3. 1.DEFINE MANAGEMENT ?
It is the process of involving Planning,
Organising, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
human efforts to achieve stated objectives in an
According to Koontz “Management is the art of
getting things done through and with people in
formally organised group.”
4. 2.DISTINGUISH BETWEEN
ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT ?
Functions in organisation
Figure: Administrative and managerial functions
5. BASIS OF ADMINISTRATIO MANAGEMENT
1.Level in Top level Middle and lower
2.Major focus Policy Policy execution for
formulation and objective
3.Nature of Determinative Executive
4.Scope of functions Broad and Narrow and
5.Factors affecting Mostly external Mostly internal
6.Employer- Entrepreneurs Employees
employee relation and owners
7.Qualities required Administrative Technical
6. 3.LIST THE FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT ?
Five fundamental functions of management
1. PLANNING :- deciding -what to do,when to do and how to do.
2. ORGANISING :- departmentation of activities and delegation of
authority & responsibility.
3. STAFFING :- manning of the various position in an organiation.
4 . DIRECTING :- directing subordinates for organisational objective.
5. CONTROLLING :- Controlling means the measurement and
correction of performance of activities of subordinates
8. Administrative or Top Level
Responsible for providing the overall direction of
Develop goals and strategies for entire
Spend most of their time planning and leading
Communicate with key stakeholders—
stockholders, unions, governmental agencies, etc.,
Use of multicultural and strategic action
competencies to lead firm is crucial
9. Executive or Middle Level
Responsible for setting objectives that are
consistent with top management’s goals and
translating them into specific goals and plans for
first-line managers to implement
Responsible for coordinating activities of first-line
Establish target dates for products/services to be
Need to coordinate with others for resources
Ability to develop others is important
Rely on communication, teamwork, and planning
and administration competencies to achieve goals
10. Supervisory or Lower Level
Directly responsible for production of goods or
Employees who report to first-line managers do
the organization’s work
Spend little time with top managers in large
Technical expertise is important
Rely on planning and administration, self-
management, teamwork, and communication
competencies to get work done
11. WHAT IS MBO ?
The term Management By Objectives (MBO) or Management
By Results(MBR) was coined by Peter Drucker in 1954.
MBO is focuses sharply on the objectives or results achieved
with in a specified period.
MBO emphasises participative management, an approach
which provide high motivation to individuals in an
12. MBO is defined as a comprehensive managerial system
that integrates many key managerial activities in a
systematic manner ,consciously directed towards the
effective achievement of organisational objectives.
13. WHAT IS SWOT ANALYSIS ?
SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to
evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses,Opportunities, and Threats
involved in a project or in a business venture.
This technique is invented by Albert Humphrey
▪ Strengths : characteristics of the business, or project
team that give it an advantage over others.
▪ Weaknesses : are characteristics that place the team at a
disadvantage relative to others.
14. ▪ Opportunities : external chances to improve
performance in the environment.
▪ Threats : external elements in the environment that
could cause trouble for the business or project.
The strengths and weaknesses are purely internal and
the opportunities and threats are purely external to the
15. DISTINGUISH FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANISATION ?
Formal organisation :- They are deliberately designed to
achieve some particular objectives. It refers to the structure of well
defined jobs, each bearing a definite authority, responsibility and
Informal organisation :- They refer to the natural grouping
of people on the basis of some similarity in an organisation like-
likes, dislikes, gender etc.. These associations are not specified in
the blueprint of the formal organisation.
16. Basis of comparison Formal organisation Informal
Formation / Origin Planned and Spontaneous, socio-
deliberate psychological forces
Purpose Well-set goals Social interaction
Structure Well structured Unstructured
Nature Official Unofficial
Size Generally large Small
Authority Delegated Any one
Communication Formal channel Informal channel
Guidelines for Rules and procedures Group norms
Abolition At completion of Any time
17. EXPLAIN STAFFING FUNCTION IN MANAGEMMENT ?
Staffing involves manning the various position in an organization.
According to McFarland :
“ Staffing is the function by which managers build an
organisation through the recruitment,selection,and
development of individuals as capable employees”.
Placing right type of people at right position and at right time in
Recruitment, selection and placement
Training and development
Promotions and transfer
18. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY ?
Basis Authority Responsibility
Meaning It is the legitimate power of It is the obligation of the
the manager to command his subordinate to complete
subordinates. the assigned work.
