiologist- together but independent)<br />Policeman alone<br />Case worker with citizen<br />Counselor with student<br />
Coordination by design - structure<br />Governing bodies set standards.<br />(accreditation or standardization boards, associations, groups, organizations)<br /><ul><li>AICPA, NAIFA, Accrediting bodies, TBOR</li></ul>Work processes too complex to be standardized (such as at DMV), but dependent on personal judgment, peer consultation within a design or framework of guidelines.<br />
“Pigeonholing” linked by administration<br />In the professional bureaucracy, clients are “pigeonholed” according to general criteria – leaving professionals the necessity to exercise expertise and judgment in performing their role.<br />The bureaucracy is a series of decentralized linked pigeonholes.<br />Combined – served – organized – coordinated by professional administrators. (House)<br />
Strategy within the Professional Bureaucracy <br />Each professional’s strategy somewhat similar - set by outside entities, associations, organizations <br /> - requirements, guidelines, regulations<br />The administrator maintains - serves, supervises, directs, supports, facilitates, the success of these strategies – formulates, works, steers a strategy – “overall with coordination”.<br />A complex & stable environment – democratic –simple – professionals control their work and decisions.<br />
Attached & Free – best of both worlds?<br />Autonomy – allows professionals to perfect their skills, free of interference – surgeons – artists – but….<br />Problems? Administrative solutions?<br />Coordination between staff and professional – creates friction point<br />Discretion - professionals vary in competence and conscientiousness<br />Innovation – Inflexible structure leads to difficulty accommodating change or different approaches.<br />
OUTSIDERS see problems – seek changes<br />Outsiders seek change through external controls – standardization or direct supervision.<br /> - parental approach – imposing supervision<br /> - new laws, rules intended to achieve change<br /> by addressing specific items or standards.<br />● Results? (DOGS & CATS Sleeping together)<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w91-GMc3j7I<br /> - dampened professional conscientiousness, baby out with bathwater, upset balance, increased bureaucracy, greater dissatisfaction, less innovation<br />
Final Words<br />Change…does not sweep in from …intent on …control. <br /> ….Change seeps in, by the slow process of changing the professionals…incrementalism.<br />…may be best …to bring pressures on the …associations rather than on professional bureaucracies.<br />