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I have forgot to put my other reference that help me in this presentation. She is Josephine Pineda Dasig that have made also a presentation about social dimension of education. Thank You so much Ma'am...
Origin of Sociology of Education
The sociology of education is the study of how
social institutions and individual experiences
affects education and its outcome.
It is relatively a new branch and two great
sociologist Émile Durkheim and Max Weber were
the father of sociology of education. Émile
Durkheim's work on moral education as a basis
for social solidarity is considered the beginning
of sociology of education.
Sociologists see education as one of the
major institutions that constitutes
society. While theories guide research
and policy formulation in the sociology of
This theories help sociologists
understand educational systems.
The word Sociology originates from
latin prefix :socius, "companion"; and
the suffix -ology, "the study of", from
Greek lógos, "knowledge" .
Sociology is the systematic study of
society.Sociology encompasses all the
elements of society ie social relation,
social stratification, social interaction,
: people in general thought of as living
together in organized communities with
shared laws, traditions, and values
: the people of a particular country,
area, time, etc., thought of especially
as an organized community
Education is a broad concept, referring to all
the experiences in which learners can learn
It is a social endeavour designed to get the
maximum from the ability of each of the
member of the society. Education is covers
both the teaching, learning of knowledge
Education consists of systematic instruction,
teaching and training by professional
According to some
sociologist; society has
two faces; the face of
consensus and the
face of conflict.
should be divided into
two parts between the
consensus theory and
the conflict theory.
The proponents of consensus and conflict
sociological and social theories are:
Talcott Parsons & Robert Merton
Louis Althusser & Ralph Dahrendorf
Herbert Mead & Herbert Blumer
Marx's class theory rests on
the premise that "the history
of all hitherto existing
society is the history of class
struggles." According to this
view, ever since human
society emerged from its
primitive and relatively
undifferentiated state it has
divided between classes
who clash in the pursuit of
Durkheim discusses how
modern society is held
together by a division of
labor that makes individuals
dependent upon one
another because they
specialize in different types
of work. Durkheim is
about how the division of
labor changes the way that
individuals feel they are part
of society as a whole.
Max Weber believed that
it was social actions that
should be the focus of
study in sociology. To
Weber, a “social action’”
was an action carried out
by an individual to which
an individual attached a
meaning. Therefore, an
action that a person does
not think about cannot be
a social action.
emphasizes the role of
coercion and power in
producing social order. This
perspective is derived from
the works of Karl Marx, who
saw society as fragmented
into groups that compete for
social and economic
According to conflict theory, inequality exists
because those in control of a disproportionate
share of society’s resources actively defend their
The conflict model is
concerned with the
stresses and conflicts
that emerge in society
It focuses on the
inequalities that are built
into social structures
rather than on those
that emerge because of
produce patterns of
inequality in the
distribution of scarce
Reorganization and Change
Is a social theory that states that social
change should occur in institutions that are
provided by a political or economic system,
which is fair. The theory also states that the
absence of conflict within a society is the
state of equilibrium.
It is being considered in these theories that
the social order in society should be
maintained, based upon the accepted
norms, values, roles or regulations that are
accepted by the society in general.
Consensus Theories Conflict theories
See shared norms and
values as fundamental to
Emphasize the dominance of
some social groups by
Focus on social order based
on tacit agreements
See social order as based
on manipulation and control
by dominant groups
View social change as
occurring in a slow and
View social change as
occurring rapidly in a
disorderly fashion as
overthrow dominant groups
Structural Functionalism states that society is
made up of various institutions that work
together in cooperation.
Parsons’ structural functionalism has four
Structural Functionalism (AGIL)
1. Adaptation – a system must cope with external situational
exigencies. It must adapt to its environment and adapt environment
to its needs.
2. Goal attainment- a system must define and achieve its primary
3. Integration- a system must regulate the interrelationship of its
component parts. It must also manage the relationship among the
other three functional imperatives (A,G,L)
4. Latency (pattern maintenance)- a system must furnish, maintain
and renew both the motivation of individuals and the cultural
patterns that create and sustain the motivation.
Structure of the General Action System
providing actors with the
norms and values that
motivate them for action
adjusting to and
transforming to the
defining system goals
and mobilizing resources
to attain them
Functional Requisites of a social system
1. Social system must be structured so that
they operate compatibly with other
2. To survive, the social system must have
requisite from other systems.
3. The system must meet a significant
proportion of the needs of its actors.
4. The system must elicit adequate
participation from its members.
5. It must have at least a minimum of
control over potentially disruptive behavior.
6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive,
it must be controlled.
7. Finally, a social system requires a
language in order to survive.
Is the relation of school and society
are critiques and extensions of the
functionalist and conflict
Interactionist theories are critiques
and extensions of the functionalist
and conflict perspectives.
This level of analysis helps us to
understand education in the “ big
Interactionist theories attempt to make
the “commonplace strange” by turning
on their heads everyday taken-for-
granted behaviors and interactions
between students and students and
between students and teachers.
Symbolic interaction theory analyses society by
addressing the subjective meanings that people
impose on objects, events, and behaviours.
Has its own origin in the social psychology of early
twentieth century sociologist George Herbert Mead
and Charles Horton Cooley.
This school of thought, known as symbolic
interactionism, views the self as socially
constructed in relation to social forces and
structures and the product of on going negotiations
Principles of Symbolic Interactionism
1. Human beings are endowed with the capacity
2. The capacity for thought us shaped by social
3. In social interaction, people learn the
meanings and the symbols that allow them to
exercise their distinctively human capacity for
4. Meanings and symbols allow people to carry
on distinctively human action and interaction.
5. People are able to modify or alter meanings
and symbols that they use in action and
interaction on the basis of their interpretation
of the situation.
6. People are able to make these modifications
and alterations because, in part, of their ability
to interact with themselves, which allows them
ton examine possible courses of action, assess
their relative advantages and disadvantages,
and then choose one.
7. The intertwined patterns of action and
interaction make up groups and societies.
The regularization of common tasks and activities
of collective life; this function gives rise to routines,
norms, public behavior and standard operating
The atonement and instilment in the social
members of the customary laws and values guide
and direct the members towards enlightenment,
ennoblement, and perfectibility.
The veneration of all that are beneficent to the
human race and society through the collective acts
of celebration, recognition and commemoration of
Promotion of self-sufficiency for the
populace by both the government and the
Strengthening the agricultural and industrial
economies of the country.
Intervention of government in anti- social
Balancing people’s needs with the country’s
Political governance, legislation,
arbitration, social service, social
assistance, security and protection,
punitive sanctions, implementation of
social justice through laws, and social
Social Dimensions of Education, Violeta A.Vega
Social Dimensions of Philippine Education, Dr.