Origin It arises due to the position of It arises due to superior-
Flow It flows from top to bottom. It flows from bottom to
Period It has longer period as It gets completed with
compared to responsibility. the completion of the
task so has the shorter
Nature Authority is power. Responsibility is the
Delegation Authority can be delegated to Responsibility cannot be
19. EXPLAIN VISION AND MISSION OF AN
Mission is the statement of the role by which an
organisation intends to serve it’s stakeholders.It describes
why an organisation is operating and thus provides a
framework within which strategies are formulated.
The mission statement is formulated for it’s customers and
A vision statement identifies where the organisation wants
Or intend to be in future or where it should be to the best
needs of the stakeholders.
A vision statement for the organisation and it’s employer’s.
The difference between a mission statement and a vision
statement is that a mission statement focuses on a company’s
present state while a vision statement focuses on a company’s
20. WRITE A NOTE ON SPAN OF CONTROL ?
Span of control is also known as span of supervision or span of
Depicts number of employees that can be handled and
controlled by a single manager.
Two types are available :
▪ Wide span of control
In which a manager can supervise and control effectively
a large group of persons at one time.
▪ Narrow span of control
A manager can supervises a selected number of
employees at one time.
Factors influencing span of control
▪ Managerial abilities : it concerns where managers are
qualified and experienced.Hence wide span is suitable
21. ▪ Competence of subordinates : Where subordinates are
capable and competent and their understanding levels
are proper. Hence wide span is suitable.
▪ Nature of work
If work is repetitive nature wide span of supervision is
If work requires mental skills,tight control and
supervision ,narrow span is suitable.
▪ Delegation of authority
When work is delegated to lower levels in efficent way,
confusions are less.Here also wide span of control is
▪ Degree of decentralisation
Decentralisation is done in order to achieve
specialisation in which authority is shared by many
people. Again wide span of control is needed.
23. DISCUSS THE EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT ?
Scientific management is a classical approach.
Father of scientific management is Frederick Winslow Taylor.
It is designed to focused on improving operational efficency
at shop floor level.
Taylor has defined scientific management as follows:
“Scientific management is concerned with knowing exactly
what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the
best and cheapest way.”
ELEMENTS AND TOOLS OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
1. Separation of Planning and Doing
▪ Planning should be left to the supervisor and the
worker focused only on operational work.
2. Functional Foremanship
▪ Taylor advocated appointment of 8 foremen, 4 at
the planning level & other 4 at implementation level.
▪ All of them give direction to workers on different
aspects of work.
▪ It is against unity of command principle.
24. WORKSHOP MANAGER
PLANNING IN CHARGE PRODUCTION IN CHARGE
Disci Instructio Repair Inspec Speed
ROUTE Time & Gang
plinar n card boss tor boss
CLERK cost boss
25. 3. Job Analysis
▪ To find out the best way of doing things,which requires
less movements, time and cost .
▪ Determined by Time-Motion-Fatigue study.
Time study- time required to complete a movement.
Motion study-check which parts involved in doing job.
Fatigue study-amount and frequency of rest required in
▪ Standardisation made in respect of :-instruments and
tools,period of work,amount of work,working
conditions,cost of productions etc.
5. Scientific Selection and Training of Workers
▪ Workers must be selected on the basis of their
education,work experience,aptitude,physical strength etc.
▪ provide adequate training for making them efficent.
6. Financial Incentives
▪ Introduce Differential Piece Rate System to motivate
workers for providing maximum effort.
▪ one who completes the work who got higher rate and one
who doesn’t complete gets lower rate.
26. 7. Economy
▪ Adequate consideration is also given to economy and
▪ Achieved by making resources more productive and
eliminating the wastages.
8. Mental revolution
▪ Scientific management depends on mutual co-
operation of management and workers.
▪ a complete mental revolution is needed between
workers and management for their proper
PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
1. Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science
▪ Scientific method emphasize on precision and rule
of thumb emphasize on estimation.
▪ Scientific management measures various aspects of
work precisely and not on the basis of mere
2. Harmony in Group Action
▪ Unity is needed in group action rather than discord.
27. ▪ There must be mutual give and take situation and
proper understanding is needed to achieve more
▪ Scientific management needs co-operation rather
▪ Co-operation between management and workers
developed through mutual understanding
and a change in thinking.
4. Maximum Output
▪ Advice them to increase the surplus(means share
profit with workers),So that mass production
and more revenue will be occurred.
5.Development of Workers
▪ Workers should be developed to the fullest
extent for their own and company‟s
▪ adequate training made the workers fit into the
new requirement of an organisation.
28. GIVE AN ACCOUNT OF EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT BY GIVING CONTRIBUTION OF ANY 3
PIONEERS IN THE FIELD?
Other persons who worked to develop scientific
1. Henry Gantt
● Develop graphic methods of depicting plans and
making possible managerial control.
● Emphasized on the importance of time as well as
ost in planning and controlling work.
● Led to the development of GANTT CHART.
● Forerunner of modern PERT(Performance,
evaluation and review technique) technique.
2. Frank and Lillian Giberth
● Find out „ one best way of doing‟ under the given
set of realities.
● Also tried to look out at the problems of workers
from social and psychological point of view.
29. 3.Carl George Berth
● He works with Taylor and later he
developed his contribution.
● Develop many mathematical techniques
and formulas to made Taylor’s idea’s into
30. Discuss the evolution of scientific
management .What are the contributions of
Contributions of Peter Drucker
● Because of the background of
psychology,sociology,law and journalism ,his
contributions covers various approaches of
● According to Peter F. Drucker, " Scientific
management is the organized study of work, the
analysis of work into its simplest element and the
systematic improvement of the workers".
31. WHAT IS PLANNING ? EXPLAIN VARIOUS TYPES OF
● Planning is a process involves future course of action,that
is,why an action,what action,how to take action and when
to take action.
why of action implies the end result to be achieved.
what of action implies activities to be undertaken.
how and when generate various policies, programmes,
● According to Terry :
“Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making
and using of assumptions regarding the future in the
visualisation and formalisation of proposed activities
believed necessary to achieve desired result”.
● It involves the determination of objectives and selecting
the best course of action which will lead to the
achievement of the predetermined objectives.
● Planning is the preparatory step for actions and helps in
bridging the gap between the present and the future.
32. TYPES OF PLANS
● A plan is a commitment of resources to a particular course
of action believed necessary to achieve specific results.
● Planning process results into several individual plans
which are bound together for consistent operation.
● Plans are classified into ways:
1. Standing and Single-use plans.
2. Strategic and Operational plan
STANDING AND SINGLE-USE PLAN
▪ Standing plans provide guidelines for further course
of action and are used over a period of time.
▪ These plans operate long time unless there is a
change in plans.
▪ Examples:-organisational mission and long term
objectives,strategies,policies,procedures and rules.
▪ Single-use plans only relevant for a specified period
▪ After the specified time this plan is generated for
▪ Example:-projects,budgets,quotas,targets etc.
33. ▪ Single-use plan derived from standing plans.
Strategic and Operational plans
▪ Strategic plans defined as long term course of action
for an organisation.
▪ It includes determination of organisational
objectives for long time period,major policies and
▪ Operational plans are used to implement
strategies,both major and minor.
▪ Examples of major operational plans are
▪ Examples of minor plans are in the form of quotas
and targets to be achieved within a specified period.
▪ Procedures are rules provide guidelines to put plans
● The organisational plans are interlinked and arranged in
hierarchy in which low order plan contributes to the
achievement of the objectives of higher order plans.
34. Mission or purpose
Procedures and rules
Quotas and targets
Fig : Hierarchy of organisational plans
35. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS OF
MANAGEMENT ? DISCUSS EACH ONE OF THEM IN
Five fundamental functions of
Controlling has following steps:
1. Establishment of standard
2. Measurement of actual performance
3. Comparison of actual performance
with the standard performance
4. Corrective action
41. EXPLAIN DIFFERENT TYPES OF
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ?
Systematic arrangement of people working
for the organisation.
It is the relationship among various
activities and positions.
It provides an appropriate framework for
authority and responsibility relationship.
Organisation structure is generally shown on
a organisation chart.
42. Designed to achieve specific goals
Establishment of authority
Promotes division of labor and leads to
43. The classification of organisation structure is
based on the way various activities are grouped
to create departments and units, and prescribing
their relationship in the organisation.
Types of organisation structures:-
b. Line and Staff
44. It is the simplest structure.
Purely based on superior subordinate
There must be a single head to command.
An executive can delegate authority.
Also known as scalar, military or vertical
Board of director
Easy Supervision and Control
Overall Development of Managers
47. Lack of specialization
Absence of Conceptual Thinking
Problems of Coordination
Lack of Groundwork for Subordinates
48. It is pattern in which staff specialists advise
line managers to perform their duties.
i.e;advise is provided to line
managers by staff personal who are
generally specialists in their field.
Secretary Board of Director Legal Advisor
Sales Managing Account
Personne General Purchase
Design Engineers Work Manager Industrial
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W5
50. Planned Specialization
Prospect for Personal Growth
Training ground for personnel
Lack of Well defined Authority.
Line and Staff Conflicts.
High Production Cost.
51. It is adopted when business grows and
expands same line of business.
It is widely used in medium and large
orgsnisations having limited number of
It is created by grouping the activities on the
basis of functions required for achievement
of organasational objectives.
All functions are classified into basic,
secondary, supporting functions according to
their nature and importance.
Board of Director
Production Finance Marketing Personnel
Sales Distribution Promotions
Store Purchas ManufacturingPacking
Advertisement Discoun Rebate
Television Print Retail Whol
53. High degree of specialisation
Order and clarity
High degree of control and co-ordination
Slow decision making
Inter departmental conflicts
54. Growth through geographic and product
diversification necessitates the adoption of
Organisation is divided into several fairly
autonomous units and has its own resources
and it operates independently.
It also known as product structure or profit
Board of Director
Corporate Planning Legal Services Research Finance
Consumer Division Chemical Electrical Division
Production ManufacturingFinance Personnel
56. Each product or customer is able to get
It emphasises on product or end result.
Performance measure is easier.
Higher level of managerial motivation.
It is quite costly.
Lack of managerial personal when a new division is
57. In the project organisation structure,
divisions are created only for the life time of
It is organic-adaptive in nature.
Pure project structure
Matrix organisation structure
58. In the project organisation structure,
divisions are created only for the life time of
It is organic-adaptive in nature.
Pure project structure
Matrix organisation structure
59. It is suitable for taking smaller number of
large projects with long duration so that
separate division for can be created for each
It is one-time task and is definable in terms of
single, specific goal.
There is high degree of independence among
It is infrequent, unique and unfamiliar to the
Pure project organisation
Project 1 Project 2
Administr ring QC CA EP S
61. It allows maximum use of specialized knowledge.
It enables the organisation to adapt to
Maximum utilization of resources.
Lack of clarity among members about their roles
in the organisation.
Insecurity and uncertainty among people in the
Project manager faces numerous problems.
62. It is suitable for taking large number of
smaller projects and activities of varies
projects can be accomplished through
It is essentially a violation of unity of
It is the realization of two dimensional
It is the combination of pure project
structure and functional structure .
64. It focuses resources on a single project and
should be completed within a specified time.
It emphasis on professional competence by
elaborating authority of knowledge.
It improves motivation.
There is always a power struggle.
If matrix structure is not followed properly,
there is a delay in decision making .
At the initial level it becomes quite costly.
65. It is a rapidly changing,adaptive,temporary
system organised around problems to be
solved by group of relatively strangers with
diverse professional skills.
A rigid time span or duration is non-existent.
Roles performed in teams are
It is suitable for those industries which have
to work in highly dynamic environment.
66. It is to generate synergy through temporary
Virtual corporation is a temporary network of
suppliers,customers,even erstwhile rivals linked
by information technology to share
skills,costs,and access to one another’s markets.
It will have neither central office nor
It will have no hierarchy, no vertical integration.
68. EXPLAIN WHETHER MANAGEMENT IS AN ART OR SCIENCE IN
Learning of science involves assimilation of principles and art
involves its continuous practice.
Science is a body of systematized knowledge accumulated and
accepted with reference to the understanding of general truths
concerning a particular phenomenon ,subject,or object of study.
▪ Universally acceptance principles
Represent basic truth about a particular field of enquiry.
▪ Experimentation & Observation
Derived through scientific investigation and researching.
▪ Cause & Effect Relationship
Its lay down cause and effect relationship between various
▪ Test of Validity & Predictability
It can be tested at any time or any number of times,each time
the test will give the same result.
69. The meaning of art is related with the bringing of a desired
result through the application skills.
▪ Practical Knowledge
Important to know practical application of theoretical
▪ Personal Skill
Each one has his own style and approach toward his job
It aims at producing something that never exist before.
▪ Perfection through practice
Practice makes a man perfect for handling the jobs
Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concrete
To be a successful manager,a person requires the knowledge of
management principles and also the skills of how the knowledge
can be utilised.
70. Comparison between science and art as management
Advances by knowledge Advances by practice
Itcan be seen that management uses both
scientific knowledge and art in managing an